The Civil War summary



The Civil War summary


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The Civil War summary


Chapter 11 Review

American History


Fort Sumter:

  1. A Union fort that was strategically located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina.
  2. After Southern states seceded from the Union they needed the fort to control access to the cities port.
  3. In early March of 1861, the Commander of the fort notified Washington that they desperately needed supplies.
    1. If not they would soon fall to the Confederates.
  4. The North wanted to keep the fort.
    1. If they lost the fort they saw it as an admission that South Carolina was really out of the Union.
  5. Lincoln was hesitant to use force to keep Fort Sumter.
    1. Feared the reaction of the eight slave states that were still part of the Union.
      1. Several of these states said they would secede also if Lincoln used force against the Confederacy.
  1. Lincoln decided to resupply the fort.
    1. Used the logic that if the Confederates fired on unarmed supply ships they would be the aggressors not the Union.
    2. Sent a message to the South Carolina governor that a supply ships, not troops or arms, was on its way to Fort Sumter.
      1. The message was passed on to the local military commander of the Confederate army.
        1. He ordered the federal troops to evacuate the fort.
          1. Major Anderson refused.
  1. On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces opened fire on Fort Sumter.
    1. The fort was bombarded for 34 hours.



      1.   Anderson was forced to surrender when

      most of the fort was on fire and their

      ammunition was running low.    

  1. On April 15th, Lincoln publicly announced that a rebellion existed.
    1. Asked the governors of the loyal states to provide a militia of 75, 000 men to serve for three months.
  2. The fall of Fort Sumter is considered the first battle of the Civil War.


Anaconda Plan:

        1.    The Unions military plan for the Civil War.

                         a.    A three part strategy.

                                          i.          Capture Richmond, the Confederate


  1. Gain control of the Mississippi River
  2. Institute a naval blockade of the South.
    1. This was important because the South depended on foreign markets to sell cotton and buy supplies.

                        b.   Most of the strategy relied on geography.


Bull Run:

  1. There were two battles fought near this creek about 25 miles outside of Washington D.C.
    1. Also known as the Battle of Manassas by the Confederates.
    2. On July 21, 1861, approximately 35,000 Confederate met with Union forces near Manassas Junction.
      1. A railroad crossing.
      2. Confederates dug in on the high ground behind the creek.
    1. The first battle of the day went in the Union’s favor.
      1. The left flank of the Confederate line almost broke.
        1. General Stonewall Jackson and his men stopped the Union line.
        2. Union army retreated back toward Washington.
  1. Many civilians went to watch the battle from their Washington D.C.  and surrounding area homes.
    1. Brought picnics and made it a social event.
    2. Once the fight began and began moving toward their location panic and a mass retreat occurred.
  2. The Confederate army failed to follow the retreating Union army at Bull Run.
    1. They were disorganized and too tired to go after the Union troops.
    2. If they had pursued them there was a possibility that Washington might have been captured.
  3. This battle made everyone realize that the war would last longer than a few months.
    1. Each side began to train their forces for battle and develop strategy plans.
  4. The battles most important consequences were psychological.
    1. The North was shamed and shocked.
  5. The second battle at Bull Run took place in August of 1862.
    1. Another clear victory for the Confederates.



        1.    Took place in Tennessee near the Mississippi state line in 1862.

                        a.   Union General Ulysses S. Grant had stopped near

                             Shiloh Church after capturing two important

                              Confederate forts on the Tennessee and Cumberland


    1. Grant new that two Confederate armies were at Corinth, Mississippi but did not expect them to attack.
      1. Grant and his men were caught by surprise on April 6, 1862 when thousands of Confederate soldiers rushed them.
        1. Grant was pushed back to the Tennessee River by the end of the day.

         2.    Early the next morning Grant launched an attack on the

                Confederate army that had overrun them the day before.

