Questions of history for study guide AP World History



Questions of history for study guide AP World History


The following texts are the property of their respective authors and we thank them for giving us the opportunity to share for free to students, teachers and users of the Web their texts will used only for illustrative educational and scientific purposes only.


All the information in our site are given for nonprofit educational purposes

The information of medicine and health contained in the site are of a general nature and purpose which is purely informative and for this reason may not replace in any case, the council of a doctor or a qualified entity legally to the profession.



Questions of history for study guide AP World History


Walker AP World History, Chapter 6, Reading Study Guide P. 130-161                                       

  • What are the four major themes of the postclassical centuries? Pg.130
  • Where were some of the regions that developed civilizations during the postclassical era? (map1) pg. 137-138
  • Describe the spread of Hinduism during the postclassical era. Pg. 132-133
  • Describe the spread of Buddhism during the postclassical era. Pg. 132-134
  • Describe the spread of Islam during the postclassical era. Pg. 132-134
  • Describe the spread of Christianity during the postclassical era. Pg. 134
  • What were some of the factors that contributed to the growth of world religions?
  • What evidence does Stearns give for his contention that the increasing level of interchange between the major civilizations was the most important characteristic of the postclassical world?
  • What were the patterns of trade in relation to the cities of classical civilizations?
  • Which areas of the world became converted to Islam?
  • How did Islam provide key links in exchange between the major civilizations? Pg. 140
  • What were the interests and influences of Muslim scholars? Pg. 141
  • How did the geography of the Arabian Peninsula influence the lifestyles and political structure of the Bedouin? Pg. 141
  • Describe the political and historic context of the genesis of Islam. Pg. 141
  • Describe Muhammad's visions during his life. Pg. 142
  • Describe Muhammad's expulsion from Mecca. Pg. 143
  • Describe Muhammad's triumphal entry in Medina. Pg. 143
  • Describe Muhammad's return to Mecca.  Pg. 143
  • How did Islam unify the various clans and tribes of Arabia? Pg. 146
  • What were the major differences between Islam’s monotheism and Judaism/Chrisistianity’s monotheism?
  • What are the five pillars of Islam?

I                                       II                                      III                                     IV                                     V

  • What were the major challenges that faced Islam after the death of Muhammad?
  • What were some of the reasons for the early Arab conquests and how do these reasons differ from traditional western thinking?
  • How did the Muslims defeat the Sasanian Empire of Persia?
  • What success did the Muslims have against the Byzantine Empire and what were some of the reasons for this success?
  • What were the two main camps that battled for control of Islam after the murder of the caliph Uthman?
  • Describe the Muslim conquests between the mid-600’s and the mid-700’s
  • Who were the people of the book? Pg. 150
  • What were the Mawali, and what was their life like during the Umayyad empire?
  • Describe the social structure in the Umayyad empire.
  • Describe the efforts to separate Muslims and their subjects during the Umayyad empire.
  • Describe the tolerance of other religions by the Umayyad empire.
  • What were some of the causes for rebellion against the Umayyads?
  • How did the Abbasids end (for the most part) the rule of the Umayyads?
  • How did the policy change the Abbasids initiated to actively seek converts drastically change Islam?

(Read Thinking Historically: Civilization and Gender Relationships. Pg. 152)

  • Compare the position of upper-class women in classical Indian, Chinese, Greek, and Roman societies with Islamic society. (Article)

  India                       Chinese                                        Greek                              Roman                                   Islamic

  • Describe the growth of the power, wealth and corruption of the Abbasid caliphate.
  • What were some of the advantages of converting to Islam under new Abbasid policies?
  • What were some of the causes and effects of the merchant activity under the Abbasid caliphate?
  • What were some of the Muslim contributions to art, architecture, science, mathematics and learning?

(Read Visualizing the Past: The Mosque as a Symbol of Islamic Civilization. Pg. 156)

  • What do the design and decoration of Muslim mosques tell us about the Islamic view of a supreme being? (Article)
  • Describe the Christian and Jewish influence found in the mosque design. (Article)

Read Document: The Thousand and One Nights as a Mirror of Elite Society in the Abbasid Era. Pg 158)

  • What objects are key symbols of wealth in Abbasid society?  (Article)


Walker AP World History Ch 8 Reading Study Guide P. 172-192
1. Why did Mansa Musa make such an impression in Cairo on his way to Mecca?

2. When were camels introduced into the Sahara for trade?_____
3. When was Ghana at the height of its power?_____
4. When was Mali at the height of its power?_____
5. Which two World Religions were successful in Africa?

6. What is a stateless society?

7. How did these ‘less civilized’ cultures use secret societies to maintain stability within the community?

8. What basic language structure had spread throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa by this time?

9. What is the best guess (and I do mean GUESS) at the population of Africa before 1500 CE?

10. Briefly describe the spread of Islam to North Africa and Europe.

11. Who were the Almohadis and how did they push Islam into Sub-Saharan Africa?

12. Which areas of Africa were influenced by early Christianity? What were these Christians called?

13. What are the three “coasts” of Sub-Saharan Africa?

14. What is the sahel?
15. How did the Kingdom of Ghana rise to power?

16. What were the Sudanic States?

17.  Who was Ibn Batuta? Why do you think he is important to our understanding of Africa at this time?

Read- “The Great Oral Tradition & the Epic of Sundiata”, be prepared to intelligently discuss it in class
18. Why do we know so much about Mansa Musa?

