History Notes 1642-1881




History Notes 1642-1881


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History Notes 1642-1881


History Notes 1642-1881:


1642 – Abel Tasman

1769 – James Cook                (Tupaia – Tahitian translator)

1769 – de Surville                   (French, thought boat stolen, burned guts, food canoe and sailed off with Ranginui who died of scurvy)

1771 – du Fresne                   (murdered and eaten for breaking tapu)


1778 – Set up convict settlement in Port Jackson – regular contact


1817, 1823, 1828: Acts recognising NZ as outside UK dominion


1800-1840 = Maori world to a Pakeha one.

Sealers, Whalers, Traders:     

pigs, potatoes, grain, muskets (3 tons of dressed flax, 3-5 slaves)



1809 – Boyd: Whangaroa to collect spars, skins and seal oil. Crew killed by M. for mistreatment of young Maori traveller

1830 – Te Rauparaha and the Elizabeth Affair           (John Stewart – 100 warriors to Akaroa, Ngai Tahu)

1834 – Alligator Affair:          John and Better Guard. UK Govt criticised in report for killing of Maori


1814 – Church Missionary Society (Marsden) aimed to civilise first

            Living on Maori terms

“The sealers, whalers and traders … did not actively seek to change Maori society. The missionaries did” Claudia Orange

Religion of “slaves and not of warriors” Hika

1830’s – Large Christian conversion (thousands – unrealistic counts CMS 42000)

1850 – 60% of Maori called themselves Christian



Influenza, chicken pox, measles, venereal diseases and whooping cough

Travel – natural quaranteen

Maori widespread little contact


Musket Wars:

1818 – Hika led a taua (war party) to Bay of Plenty for utu.

1820 – Hongi Hika went with Thomas Kendell to England. Met King George IV

1820-1830 – Musket Wars (Hongi’s death)

                        80,000 dead (early estimate by Missionaries (fatal impact) and victors)

                        20,000 more likely

1830 – “Balance of Terror” Judith Binney


Before the Treaty:

1833 – James Busby = British Resident

De Theirry Affair

Formation of Kororareka Asociaion

1835 – United Tribes of NZ and the Declaration of Independence

            35 chiefs

1837 – Committee in House of Commons said native welfare cannot be entrusted to colonists

1839 – Hobson receives instructions from Secretary of State Lord Normanby in August to get sovereignty over NZ with the “free and intelligent consent of natives”

Wanted to obtain wasteland

4th Feb 1840 - Henry Williams given treaty at 4pm to translate


6th Feb 1840 – Treaty of Waitangi

  • Kawiti of Nga Puhi feared loss of mana/sovereignty
  • Hone Heke and Tamati Waka Nene said that it was too late for Europeans to turns away
  • 500 chiefs signed


May 1840 –     Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty over NZ. By reason of cession (Treaty) for NI and discovery for the SI.


1840s – Immediate imposition of Sovereignty after Treaty

Hobson instructed by colonial office to take wasteland. Didn’t act, but upset confidence

1841 – Hobson banned felling of Kauri, to protect forests. Maori outraged Customs 1841 - Duties imposed, to Govt. not Maori

1842 – Maketu, murderer, was tried and hanged according to British law.


1841 – Commissioner Spain: investigate land claims of NZ company, which was Maori and which was NZC. Wakefield obstructed them

1843 – Wairau Affray (Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata) 50 armed settlers. 28 people killed

Governor Fitzroy


1845 – Sack of Kororareka and Northern War

  • Loss of mana and economic decline: move capital to Auckland, application of pre-emption, govt taking customs revenue, fewer land sales.
  • Cut down flagstaff on Maiki Hill four times. Wanted both flags (NZ+UK)
  • First clash after sack at Puketutu was indecisive
  • Other battles at Ohaewai and Ruapekapeka where British claimed victory, but only because Maori abandoned pa


Nov 1845 - Governor Sir George Grey (believed in assimilation/amalgamation)

1850-1853 = Vigorous buying of land


1840’s and 50’s – Trade flourished

1852 – Constitution Act (no Maori representation)


King Movement:

1850’s – Tamihana Te Rauparaha travelled around NI creating support

1856 – First meeting at Lake Taupo

1857/58 – King Potatau I (Te Wherowhero) became king of Maoridom

- Reasons:        genealogy (traceable to every canoe), waikato rich and central, he had great mana