  1. The Battle of Shiloh lasted until the middle of the afternoon.

                                     i.     Grant had been successful in stopping the

                                             Confederate army and forced them to


  1. Both sides had huge casualties.

                                     i.    The Union had more than 13,000

      1. The Confederates had more than 10,000.
        1. Including General Albert Sidney Johnston. 


  1. Battle took place in September of 1862 at Antietam Creek on the Virginia, Maryland border.
  2. Lee began crossing the Potomac into Maryland with approximately 55,000 troops hoping for a major victory in the North.
    1. Troop numbers dropped to approximately 50,000 over the next few days.
      1. His men were hungry, tired and sick.
  1. The Union army had lost track of Lee for four days.
    1. Things changed when a soldier found a copy of Lee’s battle plans wrapped around a pack of cigars.
    2. General McClellan and approximately 75, 000 Union troops acted on the information and met Lee at Antietam Creek.
  2. The Battle of Antietam lasted all day.
    1. Became one of the bloodiest battles of the war.
      1. Confederates suffered more than 13, 000 casualties
      2. Union suffered more than 12,000 casualties.
  1. Antietam was not a clear-cut union victory.
    1. Lee withdrew to Virginia raised the North’s confidence.
      1. Proved that Lee could be beaten
      2. South lost any hope of getting any support form European countries.
        1. They did not want to risk backing a loser.
  1. McClellan’s failure to go after Lee’s army resulted in his being fired by President Lincoln.


Fort Pillow:

        1.     A Union fort in Tennessee.

        2.     Fort had both white and black soldiers assigned to the fort.

        3.     In 1864, Confederate troops attacked the Henning, Tennessee

                Fort which was located on the Mississippi River.

                       a.     Their goal was to take out the Unions supplies and

                              and communication lines.

  1. After overtaking the fort, Confederate soldiers killed over 200 African-American soldiers that were prisoners of war.
    1. The battle was labeled a massacre following the testimony of survivor’s testimony to a congressional sub committee.



  1. Lee decided to try another invasion into the North following his victory at Chancellorsville.
    1. Felt it would be an opportunity to resupply and feed his troops at the expense of the Northerners.
      1. Take what he needed from the enemy.
  2. Lee crossed into Pennsylvania with approximately 75,000 troops in June of 1863.
    1. Moved near the town of Gettysburg by the end of June.
      1. A scout reported that there was a supply of shoes in the town.
      2. A raiding party was formed to get much needed shoes for the troops.
  3. Lee and the Confederates did not know that two Union brigades were positioned on high ground northwest of Gettysburg.
    1. The Confederate raiding party was met with Union fire on July 1, 1863.
  4. The first day of fighting in the Battle of Gettysburg allowed the Confederates to push the Union line back to an area called Cemetery Ridge.
    1. Confederates held Seminary Ridge located about ½ mile form the Union lines.
      1. Having the lower ground, Lee knew there was going to be more fighting.
  5. Lee attacked the Union on its left side on July 2nd.
    1. Tried without success to capture a hill called Little Round Top.
  6. On July 3rd, Lee ordered approximately 15,000 mend to rush the center of the Union army on Cemetery Ridge.
    1. He lost half the men he sent to take the ridge.
  7. The Battle of Gettysburg has staggering numbers of casualties on both sides.
    1. After three days of fighting:
      1. Union army casualties numbered more than 23,000.
      2. The Confederate casualties numbered more than 20,000.
  8. The Union army was the victor, but again failed to end the war with this opportunity.


Battle of Chancellorsville:

  1. Battle took place near Chancellorsville, Virginia beginning on April 30, 1863.
  2. The battle was part of a plan introduced by General Joseph Hooker to crush Lee’s forces.
    1. He proposed to divide his army into three parts to cut off Lee’s supply lines and attack from both flanks.
  3. Hooker took his 134,000 force to position his men in a deep forest near Chancellorsville.
  4. Lee outmaneuvered Hooker when he divides his troops.
    1. Sent Stonewall Jackson and approximately 30,000 men through the forest to outflank Hooker.
      1. Hooker saw the troop movement as a sign of retreat by the Confederates.
    2. Lee and Jackson attacked Hookers forces from two sides.
      1. After several days of fighting Hooker retreated in defeat.
  5. The victory at Chancellorsville was not a great victory.
    1. Stonewall Jackson was shot by one of his centuries while riding back into camp.
      1. Thought Jackson was a Union cavalryman.
      2. Jackson had to have his arm amputated.
        1. Eight days later he died of pneumonia.