19. Why is Timbuktu significant?

20. Briefly describe the rise of Songhay.

21. What is the Sharia?

22. Describe the trade on the East Coast of Africa. What is the Zanj?

23. In addition to the Muslim world, what two major civilizations did this trade involve?

24. Describe the Swahili language.

Read “Two Transitions in the History of World Population” be prepared to intelligently discuss it in class
25. What is Demography? Why would this discipline be such a ‘big deal’ in studying World History?

26. What territory did Benin control?

27. Though they spread all over Central Africa, where did the Bantu people originate?

28. Briefly describe the kingdom of the Kongo.

29. What is Great Zimbabwe? Why y did 19th Century observers and scholar think it was built by Phoenicians or Arabs?

30. Why do you think Stearns et al are willing to put clearly less advanced, sometimes pre-literate “civilizations” e.g. Meso-America (upcoming Ch 11) & Sub-Saharan Africa (Ch 8) in the textbook at this point? (Post-Classical/Pre-Modern era)


Andrus AP World History Ch 11 Reading Study Guide #2 P.  244-255
1. Where was the Inca Empire located? What is the other, more authentic, name for it?

2. According to legend, what is the origin of the Inca people?

3. How many people lived under Inca rule?
4. Describe the Inca rulers split inheritance rule? Why did they have this?

5. Describe Inca religion? What are huacas?

Describe 3 ways in which the Inca spread their culture throughout conquered territories?

9. What was the purpose of the tambos?

10. How did the Inca rulers collect “tribute” from conquered peoples?

11. The Inca ruler was seen as a link to the _______ his wife was seen as a link to the _______.
12. Who were the ayllu in Inca society?
13. Who were the yanas in Inca society?
14. Why did the Spaniards refer to Inca nobility as the “Big Ears”?

15. Why was there no significant merchant class in the Inca Empire?

Read “In Depth: The ‘Troubling’ Civilizations of the Americas” and Be Prepared to Discuss
16. What practices by American Indians societies were most condemned by Europeans?

17. What is Inca socialism? Is this a legitimate view of the Inca Empire?

18. Besides the notorious Aztecs, what other culture have engaged in human sacrifice?

19. What are quipu?
20. Even though the Inca were ‘preliterate’ why do Stearns et al, consider them to be a civilization?

21. Which civilization attempted to create an “overarching political state” within its domains?

22. What was the basis of BOTH civilizations? How were BOTH empires created?

23. How did these civilizations ‘demonstrate their strength’ even after conquest by the Spanish Empire?

24. What is the best estimate for the Pre-Columbian population of the Americas? Of the world?

25. Why is there so little detail about Native American Indian cultures outside of Aztec & Inca lands?

26. Among these peripheral Native American Indian cultures, where was culture, language, livelihood and ‘political’ practice most diverse?


Walker AP World History Ch 13 Reading Study Guide #1 P.  278-290
1. Describe the experience of the Vietnamese ambassador to the Imperial court in China.

2. What regions/modern countries were heavily influenced by Chinese culture, values and religion?
(Timeline P. 280)
3. When was Vietnam conquered by the (Han Dynasty) Chinese?_____        
4. When did the Trung sisters lead a revolt in Vietnam?____
5. When did the Taika reforms take place in Japan?_____
6. When did the Japanese capital shift to Kyoto?_____          
7. When were the Gempei Wars in Japan?_____          8. What were the years of the Yi Dynasty in Korea?____
8. What was the point of the Taika Reforms in Japan?

9. How did the failure of these reforms eventually lead to a weakened emperor & a rising aristocracy?

10. What was court life like at Heian (Kyoto)?

11. Who wrote The Tale of Genji? Why is it significant?

12. How did the Fujiwara (and other noble families) gain in power?   

13. How were the Bushi? Who were the Samurai?

14. How was this developing system similar to Western Europe?

15. How did the outcome of the Gempei Wars lead to a feudal age in Japan?

Read “In Depth: Comparing Feudalisms” & be prepared to discuss the following:
How did Rome & China offer examples of political organization?
How was European & Japanese Feudalism similar? How were they different?
Did Feudalism really leave both Japan & W. Europe susceptible to military dictatorships?
16. Who were the shoguns?

17. How did the shogunate system of government collapse?

18. How did the outcome of the civil war (1467-1477) lead to political division/disunity?

19. What kind of structures did the daimyos build? What was the composition of the armies in this era?

20. Despite the chaos & anarchy in this time how did the standard of living actually rise in Japan?

21. How did the status of women decline in period of Japanese history?

How did the people use the following to find “Artistic Solace in a Troubled Age”?
22. Zen Buddhism?

23. Chinese Art?

24. Zen Architecture/Gardens?

25. Tea Ceremonies?

Walker AP World History Ch 13 Reading Study Guide #2 P.  290-300
1. What is sinification?

2. Why were (most) Chinese Emperors content to allow Korea to have semi-independent status?

3. How did the Koreans do honor and pay tribute to the Chinese Emperors?

4. In what ways did the Silla rulers of Korea imitate their dominant Chinese neighbors?

5. How did the Korean ruling classes dominate the peasantry?

6. Why did pure land Buddhism figure prominently in the lives of the lower classes?

7. When was the Yi Dynasty founded? To what year did it last?

8. What does “Nam Viet” mean?

9. What items were traded between the Chinese and the Viets?

10. How did the Viets show they were not like the Chinese?

11. How did the Viets respond to outside domination both from the Chinese and later Mongols?

12. How did the Viets use the gap years between the Tang & Song Dynasties in China (907-939) to win their independence?

Read “Visualizing the Past: What their Portraits Tell Us- Gatekeeper Elites & the Persistence of Civilizations”
13. What do the dress, poses, and settings of each of these portraits tell you about the values, ideals, and worldviews that each gatekeeper elite group is intended to represent?

