History European timeline renaissance and exploration




History European timeline renaissance and exploration


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History European timeline renaissance and exploration

AP European History Timeline

The Renaissance and Exploration

15th Century

1417 – End of Great Schism; Single pope elected in Catholic Church

1444 – Lorenzo Valla’s The Elegance of the Latin Language

1452 – Birth of Leonardo da Vinci

1453 – End of the Hundred Years War

1455-56 – Gutenberg Bible printed

1478 – 92 – Rule of art patron Lorenzo de Medici in Florence

1479 – Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella “New Monarchs” of Spain

1485-1509 – Rule of Henry VII (SEVEN) – “New Monarch” of England; start of Tudor dynasty

1488 – Bartholmeu Dias (Port) rounds Cape of Good Hope

1492 – End of the Reconquista; Christians capture Granada in Spain

Voyage of Columbus (Spain)

1494 – French invasion of Italy. Lasts until 1525.

1497-98 da Gama (Portugal) rounds Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, and sails on to India

1498 – Italian religious reformer Savonarola burnt at the stake

The Last Supper (da Vinci)

16th Century

1500 – Albrecht Durer’s Self-portrait at Age 28 with Fur Coat

1503-13 – Pontificate of Pope Julius II- The Warrior Pope.

1505 – Leonardo paints the Mona Lisa

1506 – Construction begins on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome

1508-12 Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel ceiling

1510-11 – Raphael’s The School of Athens

1511 – Desiderius ErasmusIn Praise of Folly

1513 – Niccolo Machiavelli – The Prince

1516 – Thomas MoreUtopia

Baldassare CastiglioneBook of the Courtier

Concordat of Bologna between France and papacy

1516 – Charles V takes power in Spain, followed by assuming role of Holy Roman Emperor

1517 – Start of the Reformation which was heavily influenced by humanism

1519 – Death of Leonardo da Vinci

Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage sets sail to circumnavigate the globe

Hernan Cortes lands in Mexico

1525 – France ends its claims to Italy.

1532 – Francisco Pizarro lands on the west coast of South America

1541 – Michelangelo paints The Last Judgement

The Reformation and Wars of Religion

16th Century

1517 – Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses against indulgences – Reformation begins

1519 – Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor. Charles was a Spanish Habsburg

Luther challenges authority of pope and inerrancy of Church at Leipzig debate

1521 – Luther excommunicated

Luther condemned by Diet of Worms

1521-22 Luther translates New Testament into German

1524-1525 – German peasant revolts

1529 – Marburg Colloquy between Luther and Zwingli

1530 – Diet of Augsburg; Luther outlines Protestant principles by providing new answers to old questions.

1532 – Parliament passes Act for the Submission of the Clergy

1533 – Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn

1534 – Supremacy Act declares Henry VIII head of the Church of England

1535 – Thomas More executed for opposition to the English Reformation

1539 – Henry VIII institutes the Six Articles

1535 – Anabaptists control Munster

1536 – John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion

1540 – Jesuit order created by Ignatius of Loyola

1545 – 63 – Council of Trent responds to the Reformation

1553-58 – Mary Tudor restores Catholic doctrine in England

1555 – Peace of Augsburg recognizes rights of Lutherans to worship

1558-1603 – Elizabeth I fashions Anglican religious settlement

1556 – Philip II becomes king of Spain, replacing Charles V. Rules until 1598

1559 – Habsburg-Valois wars end

1559 – Francis II becomes king of France (Catherine de Medicis is regent)

1562 – French Wars of Religion begin

1563 – Thirty-Nine Articles (England)

1567 – Dutch revolt against Spain begins. Wars of Dutch independence continue until the Netherlands full independence is recognized by the Peace of Westphalia

1572 – St. Bartholomew’s Day (France) massacre leaves thousands of Protestants dead

1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada by English navy

1589 – Henry of Navarre wins War of the Three Henrys; Becomes Henry IV

1598 – Edict of Nantes (Henry IV)

End of French Wars of Religion

Philip II of Spain dies

1610 – Henry IV assassinated

1618 – 1648 – Thirty Years’ War begins in the German states (Bohemia)

1648 – Treaty of Westphalia – End of the Wars of Religion

Scientific Revolution/Agricultural Revolution/Industrial Revolution

1543 – Nicolas Copernicus publishes On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres

1595-1677 – Cornelius Vermuyden –Dutch engineer – land reclamation

1605 – Francis Bacon ‘s The Advancement of Learning – Father of empiricism who attacked scholasticism

1609 – Johann Kepler’s The New Astronomy f- Planetary orbits are elliptical, not circular as Copernicus believed.

1610 – Galileo Galilei’s The Starry Messenger

1620 – Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum

1632 – Galileo Galilei’s Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems

1633 – Trial of Galileo for heresy

1637 – Rene Descartes publishes Discourse on Method

1651 – Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan

1666 – Margaret Cavendish’s Observations upon Experimental Philosophy

1668 – Cavendish’s Grounds of Natural Philosophy

1674-1741 – Jethro Tull – advocate of iron plows and planting by drilling

1674-1738 – Charles Townsend – crop rotation

1687 – Isaac Newton’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding – Explained why planets move in an orderly fashion (gravity). The synthesis of the Scientific Revolution.