Battle of Vicksburg:

  1. Took place in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
    1. Ended the same day the Battle of Gettysburg ended.
  2. Ulysses S. Grant and his army went after the Confederate stronghold at Vicksburg.
    1. The stronghold, one of two, was preventing the Union army from taking complete control of the Mississippi River.
    2. He sent Calvary to destroy the railroad lines in Central Mississippi as a diversion.
      1. Grant then took his infantry south of Vicksburg where he took out two Confederate units and took Jackson, the state capital.
  3. Confident of a victory, he rushed Vicksburg with two frontal assaults.
  4. Grant and his men laid siege on Vicksburg.
    1. His forced the Confederates holding Vicksburg to eat their mules and rats to keep from starving.
    2. Confederates met on July 3, 1863 to discuss the terms of a Confederate surrender.


Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson:

  1. General in the Confederate army.
    1. The leading officer at the Battle of Bull Run and was with Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville and the Seven Days’ Campaign.
  2. Was shot by one of his own soldiers following the battle at Chancellorsville,
    1. Was mistaken as a Union cavalry rider.
    2. Forced to have his arm amputated and later died from pneumonia.
  3. General Lee considered Jackson his most valued General.


George McClellan:

  1. Union army officer and veteran of the Mexican War.
  2. Appointed to lead the Union Army of the Potomac by Lincoln following the Battle of Bull Run.
  3. Known as an extremely cautious man.
    1. Would not move his men until he had trained them for five month.
    2. Lincoln was getting frustrated and impatient with McClellan and finally remarked that he would like to use his army if McClellan wasn’t going to be using them.
  4. McClellan finally began moving his army a few days before the Battle of Shiloh.
    1. Successfully occupied Yorktown, Virginia.
      1. Then slowly marched on Richmond while asking for reinforcements.
    2. McClellan suffered a series of defeats and one draw.
      1. Lincoln ordered his army back to Washington D.C.
      2. Washington unofficially removed McClellan of his command and gave it to General John Pope.
        1. After his failure Lincoln placed McClellan back as head of the Army of the Potomac.
  5. McClellan became bold when he learned of Lee’s plans to cross the Potomac River into Maryland when a solder found Lee’s plans wrapped around cigars.
    1. Caught up with Lee and won a Union victory at the Battle of Antietam but failed to go after the retreating Confederate army.
      1. Result was Lincoln firing him permanently.


Ulysses S. Grant:

         1.     General in the Union army and the head of the troops in the

                 Western conflict.

         2.     He was a West Point graduate.

         3.     A failure at anything he tried as a civilian, but a decisive

                 military commander.

  1. Fought in the western conflicts of Shiloh and Vicksburg.
  2. Appointed as commander of the Union army in 1864.
    1. His was a strong war strategist.
      1.  His plan was to immobilize Lee’s army in Virginia.
      2. Have General Sherman raid Georgia.
  3. Was the Union general that met Lee at Appomattox Court House, Virginia for the terms of the Confederate surrender at the end of the Civil War.


David G. Farragut:

  1. A veteran of the War of 1812, and the Mexican War.
  2. Went to sea at the age of ten and worked his way up to becoming a Captain in the United States Navy.
  3. Known as a careful observer and long term planner.
    1. Never entered a port without memorizing its statistics and its defenses.
  4. Was sixty years old at the beginning of the Civil War.
    1. Considered a Northerner in spirit and a Southerner by birth.
    2. Called to serve the Union army in 1862 after being retired.
      1. He commanded the blockade of the Gulf of Mexico and capture the port of New Orleans.
  5. Defeated the Confederate fleet by smashing through the Confederates underwater barrier and engaging in a fight.
    1. Used the same tactics at Port Hudson and helped Grant capture Vicksburg.
  6. His greatest victory of the war was is capture of Mobile, Alabama, the Confederates last port on the Gulf. in 1864.
    1. Farragut moved his flagship past artillery fire from the Confederate forts in Mobile Bay and destroyed the remaining Confederate navy.
  7. In 1866, Congress created the rank of full admiral for him.