14. Are there modern equivalents to ‘gate-keeper’ elites in the world today? Be prepared to discuss.

15. Despite efforts (Mongol & later Ming China) to re-conquer Vietnam? How long did they maintain their independence?

16. Critical thinking: Do you think there are any lessons here for foreign attempts at dominating Vietnam?  Such as French Colonial Rule (1800s-1950s) and attempted American political dominance (1950s-1970s)   

17. Why did the Viets consider the Khmer savages? Where were the Khmers based?

18. Where did the Vietnamese develop their capital?

19. When did the Nguyen family assert its dominance in the south? Which family was dominant in the north?

20. Why do you think China & “Chinese ways were the standard by which all peoples were judged” in East Asia?


Walker AP World History Ch 14 Reading Study Guide #1 P.  302-310 & 312
1. Briefly describe the experience of the Khwarazm Empire in the face of Mongol expansion?

2. How do most histories portray the Mongols?

 (Timeline P. 304)
3. When did Temujin take the title of Chinggis Kahn?_____               
4. When did he die?_____
5. When did the Mongols conquer Russia?_____                     
6. When did they destroy Baghdad?_____      
7. When did Kubilai Kahn rule China?_____               
8. What were the years of the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in China?____
9. What years saw 2 failed Mongol attempts to invade Japan from Korea?_____
10. How was Mongol society similar to that of Arab Bedouins?

11. How were all leaders chosen among the Mongol tribes?

12. How did Temujin (Chinggis Kahn) rise to power among his own people?

13. Describe the original weaponry used by Mongol warriors?   

14. What are the advantages of an all-cavalry army?

15. Describe the organization of the Mongol Army.

16. What new and innovative weaponry was used by the Mongol Army?

17. How did Chinggis Kahn see himself & his successors as men of “special destiny”?

18. Where were the Mongols initial conquests?

19. How did they adapt Chinese military technology to siege warfare?

20. Describe the Mongol practice of “retribution” against walled towns and cities? Who was spared?

21. What empire to the WEST of China was first to fall to the Mongols?

22. Describe the Mongols “favorite” battle tactic.

23. Where did Chinggis Kahn establish his new capital?

24. What did he seek from… Confucian Scholars? Muslim Engineers? Daoist Holy men?

25. What was the Mongol policy on religion within their domains?

26. After initial violent conquests, how did the Mongols actually foster peace & prosperity in the empire?

Read “Document: A European Assessment of the Virtues & Vices of the Mongols” & be prepared to offer your impressions of this short primary source document.
27. What might the qualities of the Mongols that Piano Carpini emphasizes tell us about his own      society and its values and shortcomings?

              28. What is your reaction to Carpini’s final paragraph in this passage?

29. How did Chinggis Kahn die?
30. Who was his successor as Grand Kahn?

31. Why?

Read: “Visualizing the Past- The Mongol Empire as a Bridge between Civilizations” On P. 312
32. What products were involved in EAST to WEST trade patterns?

33. What products were involved in WEST to EAST trade patterns?


Walker AP World History Ch 15 Reading Study Guide P.  324-338
1. Briefly describe the impact of the compass on world history.

2. What new dynasty in China briefly rose to the level of an international power?
(Timeline P. 326)
3. What were the years of Marco Polo’s travels in China?_____                      
4. When did the Bubonic Plague reach Sicily?_____
5. When were the Mongols expelled from China/Foundation of the Ming Dynasty ?_____
6. What were the years of the great Chinese trading expeditions?_____         
7. When did Constantinople fall to the Ottoman Empire?_____                       
8. How do we know that Muslim trade with Europe declined significantly after 1100 CE?

9. How was the decline and fall of the Islamic Caliphate different from the decline and fall of Rome?

10. Why did the emerging Ottoman Empire so frighten its European neighbors?

11. How did the Mongol Empire(s) link ‘the world’ together?

12. What does “Ming” mean? What were the years of this Dynasty?

13. How many ships and men did the Ming Dynasty send to India in 1405?

14. Name the Chinese Admiral responsible for the trading expeditions from 1405 to 1433.
15. What new navigational devices did he use?

16. Why did imperial rulers end the trade expeditions in 1433?

17. How might the world be different if the Chinese had continued this exploration and trade?

18. What percentage of Europe’s population perished in the Black Death?
19. How did the Hundred Years’ War (between France & Britain) change the face of European warfare?

Read: “Visualizing the Past- Population Trends” we will analyze this in class, time permitting.
20.  How did the Mongol Empire(s) benefit European technological & trade development?

21. Why did some European powers seek new routes to Asian trade as the Ottoman Empire rose?

22. What is the Renaissance and how did it impact European elites?

Read: “Document- Italian Renaissance Culture”
23. What are the key purposes of intellectual activity according to Petrarch?

              24. Does this Renaissance spirit suggest factors that might explain Europe’s new expansion?

25. Who were some of the great artists and writers of the EARLY Italian Renaissance?

26. How might the visionary explorer Christopher Columbus have been influenced by the Renaissance?

27. What year were the Iberian Kingdoms of Aragon & Castile joined through royal marriage?
28. Who sailed in search of a western passage to India in 1291? What was the outcome of this expedition?

29. What two new navigational instruments aided European explorers in their voyages?

30. Study the Map of the ‘known world’ (15.3). Why might have Columbus deemed his expedition perfectly reasonable?

31. What was the contribution of Prince Henry the Navigator (of Portugal)? What were his motives?

32. How did the Portuguese and Spanish settlement of the Azores, Madeira, & the Canaries foreshadow their activities in the New World?