            - Some tribes never joined e.g. Arawa


1858 – Pakeha outnumbered Maori


New Zealand Wars

1848 – Wirimu Kingi returned to Waitara (Ati Awa land)

1859 – Gore-Brown accepted Te Teira’s offer of sale no advice of McLean (Native minister)

1859/1861 – Taranaki War

Forces: Maori started at 200-300 but once men from southern taranaki and Kingite forces (under Rewi Maniapoto) became 700-800

            British started with 800 but by 1861 they had 3500

Maori disadvantages:

            No artillery, no fulltime soldiers, had to operate shit system

Major battles at:

            Waireka – British claimed victory, likely just a small camp

            Mahoetahi – Overconfident Waikato party suffered heavy losses

Matarikoriko – British victory, sapping successful

Puketakauere – Maori victory, claimed to be indecisive skirmish

18th March 1861 – ceasefire

  • declining public support
  • Octavius Hadfield (missionary) and Chief Justice both criticised justice of war
  • War discouraged immigration
  • Imperial govt. lost enthusiasm hearing criticisms and high costs


1860 – Kohimarama conference

            - 200 chiefs were present

            - Chiefs opposed to the Government were excluded

            - Didn’t know its meaning when signed (Treaty)

            - Gore-Browne Eurocentric: mentioned possessions but not sovereignty

                                   Didn’t get support for condemnation of King Movement

            - Maori had hoped it would become a permanent assembly


1861 - Gore Brown replaced by Grey


1863 – Grey orders invasion of Waikato under General Cameron. Blamed Kingites for an ambush at Oakura

            - Maori led by Rewi Maniopoto and later Te Kooti

            - Meremere: Maori held pa for 14 weeks. Controlled river and had canon

- Orakau – Maori ran out of supplies. Ran out, through British lines, but hunted down

1864 – War inconclusively ends.

1864 – Tauranga campaign

Gate Pa: 1700 men with most powerful artillery used in NZ vs 200 Maori

            Jumped out and slaughtered

Te Ranga: British patrol came across and defeated Maori force


Results of NZ wars:

Village Life:

            - Crops lost, stocks stolen food in short supply

            - Tools in disrepair

            - 2000 warriors killed

1863 – New Zealand Settlement Act

            - enabled confiscation (raupatu)

            - 4.7 million acres of land confiscated; Waikato, Tarnaki, BoP and East C.

            - Govt and businessmen took whatever they wanted, even neutral and kupapa

            - Ngati Maniapoto, a main rebel tribe, was untouched

            - Half was returned; but not good stuff and not always to actual owners

1863 -  Suppression fo Rebellion Act

- suspended rights to; be charged, be released on bail or to go to trial soon after arrest.

Trial and punishment of rebellion by court-martial without right of appeal

1865 – Native Land Court established by Native Lands Act

            - divide and buy policy

            - removed pre-emption

            - led to fragmentation of land into small uneconomic blocks

1867 – Native Schools Act

- govt provided schools as long as communities provided; land and part of salary of teacher

            - Teaching in English, Pakeha curriculum = assimilation

1879 - 57 Maori schools existed


Pai Marire

1862-666 - Te Ua Haumene prophet

Form of Christianity for Maori; identified with Jews in exile in the Old Testament or with the ‘lost tribes’ of Israel

Te Ua thought UK was an international oppressor

Maintained right to defend territorial boundaries

Preached peace but his followers often became militant

Pakeha saw it as a warlike movement


Maori Independence:

Tuhoe – left relatively alone by Pakeha

King Movement – took refuge in king country

Te Whiti at Parihaka – aimed at the following good health (good housing with clean streets and healthy lifestyle), Economics (hundreds of acres of fenced crops), order (daily routines, tribal divisions), Limits on Pakeha culture (no alcohol, Pakeha education, medicine or intermarriage)

  • 600 followers, grew to 2000 after peaceful resistance success.

1881 – John Bryce, Native Minister, took 1500 armed men. No resistance but damaged large amounts of property

All these groups were impinged on by Pakeha settlement and Government.

Native Land court – forced to abandon independence


Kotahitanga Movement:

1892 - Set up first proper parliaments. Meetings for 11 years

            Much support, but not form Kingites and Te Whiti.

