The 13 English Colonies 1607-1733 summary and notes




The 13 English Colonies 1607-1733 summary and notes


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The 13 English Colonies 1607-1733 summary and notes



The 13 English Colonies 1607-1733


Section 1


English settlers in Virginia host colony at Roanoke Island near the coast of North Carolina. They run out of food in less than a year. They returned to England. Raleigh tried again in 1587, with John White the leader of the new colony. In 1590 White returned to Roanoke only to find nothing there. The word “Croaton”- the name of a Native American group on a nearby island- carved on a tree.


No trace of the colonists has been found. The fate of the “host colony” remains a mystery.


Staking a claim in the America’s


The English King James could not afford to send ships and supplies to America and English nobles were unwilling to risk their private wealth.


The merchants formed two companies the Virginia Company of Plymouth and the Virginia Company of London. Each was a joint-stock company that sold its investors shares in the company. The investors received profiles of the project. If it failed they lost only as much money as they put in. They received a charter.


Charter- a document that let them settle and trade in a certain area in the Americas. The land was named Virginia


The settlement of Jamestown


In 1606 the London Company sent three ships- the Discovery, the Susan Constant and the Godspeed – to start a colony in North America. The 144 men- no women sent- faced a rough, stormy voyage. More than 40 died at sea. Finally, in April 1607 the ships reached Virginia, they called it Jamestown.


Jamestown face problems


The land was swampy filled with mosquitoes and lacked good drinking water. As a result, many colonists died of malaria or typhoid fever. Colonists also faced another problem; they didn’t know how to survive in the wilderness. By September of 1607 about half, and next January only 38 were still alive from April to September.


John Smith, a brave adventurer, stepped up to take charge of the arguing colonists. Smith ordered the idle gentlemen – to build houses and fortifications and land crops. Smith began trading with Native Americans and was then captured by Native Americans. Smith said that Pocahontas- daughter of the chief called Powhatan- had begged for his life. In 1609, 500 settlers arrived from England only 60 settlers survived the starving time, the winter of 1609-1610.


The growth of Jamestown


Investors and English government however demanded a profit. John Rolfe began planting tobacco in 1612- first cash crop of the colonies. Huge profits- the habit of smoking tobacco spread throughout Europe. King James- however said it was a bad habit- loathsome to the eye- hateful to the noses- harmful to the brain-dangerous to the lungs.


Indentured Servants


People agreed to work 3 to 7 years for their ship passage to America. Between 100,000 to 150,000 men and women come to Americas indentured servants in the 1600’s.


Slavery in 1619 Dutch ship from the West Indies brought the first Africans 20 of them- to Jamestown.

In 1620 about 100 women sailed into Jamestown following promises of a place to live. To marry one of these women colonists had to pay 150 pounds of tobacco to the company.

John Rolfe married Pocahontas. Pocahontas was a great lady. She kept peace between colonists and Indians on a trip to England with Rolfe she died of smallpox. A year later her father Powhatan died- relations with the Indians turned bad.


The beginning of Self- Government in Jamestown


Adult freemen could elect representatives or burgesses, to a law making body, the House of Burgesses . This assembly could make laws to govern the colony Virginia became a royal colony.


Royal colony- A colony under the control of the king.


Pilgrims found Plymouth Colony Religious disagreement in England King Henry VIII broke away the Roman Catholic Church and formed the Angelic Church.


Puritans- member of the Anglican Church who wanted to purify the church by getting rid of all Roman Catholic influences.


Seperatists- those who left the Anglican Church lives in England became so difficult- the separatist moved to the Netherlands- a country known for its religious tolerance. The Separatists now called themselves Pilgrims- a term for travelers with a religious goal.


Starting of Plymouth Colony

The Pilgrims journeyed to Plymouth on the Mayflower. Finally on November 9, 1620 the Mayflower came to rest at the tip of Cape Cod, off the coast of present day Massachusetts.


The Mayflower Compact

The 41 men aboard signed a document setting up a form of self-government and agreeing to obey laws passed by the majority John Carver was chosen governor.


Native Americans and the Pilgrims

Native Americans named Samoset greeted colonists in English. Samoset introduced them to Massasort, chief of Wampanoag’s.

Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to survive in their new homes. He taught them hoe to hunt in the forest, plant crops, and where to catch fish. Squanto acted as a interpreter, Keep peace between colonists and Native Americans.


Plymouth Survives

Thanks to the help of the nearby Wampanoag’s, the Pilgrims had an abundant harvest in 1621. They shared their first Thanksgiving with the Native Americans


Section 3


Settling the New England Colonies

Interest in the American colonies continued to grow in England. Political issues and church conflicts made many groups seriously consider crossing the Atlantic in search of new opportunities. People were looking for personal or religious freedom. Pressure forced many Puritans to seek religious freedom in the American colonies.


