Revolutions in Europe and Latin America summary and notes




Revolutions in Europe and Latin America summary and notes


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Revolutions in Europe and Latin America summary and notes


Revolutions in Europe and Latin America


21.1 An Age of Ideologies

  • “A revolutionary seed has been planted in Europe.” -Prince Clemens von Metternich
  • Metternich believed French Revolution and Napoleon threatened monarchs and basic social values.
  • Opposing _ideologies, __or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into 30 years of instability

Conservatives and the Old Order

  • Congress of vienna victory for conservatives
  • What did conservatives want?
  • Turn the clock back before 1789
  • Social hierarchy
  • Established church
  • Peace and stability through control


The Liberal and Nationalist Challenge

  • Liberal Goals
  • Middle Class or “bourgeoisie liberalism”
  • Constitutional Governments and separation of powers
  • Natural Rights
  • Elections
  • Later: universal male suffrage, giving all men the right to vote

Nationalist Goals

  • Austrian, Russian and Ottoman empires included diverse people so…
  • Austrian Empire tried to unite and win independence for particular group
  • Nationalism often bred intolerance and persecution

Revolts Against the Old Order

  • Revolutionaries fought against the old order
  • Rebellions in the Balkans owned by the Ottoman Empire
  • Various religious and ethnic groups


Independence for Serbia

  • Serbs revolt
  • 1804 to 1813, leader Karageorge led a guerilla war against Ottomans
  • Unsuccessful but led to revival of Serb culture
  • Milos Obrenovic, in 1815, led more successful rebellion.  By 1830, with Russia’s help, Serbs win autonomy,  or self-government from the Ottoman empire
  • Russia continues close relations


Independence for Greece

  • 1821 Greeks revolt against ottoman empire
  • At first badly divided, but united by suffering
  • Leaders said it was a “national war, holy war, a war the object of which is to reconquer the rights of individual liberty.”
  • Supported by Western Europe

Lord Byron

  • The English Poet Lord Byron went to Greece to help the fight for Independence.
  • “The sword, the banner, and the field, Glory and Greece around me see!”

Other Challenges

  • Revolts spread to the southern fringe of Europe
  • Spain, Portugal and Italy wanted Constitutional Governments
  • Metternich urged leaders to suppress revolts
  • Troops quieted them, but only temporarily

Essential Questions

  • Identify: conservatives, liberals, nationalists, Karageorge, Milos Obrenovic
  • Ideology, universal manhood suffrage, autonomy
  • What were the goals of conservative leaders?
  • How did the political goals of the conservative differ from those of the liberals?  How did nationalists threated the system set up by Metternich?
  • Why did the Serbs and Greeks revolt?  Why were there uprisings in Spain, Portugal, and the Italian states?

21.2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

  • Suppression of uprisings did not end the age of Revolutions.
  • “We are sleeping on a volcano.  Do you not see that the Earth trembles anew?  A wind of revolution blows, the storm is on the horizon.” -Alexis de Tocqueville
  • 1830 and 1848, full scale revolts

The French Revolution of 1830

  • King Louis XVIII (18th) issued a constitution called the “Charter of French Liberties.”
  • Created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press

Sources of Unrest

  • Ultraroyalists, supporters of the king, wanted to restore the old regime
  • High Clergy, Émigré nobles,

Liberal and Radical View

  • Liberal
  • Wanted to extend suffrage
  • Win  power for the middle-class
  • Radical
  • Wanted a Republic
  • Decent Pay and affordable food


The July Revolution

  • Louis 18th dies and Charles X takes over
  • July, 1830- Charles suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote and restricted the press
  • Revolts in Paris
  • King escapes to England

The Citizen King

  • Radicals wanted a Republic
  • Moderates, a constitutional Monarchy
  • French legislature chose Louis Phillipe as king
  • Louis got along well with moderates
  • Personable and extended suffrage to wealthier citizens
  • Lower class still couldn’t vote

The French Revolution of 1848

  • Discontent grew in 1840’s
  • Secret Coalitions
  • Wanted suffrage
  • A recession, or reduced economic activity, caused jobs to be lost and food prices to soar

February Days

  • Violence in Feb. 1848
  • Louis Phillippe Runs away
  • Radicals proclaim the “second republic”


Louis Napoleon

  • End of 1848, National Assembly issued a constitution for 2nd Republic
  • Strong President and one house legislature
  • All adult males could vote
  • Winner of Election was Louis Napoleon, nephew of Bonaparte
  • Promised to help poor, but represented order

Louis Napoleon

  • Used presidency to gain more power and like his uncle, proclaimed himself emperor in 1852
  • 90% of voters supported this


June Days

  • Upper and Middle classes take over
  • National workshops= waste of money and are shut down
  • Poor outcry “Bread or Lead!”
  • Lower class breeds hatred for bourgeoisie

The Spread of Revolution

  • Revolts in Paris inspired other uprisings
  • Belgium-
  • Poland-

1848: Another Wave of Rebellion

  • Middle class liberals discontent
  • Metternich falls- Austrian empire-revolts!
  • Hungarian Nationalists led by Louis Kossuth
  • Assisted by Russia


  • Italy- Fall of Austria leads to different points of view
  • German states- Student protests force king to create a constitution
  • Frankfurt assembly- Tried to create a constitution but was dissolved

Looking Ahead

  • Rebellions put down…but will spread across the world!