Wanted to improve race relations through fairer laws, local self-government and better deal over land

1900 – Pakeha agreed to end purchases of land and set up Maori Councils with limited power

Within a few years these councils were run by Pakeha, just rubber-stamping land sales. Wouldn’t let Maori have power. Concerned about the separatist tendencies of Kotahitanga


Continuing Warfare 1864 – 72

1864-68 – intermittent small scale in Taranaki, Wanganue, Bay of Plenty, East Coast

            - caused by: local factors, Maori rivalries

            - Confiscation, more than was justified

            - Different accepting of Pai Marire

            - Pakeha attempts to dominate



From South Taranaki; Ngati Ruanui

1840s = Methodist

1850s = abandoned pacifism and opposed land sales

1860 = learned about practicalities of war in Taranaki

Influenced by Pai Marire and Te Ua Haumene

Creeping confiscations (raupatu); tried compromise, peace meetings and passive resistance

1868 – confiscations meant choice between war and economic disaster

1868-69 – Conflict and success against out numbered Pakeha and Maori. Posed a great threat to Pakeha and government

Feb 1869 – lost mana and much support and withdrew north ending fighting

  • unknown reason

1871 – resettled back into Taranaki and was leader of non-violent resistance at Parihaka


Te Kooti

1865 – Fought with Govt. against a Pai Marire hapu on East coast

1866 – Arrested for second time (thought to be a spy, had resisted land sales), without trial sent to Chatham Island

Revelations made him a prophet and began to establish Ringatu faith

1868 – Led an escape in which many prisoners returned to Poverty Bay


Within a month armed conflict at Poverty Bay:

Reasons – Sought retribution for wrongful arrest, imprisonment and harassment

                        - He returned to confiscated land on East Coast stimulating resistance


Settled near Lake Waikaremoana; Kingitanga and Tuhoe didn’t want him or war

Gained support (through fear), but many Maori and Pakeha enemies

Withdrew into Urewera seeking men, arms and utu


1869 – Government pressure meant he had to leave the Ureweras

1870 – Went to Tuhoe but attacked by other Maori and government had to run

1872 – Reached King country after being pursued over great distances through eastern and central NI. He moved and fought frequently

Rewi Maniapoto wouldn’t let him stay until he accepted pacifism in 1873



Theme B: Economic and Political Change


Main Governors:

1840 – Hobson

1843 – FitzRoy

1845 – Captain Grey

1855 – Gore Browne

1861 – Sir Grey


Colonial Government:

1852 – NZ Constitution Act passed (Sinclair calls it ‘extremely democratic’)

- Put off from 1846 because it put power into the hands of educated, well-off Pakeha, leaving Maori majority without access to Governor

- Britian unwilling to continue its responsibility for NZ, costs

1854 – Representative Govt set up

1867 – Various Govt. Acts ended provinces’ independent power to raise loans



1863 – Julius Vogel = Member of House of Representatives

1869 – Vogel became Colonial Treasurer.

1870 – Vogel scheme

1874-74 – Scheme a success

1876 – Provinces Abolished (County Councils formed)



1865 – Wellington made capital

1867 – Four Maori seats established by the Maori Representation Act

1879 – Franchise for all Pakeha men

1881-1945 – Country Quota: from 33% added to pop. of constituencies to 18%

1893 – Women’s suffrage


Late 80’s à: issues; working conditions/wages, alcohol/male violence, votes for                         women


Government Changes/Liberal Party:

1869-91 – ‘Continuous Ministry’

1879-95 – Difficult economic times

1890 – Maritime Strike

1890 – Liberals come to power (some Liberal, Labour co-operation)

1891-93 – John Balance

1893-06 – Richard Seddon

Reeves = used state power to soften impact of laissez-faire capitalism on workers

McKenzie = Wanted land for settlers of limited means.

1891 – Legislative Council Act: 7 year terms for MLCs (shows its weakness)

1891 – Atkinson nominated 7 new MLC including himself to stop Liberal agenda

1891 – Governor must accept advice of ministers in HoR

1890s – Liberals began to develop central and local organisation, cohesion, and discipline

1893 – Seddon encouraged Liberal cohesion

1899 – Liberal and Labour Federation of New Zealand


Maori Land:

1892 – Maori owned a 1/3 of land in NI, 11m acres. Of this ¼ was leased to Pakeha.