Robert E. Lee:

  1. Commander of the Confederate army in the Civil War.
  2. Opposed succession, but joined the Confederate army out of loyalty to Virginia.
    1. Turned down Lincoln’s offer to be commissioned as head of the Union army.
  3. Known for being bold and imaginative.
    1.  Directed many of the most brilliant military movements of the war.
  4. Very well respected and liked by other officers and soldiers.
  5. Graduated second in his class from West Point.
  6. Served in the Mexican War
  7. Was in charge of the troops that stopped John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
  8.  Fought in many of the major battles of the Civil War.
    1. Second Battle of Bull Run
    2. Battle of Antietam
    3. Battle of Gettysburg
    4. Battle of Chancellorsville
  9. Lee surrendered his troops to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House which ended the Civil War on April 7, 1865.
    1. This was after Richmond, Virginia fell into Union armies hands on April 2, 1865.


Clara Barton:

  1. A Union nurse during the Civil War.
    1. One of the few women to go directly to the front lines to work.
      1. Dug bullets out of the wounded with a penknife.
    2. Collected and distributed supplies and had to pass through enemy lines to get them to troops.
    3. Had an excellent ability to anticipate troop movements.
      1. Often time she would arrive at the battlefields before the troops.
  2. A field surgeon described her as the “angle of the battlefield.”
  3. Founded the American Red Cross


William Tecumseh Sherman:

  1. Union general during the Civil War.
  2. Often considered a match to Grant in determination.
  3. Known to be brilliant, ambitious and moody.
  4. Fought at Vicksburg and other battles.
    1. As a reward Grant made Sherman the Commander of the Tennessee army.
  5. Sherman moves his 100,000 men out of Tennessee and moved on Atlanta, Georgia in May of 1864.
    1. Confederate army fell back as he entered Atlanta in September of 1864.
      1. Captured the city.
        1. Ordered the city evacuated and burned a major portion of it.
    2. Sherman had cut the only Confederate railroad link across the Appalachian Mountains.
  6. From Atlanta, Sherman marched toward Savannah, Georgia.
    1. Cut off from major supply lines, he had his men steal what supplies they needed.
    2. Destroyed anything he felt might be useful to the Confederates during his march leaving nearly stripped a line 60 miles wide and almost 300 miles long...
      1. Uprooted crops
      2. Burned farmhouses
      3. Slaughtered livestock
      4. Tore up railroad tracks
  7. Much of Sherman’s destructive march exceeded his orders it became part of his tactic of fighting a total war.
    1. Believed that to win the Union had to strike the enemies economic resources.
  8. Reached Savannah on December 10, 1864.
    1. He was resupplied by the Union navy and then turned north to meet up with Grant.



          1.     A Union ironclad ship. 

          2.     The ship was a steam driven ship with ironplate armor on

                   the ship.

          3.      The first ship to have a revolving gun turret

          4.      Met up in 1862 with the confederate ironclad off the

                   southeast coast of Virginia.

    1. Was a part of the first navel battle in American history between two ironclads.



  1. An ironclad that was captured by the Confederacy.
    1. Renamed the Virginia.
  2. Took part in the first ironclad sea battle with the Union ironclad Monitor.
    1. Battle ended in a draw, but the Virginia had to go to Norfolk for repairs.