Great Migration- began in 1630. In the next 10 years, some 16,000 people would come to America. In 1630, 17 ships with more than 16,000 Puritan settlers left England to establish Massachusetts Bay Colony it was the single largest migration. Puritans received their charter and formed the Massachusetts Bay Company.


John Winthrope- became the first governor of the colony. Boston became the capital. Boston began a successful trading center.


Massachusetts Bay Company- became a common wealth- a self governing political unit it was the first of its kind.

General Court – which made their law, in 1635, the General Court banished Roger Williams


Rhode Island- Roger Williams preached ideas that angered Puritan leaders: 1) Williams believed the church had too much power. Separation of church and state 2) Colonists could pay for the land they settle or to Native Americans.

Massachusetts Bay and the Puritans did not believe in religious tolerance.

Providence (RI) Roger Williams and RI except all people, even people who beliefs were different than his own. Quaker and Jews were welcome. RI banished Williams in 1635 he then bought land from Indians and started Providence.


Hutchinson Challenges Church leaders

Hutchinson announced her belief that people should speak to God themselves, not through ministers or the church. She also believed that church leaders were to powerful. These ideas outraged Puritan leaders. General court found her “a woman unfit for society” and banished her.


Connecticut (1636)-Thomas Hooker led his congregation from Massachusetts to Connecticut, where they built a town they called Hartford. Hooker used his own ideas about government, and limited the power of government. Only church members to vote in Massachusetts, for example disturbed him.



Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

This document was the first American constitution, or plan of government written. It provided for an assembly and an elected governor. Under these orders, all men who were property owners could vote.


New Hampshire and Maine

New Hampshire became a royal colony in 1680, while Maine remained part of Massachusetts until 1820.


Section 4

Settling the Middle Colonies

Middle Colonies: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware.


New Nether land becomes New York

 In 1621 the Dutch West India Company set up a trading colony- New Nether land- in the area Hudson had explored. The center of the new colony was called New Amsterdam. In 1626 Peter Minuit, the governor of the colony, paid Native Americans to be Dutch guilders.


New Sweden Established

The fur trade brought settlers form Sweden. In 1638 the Swedes built Fort Christina and began to trade. The Dutch, however saw New Sweden as a rival for trade. The Dutch governor of the New Nether land, seized the colony and made it part of New Netherlands.


King Charles II sent his younger brother, James, Duke of York, to seize the Dutch colony. England didn’t like the fact the Dutch were gaining power on England soil. Without a fight New Nether land surrendered to the English. New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Kings brother, Duke of York. Charles II made James the proprietor or owner of the colony New York.

Proprietary Colony-was awarded to one person or a group to rule a colony by power from the King of England. James could not control the colonies of New York and New Jersey so he gave control to two of his friends.


New Jersey- (1664) Lord John Berkely and Sir George were the founders of New Jersey. In 1702 they became a royal colony.


The Founding of Pennsylvania – William Penn founded Pennsylvania for the Quakers. Pennsylvania was a strong champion of tolerance for all people. 1) whether wealthy of poor were equal in the sight of God. 2) Quakers also opposed war and would not serve in the army. 3) Quakers refused to pay taxes. 4) Quakers also allowed women to speak in meetings.


Delaware- unhappy colonists separated from Pennsylvania.


Section 5


Settling the Southern Colonies-Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.


Maryland- a religious refuge George Calvert, a Catholic whose title was Lord Baltimore started Maryland he and his Roman Catholics could safely practice their beliefs. A grant was given to Lord Baltimore for the charter of Maryland Lord Baltimore issued the Toleration Act to keep peace between the Catholics and Protestants.


Toleration Act- This law guaranteed all Christians the right to worship as they pleased. It did not include tolerance for other religious groups such as Jews.


The two Carolinas


North Carolina- was settled mostly by people from Virginia- looked for land to grow tobacco and corn. From the rich forest of North Carolina- they produced lumber, tar, pitch and turpentine for ship building.

South Carolina- learns to grow indigo- a plant that produces a blue rye, and rice. Rice plantation required many workers. Slaves were brought into South Carolina.


Georgia- the last English colony founded in America- Georgia-was very unique. Georgia proprietor, General James Oglethorpe became interested in helping London’s poor while investigating the conditions in debtor’s prison. Thousands of English men, women and children were in prison, most owing small amounts of money Oglethorpe decided to start a colony to give such people a second chance. While Oglethorpe was worried about the poor, the King wanted a buffer between South Carolina and Spanish troops in Florida.



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