33. What three islands make up the Society Islands base of Polynesian culture?

Read: “In Depth- The Problem of Ethnocentrism”
34. What is the dictionary definition of ethnocentrism?

35. How does ethnocentrism sometimes prevent us from fully understanding other cultures and/or historical periods?

36. Why do you think Stearns asserts that a certain ‘open-mindedness & sophistication’ are necessary to overcome ethnocentrism?

37. Opinion/Self Evaluation: Is it possible to avoid ethnocentrism without abandoning your values/morals/ethical codes?

38. What was the technology level of the Hawaiian Island culture prior to the European arrival in 1778?

39. What islands did the Polynesian Maori people settle?


Walker AP World History Unit Intro & Ch 16 Reading Study Guide #2 P.  353-366
1. Which 3 Northern European powers ‘got into the act’ of overseas expansion/colonization in the late 1500s?

2. What regions did France and England explore?

3. Where did the Dutch (principally) explore & trade?

Read In Depth: Causation & the West’s Expansion
4. If you had to choose a single determinism (cultural, technological or economic) as basic to          social change which one would you pick? Why? Be prepared to discuss your viewpoint in class.

5. What were the roles and functions of the great ‘East India’ companies?

6. Which 2 diseases killed of massive number of indigenous people in the Americas?

7. Why?
8. Where did cultivation of new foods from the new world quickly spread?

9. Why were Europeans more hesitant to adopt foods that they had ‘discovered’?

10. What was the outcome of the Battle of Lepanto (1572)?

11. What was the nature of European settlement in Africa, India and Asia during this early period?

12. How did these new “core nations” employ “mercantilism” to dominate world trade?
13. Briefly describe the Core-Dependant national/colonial economic relationship.

14. What were China & Japan’s roles in this emerging “world” economy?

15. Which European power began to expand into India’s failing Mughal Empire? Why?

16. Briefly describe the activities of Francisco Pizarro.

Read Western Conquerors: Tactics & Motives- Be prepared to discuss your opinions of this selection                                                            
17. What was the purpose of British Colonies in the North America?

18. What was the purpose of French Colonies in North America?

19. How did Britain come to dominate these colonies in North America?

20. In what ways were the British (and French) colonies in North America more like Western Europe?

21. What happened to the indigenous people of this region?

22. Why were the American colonies noted for the important role of children/teens?

23. What was the purpose of Cape Colony? Who were the Boers and what did they do?

24. How did the British gain the upper hand in the early colonial days (mid 1700s) in India?

25. Why is The Seven Years War sometimes considered the “First World War”? Is this a valid assertion?


Walker AP World History Ch 19 Reading Study Guide #2 P. 426-441
1. How was Indian society reorganized and exploited under the Spaniards?   Pg. 426
2. Why did the Spanish crown limit the inheritability of encomiendas? Pg. 426
3. Even though Early Latin America was an agricultural society, what was the main economic activity?  Pg. 427
2. What precious metal was the basis for Spain’s wealth? Pg. 427
3. Where was the principal mine for this metal?   Pg. 427
4. How did the Spanish crown claim some on this resource? What percent?  Pg. 427
5. How did mining spur other sectors of the Latin American economy?  Pg. 427
(Thinking Historically: An Atlantic History?, Pg. 428-429)
6.  Is the concept of "Atlantic history" too broad or too narrow?  (Reading, Pg. 429)
7.  How can matters like gender, ethnicity, or family be studied in an Atlantic perspective? (Reading, Pg. 429)
8. How did the Spaniards attempt to keep their treasure galleons safe from pirates and foreign privateers?  Pg. 429-430
9. How did these treasure shipments cause inflation and further debts for the Spanish government?  Pg.430
10. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesiallas?  Pg. 430
11. Through what body did Spanish monarchs govern their holdings in the new world?  Pg. 430
12. Why did Spanish religious authorities burn ancient Mayan books?  Pg. 431
13. Critical thinking: Why do you think authorities encouraged celebrated intellectual Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz to abandon her books, poetry, music & social criticism in favor of ‘spiritual matters’?  Pg. 431
14. After a brief exploitation of dyewood trees, what became the principal economic activity in the Portuguese colony of Brazil?  Pg. 432
15. Why did the Portuguese import so many African slaves to Brazil?  Pg. 432
16. How were Brazil’s ties to Portugal closer than those of other Latin American colonies to Spain?  Pg. 432-433
17. What group of frontiersmen discovered gold in Brazil?  Pg. 433
18. When did Rio de Janeiro become the capital of Brazil?   Why?  Pg. 433
19. How did Portuguese colonial gold wealth cause similar problems to that of Spain’s silver wealth?  Pg. 434
20. Who were the mestizos?  Pg. 434
21. What is the socieadad de castas? How did it impact Latin American culture?  Pg. 434
22. What is the difference between peninsulares and creoles? Why do you think creoles came to resent this distinction?  Pg. 435
(Visualizing The Past: Race or Culture?  A Changing Society, Pg. 435)
23.  Do modern censuses that use cultural or "racial" labels face the same problems of definition that the early censuses in the colonial Americas confronted?  (Reading, Pg.435)
24. How did lower-class /peasant women enjoy (some) greater rights?  Pg. 436
25. What was the outcome of the War of Spanish succession?  Pg. 438
26. How was the Spanish Succession actually favorable for Spain’s commercial interests in the new world?Pg 438
27. Why were the Jesuits expelled from both the Spanish & Portuguese empires?  Pg. 438
28. How did the new Spanish Bourbons (temporarily) revive the floundering Spanish Empire?  Pg. 439
29. What were some of the important reforms of the Marquis de Pombal of Portugal?  Pg. 439
30.  What role did population play in the creation of reforms and revolts?  Pg. 440