Emancipation Proclamation:

  1. Lincoln lacked the constitutional authority to abolish slavery.
    1. As commander in chief he did have the authority to institute military measures.
      1. Informed his cabinet  that he planned to issue a new military order.
  2. Announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
    1. By a certain date, all slaves living in areas still rebelling against the United States would be free.
      1. To reassure constitutional concerns, he assured them this step would only apply to states belonging to the Confederacy.
        1. This assurance stopped any concerns about the status of slaves in the border states.
  3. Lincoln was advised by his Secretary of State William H. Seward to keep the Emancipation Proclamation a secret until there was a major Union victory.
    1. Came on September 17, 1862 at Antietam.
  4. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued a preliminary draft of the proclamation .
    1. It would go into effect at the beginning of 1863.
  5. It would take more than three years after the Proclamation was issued for slavery to be abolished.
  6. The Emancipation Proclamation brought a decisive change in the war.
    1. Slavery became an issue.
    2. Slaves left their masters to join the Union army.


Habeas Corpus:

         1.     A court order that requires authorities to bring an individual

                 in jail before a court to determine why the individual is being


  1. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus to deal with the Confederate sympathizers in the Union.
    1. They were to be held without a trial.
      1. This included Copperheads.
    2. Thousands of Copperheads and other opponents of the war were arrested and held with a trial.
      1. Some arrests were justified for participating in the draft riots.
  2. Lincoln’s decision to suspend the writ of  habeas corpus expanded presidential powers during wartime.
    1. Jefferson Davis denounced Lincoln’s methods of quieting sympathizers, but did the same thing in the Confederacy in 1862.



          1.      Northerners that advocated peace with the south.

                         a.    Majority of them actively interfered with the war


                                i.     Most limited their antiwar activities  to

                                                  speeches and newspaper articles.

          2.      Most famous Copperhead was Democratic Congressman

                   from Ohio, Clement Villandigham.

    1. He was tried and convicted by a military court for urging  Union soldiers to desert.
    2. He publicly advocated for an armistice.

          3.Most limited their antiwar activities  to speeches and newspaper articles.



  1. Another name for a military draft.
  2. Invoked by both the Union and Confederacy.
    1. Due to the large number of casualties and deserters.
  3. This draft required certain members of the population to serve in the army.
    1. Confederacy passed the law in 1862.
      1. Required white males between the ages of 17 and 50 to join.
      2. Allowed slaveholders of 20 or more slaves exempt
      3. Allowed any man who was draft age to hire someone else to fight in his place.
    2. The Union passed the draft law in 1863.
      1. Required white males between the ages of 25 and 45 to fight for 3 years.
      2. Like the South, men could hire substitutes to take their place or pay the government $300 to avoid the draft.
    3. The Union draft caused a riot in New York in 1863.
      1. Approximately 100 died.
      2. The poor, and immigrants felt it was unfair to fight for the freedom of slaves.
        1. When they were free they would be competing for their jobs.
  4. The draft in both governments was considered unfair.
    1. The military became disproportionately poor with the rich being able to pay their way out of fighting.


Income Tax:

         1.     This tax was first authorized by Congress in 1863.

                          a.    Passed to help pay for the war.

                          b.    Levied a 5% tax on incomes between $600 and

                                $5,000 and 10% on incomes over $5,000.

         2.     Congress also believed that with the economy booming due to

                 the war they should tap into industries huge profits.



          1.      Confederate prisoner of war camp near Andersonville,


    1. Considered to have the worst living conditions of  any prisoner of war camp in the Civil War.
      1. Interred  more than 33, 000 men into 26 acres to live.
      2. Prisoners had no shelter from the elements provided.
        1. Created shelters from materials they had.
      3. Their access to drinking water was also their sewer and those of the prison guards.

iv.     The South had a food shortage and the 

          camp was unable to feed its prisoners.

      b.     Approximately 1/3 of all its prisoners died in the


         4.    The Commander of the camp was the only man to be

                 tried for war crimes and executed.

                             a.   His name was Captain Henry Weirz.

                             b.   Described as a brutal man toward the prisoners.