1690 – John Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding – Person’s mind at birth is a blank slate (tabula rasa)

Locke’s Two Treatises on Government – The duty of a government is to protect human’s natural rights of life, liberty and property

1702 – Maria Winkleman discovers a comet

1725-95 – Robert Bakewell – selective breeding of animals

1733 – Hames Kay – Flying Shuttle

1761-1792 – Parliament passes a series of enclosure laws

1765- James Hargreaves – Spinning Jenny

1769 – Richard Arkwright – Water Frame

1769 – James Watt – Steam engine

1787 – Edmund Cartwright – Power loom

Politics of the 17th-18th Centuries

Absolutism, Constitutionalism, republican governments

England, France, Netherlands, Prussia, Russia

1589-1610 – Reign of Henry IV of France; begins moving towards absolutism

1600 – British East India Company formed

1603 – Elizabeth I (England) dies – end of the Tudor dynasty that started with Henry VII; James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England; Beginning of Stuart dynasty

1604 – Hampton Court Conference/Millenary Petition

1610-1643 – Reign of Louis XIII; Main advisor was Cardinal Richelieu

1611 - King James version of Bible is published

1620 – Puritan separatists form Plymouth Colony in North America

1625 – Charles I becomes king of England

1628- Petition of Right

1629 – Charles dissolves Parliament; rules for 11 years without Parliament

1634 – Ship tax

1637 – Archbishop Laud attempts to impose Anglican worship on Scottish Presbyterians

1640 – Long Parliament convenes. Beginning of 20 year parliament

1640-1688 – Reign of Frederick William, the Great Elector

1642 – English Civil War begins

1643-1715 – Rule of Louis XIV – Builds absolute monarchy in France Know Colbert, Louvois, and Vauban (all advisors of Louis XIV)

1648 – The Fronde in Paris

1648 – Pride’s Purge – Presbyterians barred from sitting in Parliament; All who were against Cromwell and his New Model Army were not allowed in Parliament

1649 – Charles I executed

1649-1660 – Commonwealth era. No king. England ruled mostly by Oliver Cromwell

1660 – The Restoration of the English monarchy; Charles II comes to throne

1661-65 – Series of laws called the Clarendon Code excluded Catholics, Independents, and Presbyterians from political life of England.

1670 – Treaty of Dover between England and France

1672 – English Parliament passes Test Act – All government officials must renounce transubstantiation – something that a Catholic could never do. Act was aimed at James II

1678 – Popish plot

1682 – Versailles becomes Louis XIV’s personal residence.

1682-1725 – Reign of Peter the Great of Russia

1685 – James II becomes king of England. Devout Catholic.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV

1688 – Glorious Revolution

1688-1713- Frederick William I, King of Prussia

1689 – English Bill of Rights; William and Mary proclaimed English monarchs

1697 – Peter the Great’s trip to Western Europe

1701 – 1713 – War of Spanish Succession

1713 – Treaty of Utrecht ends the war of Spanish Succession

1715 – Louis XIV dies; succeeded by Louis XV

1715-1774 – Reign of Louis XV

1703 – Founding of St. Petersburg

1721- Peter abolishes position of Patriarch

1722 – Table of Ranks published in Russia

1739 – War of Jenkins Ear

1740 – Maria Theresa comes to the throne of Austria

1740 – 1748 – War of Austrian Succession

1740-1786 – Frederick II (the Great) rules Prussia

1756 – Convention of Westminster (GB and Prussia form defensive alliance)

France and Austria sign defensive alliance

1756 – 1763 – Seven Years War; Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years’ War

1762 – Rule of Catherine the Great of Russia

1772-1795 – Three different partitions of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria

1773-1775 – Pugachev Rebellion in Russia

1774-1792 – Reign of Louis XVI

The Enlightenment, Enlightened Absolutism, and the French Revolution

1687 – Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica

1690 – Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding

1721 – Baron de Montesquieu’s Persian Letters

1740-1786 – Rule of Frederick II of Prussia

1748 – Baron de Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws – 3 branches of government

1751 – First volume of Diderot’s Encyclopedia

1762-1796 – Rule of Catherine the Great of Russia

1764 – Cesare Beccaria – On Crime and Punishment – end death penalty

1774-1792 – Reign of Louis XVI

1776 – Adam Smith Wealth of Nations – capitalism; free markets

1781 – Joseph II adopts toleration in Austria

1788 – Assembly of Notables fails to solve financial crisis, Estates General called

1789 (May )- Estates General convened

1789 (June) Formation of National Assembly

1789 (June) Tennis Court Oath

1789 (July) – Storming of the Bastille

1789 (July-August) – The Great Fear

1789 (August) – Privileges of the 1st and 2nd Estate are stripped away

1789 (August) – Declaration of Rights of the Man and the Citizen

1789 (October) – Women’s March to Versailles

1790 – Civilian Constitution of the Clergy

1791 – New constitution of France created

1792 – Constitution of 1791 abolished

Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman

1792 -1797 – First Coalition of countries formed against France; France at war

1793 – Execution of Louis XVI

Reign of Terror begins

1794 – Thermidorian Reaction; End of the Reign of Terror

1795 – Rule of France by the Directory

1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte


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