Walker AP World History Ch 20 Reading Study Guide P. 444-467
1. How might the adventuresome life of Baquaqua offer us some insight to the tumultuous world of the 18th & 19 Century Atlantic Economy? Pg. 444
2. How and why did Europeans become involved in the affairs and history of Africa?  Pg. 445
3. What was the MAJOR impact of European contact? Pg. 445
 (Timeline Pg. 446)
4. When did the Portuguese establish their fortress at El Mina? __________
5. When did the English first become involved in the Atlantic Slave Trade? __________
6. When did the Dutch establish their colony at the Cape of Good Hope? __________
7. When did the British take control of it? __________
8. How did the Portuguese use their forts along the west coast of Africa?
9. Which kingdom did the Portuguese attempt to “Europeanize”?  Pg. 446
10. What was the Portuguese attitude toward Africans?  Pg. 447
11. How did the Portuguese (and later Europeans) acquire MOST of their slaves in Africa?  Pg. 447-448
12. What new agricultural product required a large number of laborers (slaves)?  Pg. 448
13. How many Africans were forcibly shipped across the Atlantic between 1450 & 1850? What was the mortality rate?  Pg. 448
14. Where did the slave population grow through reproduction NOT merely through additional shipments? Why?  Pg. 449
15. According to Table 20.2; What area received the largest number of slaves? Where does British North America (USA) rank?  Pg. 449
16. How did the older Trans-Saharan Salve Trade differ from the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade?  Pg. 449
17. What was the purpose of the Royal African Company?  Pg. 450
18. Why does Stearns call Africa a “graveyard” for Europeans?  Pg. 450
19. Which two European cities specifically benefitted economically from the slave trade?  Pg. 450
20. Describe “Triangular Trade” – Is this inexorably linked to capitalistic development?  Pg. 450
21. Describe the different forms of African slavery BEFORE European involvement. Pg. 451
22. Why was the enslavement of women an important feature or pre-European slavery?  Pg. 451
23. How did Europeans fit themselves into existing trading patterns in Africa?  Pg 451-452
(Thinking Historically: Slavery and Human Society, Pg. 452)
24. In what ways had slavery ALWAYS been part of human civilization?  (Reading, Pg. 452)
25. How did Trans-Atlantic Slavery lead to increased racism? (Reading, Pg. 452)
26. What European ideas lead toward and abolition of slavery? (Reading, Pg. 452)
27. How did the slave trade and the introduction of European goods/weaponry affect African politics? Pg. 452
28. How was the Asante (Ashante) kingdom formed?  Pg. 454
29. Though the kingdom of Benin engaged in some slave trade, what were their principal products?  Pg. 455
30. Describe the rise and influence of the Kingdom of Dahomey.  Pg. 455
31. How did African Art find its way into European ‘high society’?  Pg. 456
32. How did some Indian, Swahili & Arab merchants follow the European “example” in E. Africa?  Pg. 456
33. How did the Fulani tribe seek to reform ‘corrupt’ Islamic kings?  Pg. 457
34. What was the outcome of the Fulani reform?  Pg. 457
35. When and why did the Dutch East India Company establish a colony at the Cape of Good Hope?  Pg. 458
36. How did this lead to white settlement and expansion in southern Africa?  Pg. 458
37. Who were the Afrikaners?  Pg. 458
38. When did the British seize Cape Colony?  Pg. 458
39. How did this seizure lead to the Great Trek?  Pg. 458
40. Describe the activities and impacts of Shaka Zulu.  Pg. 458-459
41. What was the outcome of the Zulu Wars of the 1870s?  Pg. 459
42. How did African culture survive in the New World?  Pg. 460
 (Document: An African’s Description of the Middle Passage, Pg. 461)
43.  In what ways does Equiano's description contradict a previous understanding of the slave trade? (Reading, Pg. 461)
44.  What opportunities existed for the captives to resist? (Reading, Pg. 461)
45.  What effect might the experience of Africans on the slave ships have had on their perceptions of each other and of the Europeans?  (Reading, Pg. 461)
46. Who were Creole's and why were they made free more often than African born slaves?  Pg. 462
47. What African cultures persisted in Brazil? Jamaica? Haiti?  Pg. 464
48. What were Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s & Adam Smith’s views on slavery? Pg. 465
49. Which religious figures were heavily involved in the slavery abolition effort in the British Empire? Pg. 465
50. When did slavery finally end in the New World? Pg. 465


Walker AP World History Ch 21 Reading Study Guide #1 P. 456-466
1. How did Babur use new military technology to overcome a numerically superior foe?

2. What were the three important Muslim Empires in period of 1450-1750?

3. When was the Ottoman Dynasty founded?_____    
4. When did they capture Constantinople?_____
5. In what years did the Safavid Empire rise in Persia?_____ 
6. What were the years of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent?_____
7. When were the first and last Ottoman sieges of Vienna? _____ & _____
8. When did the Safavid Empire fall?_____
9. Which Ottoman Turk leader conquered Constantinople? How did he accomplish this?

10. What other areas did the Ottomans capture over the next two centuries?

11. What major Mediterranean islands did they capture?

12. Which two Italian merchant powers were driven from the Eastern Mediterranean?

13. Who were the Janissaries? What role did they play in the Empire?

14. What is Stearns assessment of the early Ottoman sultans?

15. What was the title given to royal officials who headed the imperial administration? What happened to their authority over time?

16. What did the Ottomans do with their newly acquired capital at Constantinople?
17. Why did Constantinople/Istanbul become such an important trading hub again?