<1850s – Govt. agents actively purchased land

>1860s – After wars govt used laws to acquire land



1857 – Eight hour working day generally accepted for tradesmen and labourers



1852 – Coromandel

1861-64 – Otago

1864-67 – West Coast

1867-68 – Thames/Coromandel


1870 – Vogel scheme £10m, ended up being £22 million

            by 1880:          -    1200 miles of railway

  • 2000 miles of roads
  • 3170 miles of telegraph lines
  • Pakeha pop. Increased from 248,000 in 1870 to 399,000 in 1876


Industry, Manufacturing:

1870 – Food had become a large-scale industry

1870’s – Large scale manufacturing

1871 – First woollen mills opened

1879 – Edmonds Baking Powder factory began

1886 – 39000 industrial and handcraft workers



1870s – Highest standard of living in the world as a result of gold and wool industries

1878 – City of Glasgow Bank collapsed. Investment in NZ was risky. Bank had invested heavily in Vogel schemes

1879-95 – Depression. SI affected more than NI.


            - Britain had depression so wool prices decreased dramatically

            - Demand for timber was erratic

            - Gold production shrinking

            - Burdened with overseas debt from 1870s

            - Current account deficit + less investment


  • Bankruptcy up
  • Social distress; sweating, unemployment, falling marriage and birth rates, poor housing, health problems
  • Contraction of credit of £2.8 million
  • Drop in wages was greater than fall in Cost of living


1887 – Public Debt £40 million

1889 – Large increase in union membership


Government and the Depression

1880s – Ministries led by Hall, Whitaker, Atkinson, Stout an Vogel tried:

  • Retrenchment; ending borrowing and cutting spending, harmed in short term
  • Cut spending, raised taxes, borrowed further overseas: tariffs, encouraged work of charitable aid boards; in effect helped large scale pastoralists


After Depression:

1990 – Collapse in union numbers after failure of Maritime Strike

1892 – Maori held 10million acres, less than 1/6 of country

1892 – Department of Labour created – to inspect factories, help workers find jobs)

1894 – Advances to Settlers Act (state loans to farmers for development) no Maori

1894 – Factories Act – restrict hours for women, girls, boys, holiday entitlement, health and safety in workplace









Theme C: Society and Attitudes




1800-1840 – Some Decline? Debated. Belich gives average of 0.3% per year

Decline caused by:

  • Diseases
  • Movement to low-lying, insanitary settlements to gather flax and kauri gum. Overworked and suffered from exposure and semi-starvation
  • Alcohol bad effects on diet and health 1830s
  • Musket Wars

1840-1874 – Rapid Decline


  • Pandemics: population could support it (Belich) TB
  • Increasing number and density of Pakeha, diseases survive indefinitely
  • Decline in fertility rates from venereal diseases, poor heal and diet
  • Poor nutrition from land loss and low productivity agriculture
  • High child mortality
  • Causalities of wars 2000, adult males


1874-1900 – Slower Decline, Population Recovers

  • Development of immunity = birth rate climbing above death rate
  • Increased fertility



1800-1840 =   Permanent residents slow rose to 2000 in 1839. Most in 30s

1840s-50s =     Large-scale organised and casual migration. Natural increase less important. 1858 = 60000

1860-1900 =   Increased rapidly to 770 000 in 1901


  • Gold rushes of 60s; migration gain of 116000
  • Organised immigration of 70s; gained 133000
  • Rapid internal growth accounted for 61% of growth
  • Improved public heath and sewage schemes



1869 – Contagious Diseases Act

1885 - Women’s Christian Temperance Union

Campaigned for prohibition, purity of the home, religious teaching in schools, welfare work with prostitutes, prisoners and homeless. Suffrage linked to prohibition

1891,92,93 – Major petitions for suffrage. 30,000 women 30%

Support of Stout and Hall

1893 – Women over 21 could vote



For:      WCTU, NZ Alliance; Protestant churches (Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians: called killjoys and ‘wowsers’

Against:          Upper class and unskilled workers. Roman Catholics and Anglicans, liquor industry. Well funded and organised propaganda campaign


1881 – Government gained power to proclaim Native Districts ‘dry’



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History Notes 1642-1881