Gettysburg Address:

        1.     President Lincoln helped dedicate a cemetery at the

                Gettysburg battlefield in November of 1863.

                              a.   Edward Everett of Massachusetts was the main

                                     speaker at the dedication.

                                              i.    Spoke for two hours

        2.     Lincoln gave a brief speech that lasted about two minutes.

                                a.   His words were eloquent statement of democratic             



Appomattox Court House:

         1.     On April 2, 1865, Grant closed in on Lee as he withdrew from

                  Richmond, Virginia.

    1. Lee’s army was ½ of Grants and knew his army would not survive another summer like that in 1864.
    2. Moral was very low.

         i.     Tried to make a run to the west in

                 hopes of joining more troops.

                         1.    His escape was cut off by


        2.     Lee asked for terms of  surrender and met with Grant in the

                village of Appomattox Court House.

  1. The terms of surrender were worked out between the two of them.
  2. Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865.



Northern Advantages going into the Civil War:

  1. Had a population of 22 million people.
  2. Had over 85% of the nation’s industries.
  3. Almost all the known supplies of metals
    1. Gold
    2. Iron
    3. Copper
  4. Most of the nation’s railroad lines were in the Northeast.
    1. Produced most of the nation’s railway equipment.
  5. A strong navy.


Southern Advantages going into the Civil War:

  1. Had to fight a defensive war.
    1. Protect its territory until the North tired of the struggle.
  2. Had an excellent military leadership.
  3. Motivated to defend their way of life.
  4. Had money from the sale of cotton
  5. Strong military tradition.


Confederate Weaknesses going into the Civil War:

  1. Did not have a strong central government.
  2. Had limited access to railroads
  3. Had few factories to create military supplies
  4. Had no navy to start.
  5. Cash crops were their main crop, so food was going to be scare.


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The Civil War summary

US History to 1877 - Civil War Flashcards

The North and South disagreed over many things, but the biggest issue  dividing the nation and leading to the Civil War was:


The North was mainly an _____ society in which people held jobs.


The South was primarily an __________ society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations.


What are tariffs?

Taxes on imported goods

Who wanted tariffs, the North or the South?

The North

Why did the North want tariffs on imported goods?

To protect factory owners and workers from foreign competition

Why did the South oppose tariffs?

Tariffs would cause prices of goods to increase. 

Another major conflict between the North and South was the issue of states’ rights vs. _____.

strong central government

Name 3 issues that divided the North and the South?

1. slavery;
2. tariffs;
3. cultural differences (urban society vs. agricultural society);
4. states' rights vs. strong central government

The North believed that the nation was a union and:

could not be divided.

Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law _______.


Northerners believed that the national government’s power was:

supreme over that of the states

Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their region's:

agricultural economy

Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished because it was:

 morally wrong.

Name 3 compromises that attempted to resolve differences over slavery in new states joining the Union.

Missouri Compromise (1820);
Compromise of l850;
Kansas-Nebraska Act

What was the result of the Missouri Compromise (1820)?

Missouri entered the Union as a slave state; Maine, as a free state.

What was the result of the Compromise of l850?

California would be a free state. The Southwest territories would decide about slavery themselves.

What was the result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

People in these territories would decide the slavery issue by popular vote ("popular sovereignty").

The purpose of the 3 compromises was :

to keep the number of slave and free states equal so neither side would gain control of Congress.

What happened after Lincoln became president?

The southern states seceded from the Union

 What event marked the beginning of the Civil War?

Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina

Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be:

separated or divided

Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union,  and could therefore:

freely leave it

The states that seceded from the Union favored slavery because they were:

dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops

Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Virginia
What did these states do?

They seceded from the Union

Which four slave states stayed in the Union?


The four slave states that stayed in the Union were called:

Border states

Western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union formed:

the state of West Virginia

During the Civil war, Abraham Lincoln was:


Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to:

free the slaves

Lincoln was determined to ________, by force if necessary.


preserve the Union

Lincoln believed the United States was one nation, not a:

collection of independent states

Who wrote the Gettysburg Address?