18. How did the Ottomans regulate commerce, manufacturing & labor?

19. What was the ‘problem’ with the size of the Ottoman Empire?

Read “Document: An Islamic Traveler Laments the Muslims’ Indifference to Europe”
20. Why is the author so very concerned that Muslims will ignore developments in Europe?

21. Based on our studies, why was it so easy for Muslims to feel superior to Europeans?

22. What happened to later sultans? What vices did some of them engage in?

23. In what ways did the Ottomans lose their military edge?

24. What was the impact of Spanish silver on the Ottoman economy?

25. How did conservative attitudes hamper Ottoman scientific and technological development?


Walker AP World History Ch 25 Reading Study Guide #1 P. 562-574
1. Describe the tragic end of Austrian Archduke Maximilian von Hapsburg, Emperor of Mexico.

2. What philosophical values did Latin American leaders share with Western leaders?

3. When did the Portuguese Royal family set up court in Brazil?_____
4. When did Brazil declare independence?_____
5. When did the USA promulgate the Monroe Doctrine?_____
6. What were the years of French intervention in Mexico?_____       
7. When did Brazil switch from Empire to Republic?_____
8. What were the years of the Spanish American War?_____
9. How did both the American AND French Revolutions set examples for Latin America?

10. Who led the revolt and independence movement in Haiti?
11. How did Napoleon’s activities in Europe lead to many independence movements in Latin America?

12. Briefly describe Mexico’s independence struggle & outcome.

13. Who was Simon Bolivar? What is/was Gran Colombia?

14. Where did Jose the San Martin lead the independence struggle?

15. Briefly describe Brazil’s independence struggle & outcome?

16. How is Brazil’s story SO VERY different from the rest of Latin America? Who was the leader?
17. Though most independence leaders had shared Enlightenment ideals, how did they differ on religion? On slavery?

18. Why did the original LARGE nations of newly freed Latin America break up? (Except Brazil)

19. Who were the caudillos? Why did they make new governments in Latin America unstable?

20. Stearns seems to blame Latin American political instability on a colonial heritage, do you agree or disagree with his assessment? Why?

Read “Document: Confronting the Hispanic Heritage- from Independence to Consolidation”
21. To what extent did leaders of independence see their problems as a result of their Hispanic heritage?

22. What would have been the reaction of the mass of the population to Sariento’s ideas progress?

23. How did the Monroe Doctrine operate? Even though it was US policy- why did Britain enforce it?

24. How did Latin American leaders try to integrate these nations into the world economy in the 1800s?

25. What French philosopher influenced many Latin American leaders?
26. Name his philosophy. Why do you think it was so appealing the leaders of these new nations?

27. Why were some of these efforts at modernization & economic progress met with great resistance by “the people” of Latin America?


Walker AP World History Ch 26 Reading Study Guide #1 P. 590-604
1. From what groups in Chinese society did the Hong Xiuquan (founder of the Taiping Rebellion) draw his followers?
2. Even though they were not colonized by European powers, why did both China and the Ottoman Empire go into decline in the 1800s?

3. What were the years of Muhammad Ali’s reign in Egypt?_____
4. What were the years of the Opium War in China?_____
5. What were the Years of the Crimean War?_____
6. When did the Suez Canal open?_____
7. When did the British invade, occupy and begin to control Egypt?_____
8. When did the Young Turks seize power in Istanbul?_____
9. Which groups rivaled each other for power within the Ottoman government?

10. Why were the ‘ayan’ why did they have the power to undermine the sultan?

11. How did European commerce undermine the Ottoman economy?

12. Which Russian leader began take territory from the Ottoman Empire around the Black Sea? Why?

13. When did the Greeks break away from Ottoman rule?
14. Why did the Brits choose to ‘prop up’ the tottering Ottoman Empire through the 19th Century?

15. What happened with Sultan Selim III’s reform efforts?

16. What happened with Sultan Mahmud II’s reform efforts?

17. What were the key features of the Tanzimat Reforms?
18. In what ways did Sultan Abdul Hamid continue Westernization? In what ways did he stifle it?

19. Who were the Young Turks? What did they want? Ottoman Society of Union and Progress

20. Who became the Post WWI leader of the Young Turks, leading the foundation of modern Turkey?

21. Why did the Young Turks keep the office of Sultan? Why did they keep the Empire?

Read “In Depth: Western Dominance and the Decline of Civilizations” be prepared to discuss.
22. Why do you think it was so rare for one preindustrial civilization to conquer another?

              23. How did “barbarian” & nomadic invasions/migrations factor into the fall of ancient empires?

25. Why was Napoleon’s brief invasion of Egypt in 1798 such a shock to the Muslim world?

26. What was the general attitude of the Mamluks (and most Muslim rulers) toward Napoleon and other European powers, adventurer, etc.?

27. What was the outcome of the Battle of the Pyramids? Why was Napoleon forced to leave?

28. How & why did Muhammad Ali seize power? What were his reforms?

29. Who were the khedives?

30. What is/was the importance of the Suez Canal?

31. How did the Suez Canal and Ahmad Orabi’s revolt lead to European control of Egypt in 1882?

32. What were the circumstances surrounding the Mahdist Revolt? How was this revolt put down?


Walker AP World History Ch 27 Reading Study Guide #2 P. 625-635
1. What was the relationship between the samurai and the central government under the shogunate?