Essential Questions

  • Identify: Charter of French Liberties, Charles X, Louis Philippe, Louis Napoleon, Louis Kossuth, Frankfurt Assembly, Frederick William IV
  • Define: ultraroyalist, recession
  • Describe one cause and one effect of a) the French revolution of 1830 and B) the French Revolution of 1848.
  • To what lands did revolution spread in 1830?  Were those revolutions successful?
  • Why did most of the revolutions in 1848 fail to achieve their goals?

21.3 Latin American Wars of Independence

  • “I swear before God and by my honor never to allow my hands to be idle nor my soul to rest until I have broken the chains that bind us to Spain.” -Simon Bolivar

Sources of Discontent

  • Revolutionary Fever Spread to Latin America
  • Ethnic and Social Hierarchy
  • Peninsulares, Spanish-born,  at the top
  • Creoles, European descended Latin Americans, Second Class
  • Mestizos,  Native American and European descentand Mulattoes, African and European Descent,  in the third Class
  • Slaves on Plantations in the bottom
  • Enlightenment Ideas
  • Educated Creoles, Salons (tertulias)
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Napoleon’s invasion of spain in 1808.  Latin American leaders saw a chance to reject Spanish rule

Haiti’s Struggle for Independence

  • France’s ill treatment of slaves on sugar plantations
  • 25,000 free mulattos some wealthy and owned slaves but didn’t have same rights
  • A Slave Revolt
  • 1791, Slave revolt caused by ideas and poor treatment
  • Leader: Toussaint L’Ouverture, self educated former slave
  • Long and complex struggle
  • By 1798, enslaved Haitians were freed and Toussaint controlled most of the island


  • In 1802, Napoleon tries to reconquer Haiti
  • Toussaint encourages people to fight for nidependence
  • Yellow Fever
  • A Temporary Truce, but Toussaint captured and died in Prison
  • 1804, Haiti Declares Independence and by 1820, it is a republic

Independence for Mexico and Central America

  • Slave Revolt in Haiti frightened Creoles in Latin America
  • El Grito de Dolores
  • Father Hidalgo’s Speech “My Children, will you be free?  Will you make the effort to recover the lands stolen from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards 300 years ago?”
  • A Poor Army formed around him, eventually captured and executed
  • Jose Morelos
  • Another Priest Leader of Revolt, fought for 4 years before being captured and shot in 1815

Independence Achieved

  • Liberals forced Spain to issue a constitution
  • Augustine de Iturbide, a conservative creole alarmed
  • He reached out to former enemies to achieve independence
  • Independence Achieved, Emperor of Spain…but only a little while.  Eventually overthrown and Mexico became a Republic
  • New Republics
  • Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica

Independence in South America

  • A Native American Revolt
  • Leader Tupac Amaru, descendant of Incan kings
  • Wanted to end forced Indian labor
  • Led a large revolt, but killed..however forced labor ended by Spanish

Simon Bolivar

  • Admired French and American Revolutions
  • When Napoleon occupied Spain, Bolivar acted
  • 1810, Set up Republic in Venezuela, but toppled, much Civil War
  • Took Bogota from Surprised Spanish
  • By 1821, Freed Venezuela..called “The Liberator”

San Martin

  • Like Bolivar, a Creole
  • Born in Argentina, trained in Europe
  • Defeated Spanish in Chile
  • Different views from Bolivar so he stepped down

Dreams and Disappointments

  • Wars over by 1824
  • Bolivar tried to Unite lands into Gran Colombia
  • Bitter rivalries…split into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador
  • Further Problems
  • “We have achieved our independence at the expense of everything else.” –Bolivar


Independence for Brazil

  • When napoleon took Portugal, the king fled to Brazil
  • When he returned, he left his son, Dom Pedro in charge
  • Portugal later wanted to limit the freedom of Brazil…Dom says no
  • Becomes Emperor of Independent Brazil…monarchy until 1889 when it became a republic due to political and social turmoil

Essential Questions

  • Identify: Toussaint L’Ouveture, Miguel Hidalgo, el Grito de Dolores, Jose Morelos, Tupac Amaru, Simon Bolivar, Dom Pedro
  • Define: peninsular, creole, mestizo, mulatto, truce
  • How did social structure contribute to discontent in Latin America?
  • What was the first step on Haiti’s road to independence?  Why did creoles refuse to support Hidalgo or Morelos?
  • How did successful military campaigns lead to the creation of Independent nations in South America?


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