Physical Geography summary




Physical Geography summary


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Physical Geography summary


Physical Geography


Geographical situation:

  • The British Isles: Great Britain, Ireland about 5000 little islands – the Isle of Wight, the Isles of Scilly, Anglesey, Isle of Man, Scotland is fringed by Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands
  • The sea surrounding the British Isles – shallow, excellent fishing grounds
    • West coast – Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea
    • East coast – the English Channel



  • Is typical insular, the temperature is equable
  • Long lasting fogs, cloudy weather, frequent rainfall, strong winds – characteristic features of the British climate


Mountains, Rivers:

  • Two main regions:
  • Highland Britain – Scotland, the Lake District, whole of Wales, the south-west peninsula of England
    • Hills - Old hard rocks,
    • Valleys and plains – carboniferous rocks – rich in minerals, coal fields lie on the borderland between Highland and Lowland
  • Lowland Britain – plain, chalk and limestone hills, fertile with good soil and valuable pasture land
  • The highest mountains: Ben Nevis (Scotland), Snowdon (Wales)
  • The rivers are not long, but rich in water and comparatively deep, not navigable for large ships
  • The biggest rivers – the Thames, the Trent flowing into the North Sea
  • Lakes: Lake district in England, Scottish Highlands where there are called „lochs“


Fauna and Flora:

  • Diverse pattern of natural vegetation.
    • woodlands occupy about 7 % of the surface
    • agricultural land – 40 %arable 30.7 % and the rest are pasture and meadow
  • Pastures and meadows of England – used for cattle and sheep breeding.
  • The sea round the Isles is rich in fish – herrings, codfish, sole
  • Animalslike in Europe, but poorer
  • Mammals – rabbit, hare, mouse, bat, deer
  • 460 species of birds





fringe – v; to form a border around sth: The beach was fringed by coconut palms.

roughly –adv.  approximately but not exactly: Sales are up by roughly 10%. • We live roughly halfway between here and the coast.

equable – adj. (of weather) keeping a steady temperature with no sudden changes:

an equable climate

soil - n the top layer of the earth in which plants, trees, etc. grow: poor / dry / acid / sandy soil

freight –n, goods that are transported by ships, planes, trains or lorries/trucks; the system of transporting goods in this way: to send goods by air freight • a freight business • passenger and freight transportation services, to send or carry goods by air, sea or train

harbour – n. an area of water on the coast, protected from the open sea by strong walls, where ships can shelter:

estuary –n the wide part of a river where it flows into the sea: the Thames estuary

fenland –n an area of low flat wet land in the east of England

drain - v to make sth empty or dry by removing all the liquid from it; to become empty or dry in this way

breed - ~ sth (for / as sth) to keep animals or plants in order to produce young ones in a controlled way: The rabbits are bred for their long coats. • Greyhounds were originally bred as hunting dogs.

mammal n -any animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs, and feeds its young on milk.

shallow - adj. not having much distance between the top or surface and the bottom:These fish are found in shallow waters around the coast.

peninsula – n. an area of land that is almost surrounded by water but is joined to a larger piece of land


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Physical Geography summary


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Physical Geography summary