2. What were the commoner schools called? What did they teach?

3. How did Japanese literacy rates compare with the rest of the world? (1859)

4. What was the aim of the “Dutch” studies and “Dutch” medicine scholars in Japan?

5. What consumer good s did the Japanese export?

6. Why is the expedition of US commodore Matthew Perry significant in Japanese history?

7. What concessions did he gain? How?

8. How did American weaponry find its way to Japan?

9. When did the Meiji period begin?
Read “In Depth: The Separate Paths of Japan and China” be prepared to discuss
10. In what ways were Japanese political institutions more adaptable than the Chinese?

 11. What reforms did the Meiji rulers institute? How were the samurai used?

12. With the loss of feudal-lord status, how did the samurai fit themselves into the new Japan?

13.  Describe the new parliamentary form of government in Japan.

14. Why was it a very limited form of democracy?

15. Do you agree or disagree with Stearns assessment that Japan imitated the West but “retained its own identity”?

16. Describe some important features of Japan’s industrial revolution.

17. What were the zaibatsu?

18. What natural resources did Japan lack?
19. In what ways did Japan reform its educational system to make it more “Japanese”?

20. What additional western styles and practices did Japan adopt?

21. In what ways did Japan join the New Imperialist powers?

22. For all this innovation what were some of the negative reactions in Japanese society?

23. Why is Japan’s story of industrialization so unusual?

24. Has Japan provided a model for other nations wishing to industrialize without being dominated OR is Japan unique in world history?

25. Was it fair for Japan to be considered a new Yellow Peril by Western powers?


Walker AP World History Ch 28 #2 P. 657-669
1. What ‘spectacle’ was provided to the colonized and subjugated people of Africa and Asia by WWI?

2. How did the events of WWI undermine the European claim to be the most fit ‘race’ to rule the globe?

Read: Document- Lesson for the Colonized from the Slaughter in the Trenches
3. On the basis of this sample, what aspects of the West’s claims to superiority would you say were called into question by the suicidal conflict of the leading powers within European Civilization?

4. Which two parts of the British Empire were home to pre and post WWI resistance to the empire?

5. Why did the British allow the National Congress to be formed and to operate?

6. How did it become the nucleus of an Indian independence movement?

7. How did B.G. Tilak appeal to Hindu religious beliefs in his quest for Indian nationalism?

8. How did the Morley-Minto reforms expand involvement of Indians in their own governance?

9. How did the Mantagu-Chelmsford reforms & the Rowlatt Act send mixed messages to India?

10. Who emerged as a champion of Indian independence during this time? Why was he so popular?

11. How did British occupation of Egypt lead the natives to feel a form of “double colonization”?

12. What groups benefitted most from Lord Cromer’s administration in Egypt?
13. Who were the effendi?
14. What group made up the leadership of the nationalist movement in Egypt?

15. What happened in the Dinshwai Incident?

16. How did Mustafa Kemal rise to prominence in Turkey?

17. List some of the reforms of the great Mustafa Kemal AKA Ataturk (Ataturk = Father of the Turks).

18. What is Zionism? Why were Zionists encouraged by the Balfour Declaration?

19. What specific shocking event led Theodor Herzl to believe that Zionism was the only viable option for European Jews?

20. How were the Zionists seen as unfair to Arabs currently living in Palestine?

21. What was Britain’s top priority in Egypt during WWI?

22. What was the Wafd Party? What did they want?

23. How did Egyptian politicians view public office? (Plus ca change)

24. List some of the deplorable conditions in semi-autonomous Egypt. 

25. Which American political figures influenced the beginnings of the liberation struggle in Africa?

26. What was the purpose of the negritude literary movement among French-speaking Africans?


Walker AP World History Ch 29 Reading Study Guide #1 P. 672-685
1. What three problems challenged the potential success of the government owned State Universal Stores? 

2. What happened to customer complaints in these state owned department stores?

3. When did Russia experience two revolutions?_____           4. When did Mussolini take power in Italy?____
5. What is the year of the stock market crash?_____ 6. When did Hitler take power in Germany?____
7. When did Civil War break out in Spain?_____       
8. When did Hitler invade Poland?_____
9. What new artistic movement became well-known after WWI? Who led it?

10. Which countries led the way in woman suffrage (right to vote)?

11. What 3 nations known as ‘Dominions’ play an important role in the WWI British War effort?

12. Describe the innovations of US auto manufacturer, Henry Ford.

13. Why didn’t the United States join the League of Nations?

14. What is isolationism?

15. In what ways did Japan enter a ‘new phase of industrialization’ in the 1920s?

16. What is Benito Mussolini’s Fascism?

17. How did he rise to power in 1922? How did he stay in power?

18. Where were other authoritarian regimes established in the 1920s? (name some)

19. What happened in Latin America during WWI?

20. What power replaced Great Britain as the dominant political player in Latin America after WWI?

21. What advances were made in Mexico under the Presidential Dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz?

22. What liberal reforms did Diaz crack down on in 1910?

23. Who were the two leaders of the resistance to the repressive Diaz regime?

24. Where did they operate?

25. What was Zapata’s slogan? Why do you think it resonated with the disposed peasants of Mexico?

26. Who tried to impose a ‘Diaz-type’ dictatorship on Mexico?

27. How did Obregon bring an end to the civil war/revolution and institute stability?

28. What is indigenism?

29. Name the two artists who emerged as leader of the muralist movement in Mexico.

30. Who were the “Cristeros”?

31. How/why did the US become involved in the violent struggle in Mexico in the 19-teens?

32. What is the PRI? How was it able to maintain power for the next several decades?
33. How did the Tsar fall from power in Russia?

34. What government took the place of the Tsarist regime?

35. How/when did Lenin seize power from this new government?

36. Which countries all sent troops to fight against Lenin’s government between 1918-1921?

37. Who organized the Red Army? What was it so successful in the Russian Civil War?

38. What is the New Economic Policy? Why did Lenin have to implement it?

39. What was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics? What ethnic group was dominant?

40. How did this new Soviet government echo the Tsarist regimes of the past?

Read: In Depth- A Century of Revolutions, be prepared to discuss the first reading question on P684.
41. Who were the two rivals for power as Lenin’s health deteriorated and in death in 1924?

42. How did Stalin intend to make Communist work?

43. What was the Comintern?

44. What was collectivization?

Walker AP World History Ch 30 Reading Study Guide #1 P. 706-719
1. Why did Sukarno and other local Asian leaders denounce the Dutch and other Europeans? 

2. How did the Japanese present themselves as they conquered territories in Asia? How did they rule?

3. How was Sukarno able to outwit his Japanese handlers?    

4. When did Japan invade Manchuria?____  5. What were the years of the Spanish Civil War?_____
6. When was the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor/German invasion of the USSR?_____       
7. What year did the war end in both Europe and the Pacific/1st use of atomic weapons?_____
8. Why did the Japanese wish to invade Manchuria?

9. What promises did Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist party make to German voters?

10. What steps did Hitler take to ‘dismantle’ the Treaty of Versailles and other post WWI agreements?

11. Why did Hitler and Mussolini intervene in the Spanish Civil War? Did they get what they wanted?

12. How did Winston Churchill differ from the prevailing diplomatic view in Europe in the 1920-30s?

13. Describe the aggressive moves made by Japan in the late 1930s.

14. What atrocities were committed by Japanese forces in China? (Figure 30.2)

15. In depth: Total War How did the experience of total war affect social & political patterns after WWII?

16. Why did Hitler invade the USSR?
17. How did the German armies become ‘bogged down’ in Eastern Europe?

18. Describe Blitzkrieg warfare tactics in a sentence or two. What does the term ‘Blitzkreig’ mean?

19. What was ‘Vichy’ France?

20. What was the Battle of Britain? How did the British ‘win’ this ‘battle’?

21. What was the goal of the amazing German tank commander Erwin Rommel in North Africa?

22. What was the size of Hitler’s USSR invasion force? Where was it stopped?

23. Why do you think the Battle of Stalingrad is considered by most historians to be the turning point in the Eastern European theater of WWII?

24. Where was the ‘final solution’ planned? When? Who did it include?

25. Why was this operation irrational even from the strict military perspective?

26. How many people died in the Holocaust? How many were Jews?

27. How did Mussolini fall from power in Italy?

28. What was the Battle of the Bulge (Ardennes Woods)?

29. How & when did Hitler’s regime come to an end? (Ending WWII in Europe within a matter of weeks)

30. Describe Japans aggressive activities before the attack on Pearl Harbor, 1941.

31. Why was the Japanese Empire vulnerable to allied attack?

32. What two naval battles marked a turning point in Japan’s superiority in the Pacific?

33. How many Japanese were killed in the US firebombing of Tokyo?

34. How was WWII in the Pacific finally brought to an end?

Walker AP World History Ch 35 Reading Study Guide #2 P. 847-857
1. What form of government swept the globe in the wake of the fall of Communism? (Actually, 1970s onward)

2. Briefly describe this process of world-wide political change?

3. Where have authoritarian regimes held onto power?

Read “Democratic Protest and Repression in China”
4. Why were the students (and others) protesting in Tiananmen Square?

              5. Why does Li Peng object to the protest movement?

              6. How does he try to persuade ordinary Chinese that the protest should cease?

7. Why do you think the US government became more consistent in its support for human rights in the ‘90s?

8. Why did the US ally itself with some authoritarian regimes in the early 2000s? Which regimes?

9. What regional conflicts erupted in the power-vacuum created by the collapse of the USSR?

10. Why did Yugoslavia break apart and experience a civil war in the ‘90s?

11. How was this conflict resolved? What was NATO’s role?

12. What events led to the Persian Gulf War of 1991?

13. Why did the Israel-Palestine conflict turn violent in the ‘90s and early 2000s?

14. Describe the tensions between India and Pakistan? Why is this situation potentially VERY deadly?

15. Briefly describe some of the political trends in Europe in the ‘90s and early 2000s.

16. Briefly describe the Rwanda Genocide.

17. What other violent conflicts have occurred in Africa in recent years?

18. How did the USA become the sole military superpower?

19. What has been Russia’s response? 

20. What has been China’s response?

21. How has the European Union (EU) proved to be a counterweight to US economic power?

22. Why is the EU NOT a rival to US military and diplomatic power?

23. How has the US exercised its unprecedented world-wide power and influence?

24. What were the stated motives of the terrorists who attacked the US on 9/11/2001?

25. Why did they choose those particular targets?

26. What is the “War on Terror?

27. How can the US invasion of Iraq be seen as a mistake on the part of the US?

28. What has been international reaction to the US invasion of Iraq?

Read “In Depth: Terrorism, The and Now” Choose two of the discussion questions on P. 855 and answer them.


Source :


Web site link to visit:

Google key word : Questions of history for study guide AP World History file type : doc

Author : not indicated on the source document of the above text

If you are the author of the text above and you not agree to share your knowledge for teaching, research, scholarship (for fair use as indicated in the United States copyrigh low) please send us an e-mail and we will remove your text quickly.


Questions of history for study guide AP World History


If you want to quickly find the pages about a particular topic as Questions of history for study guide AP World History use the following search engine:




Questions of history for study guide AP World History


Please visit our home page Terms of service and privacy page




Questions of history for study guide AP World History