In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln said that said the Civil War was being fought to preserve a government:

“of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

Who was president of the Confederate States of America?

Jefferson Davis

Who was general of the Union army that defeated Lee?

Ulysses S. Grant

Who was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia?

Robert E. Lee

Who was offered command of the Union forces at the beginning of the war but chose not to fight against Virginia?

Robert E. Lee

At the end of the war, what did Lee urge Southerners to do?

Lee urged Southerners to accept defeat and reunite as Americans, even though some Southerners wanted to keep fighting.

How were Lincoln and Lee's views about the Union the same and how did they differ?

Both wanted to preserve the Union, but Lincoln was willing to do it by force, and Lee did not think the Union should be held together by force.

Who was Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson?

A skilled Confederate general from Virginia who played a big role in the First Battle of Bull Run.

Who was Frederick Douglass?

A former slave who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist

What event began the Civil War?

The firing on Fort Sumter, S.C.

What was the first major battle of the Civil War?

 The first Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

What was an important result of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation?

It made “freeing the slaves” the new focus of the war.  Many freed slaves joined the Union army.

What was the result of the  Battle of Vicksburg?

The North got control of the Mississippi River.   This divided the South in two parts.

What battle was considered the turning point of the war?

The Battle of Gettysburg, where the North repelled Lee’s invasion.

What happened at Appomattox Court House in 1865?

Lee’s surrender to Grant ended the war

Describe life and conditions on the battlefield?

Extremely harsh; many died from disease and exposure.

What hardships were experienced during the Civil War?

·     Families and friends were often pitted against one another.

·     Disease was a major killer.
·     Combat was brutal and often man-to-man.

What was women's role in the war?

Women were left to run businesses in the North and farms and plantations in the South.

Who was the Civil War nurse, who created the American Red Cross?

Clara Barton

What was the condition of the South at the end of the war?

Much of the South was destroyed by the end of the war. Richmond and Atlanta had were burned.
Confederate money was worthless.

What was the role of African Americans in the Civil War?

They fought in both the Confederate and Union armies.

How were African American Soldiers treated?

• African American soldiers were paid less than white soldiers.
• African American soldiers were discriminated against and served in segregated units under the command of white officers.

A brave and heroic  African American sailor and later a Union naval captain who became a Congressman after the Civil War was:

Robert Smalls

 Which amendments were added to the  Constitution after the war to address the issues of slavery and guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens?

The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

Which amendment banned slavery?

The 13th Amendment

Which amendment granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guaranteed them equal protection under the law?

The 14th Amendment

Which amendment insured all citizens the right to vote regardless of race or color or previous condition of servitude?

The 15th Amendment

What do the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments do?

They guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.

The period after the Civil War is called:


What were some Reconstruction policies?

Northern soldiers supervised the South and Southern military leaders could not hold office.

African Americans gained equal rights and some held public office.

What was the purpose of Civil Rights Act of 1866?

It gave equal rights to African Americans

What were some of the problems created by Reconstruction policies?

The Reconstruction policies were harsh and created resentment.

Southerners resented northern “carpetbaggers"



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The Civil War summary and notes

Civil War Notes (Chapter 11)



-Fought 1861-1865

-Fought between the United States of America & the Confederate States of America

    • USA also known as- Union, North, or Yankees
    • Confederate States of America also known as- Confederacy, South, or Rebels

-North wore blue; South wore gray

-Washington, D.C, -North Capital; Richmond, VA- South Capital

-Civil War goes by many names:

  • The War Between the States
  • The War for Southern Independence
  • The War of Northern Aggression
  • The War Between the Blue and the Gray
  • Freedom War 


States Involved

            -The Border States were states that had slaves but stayed in the Union:

  • Maryland
  • Delaware
  • Kentucky
  • Missouri

-Lincoln wanted to keep these states in the Union since he thought their location and industries were vital to the North’s successes

-The South consisted of the following states:

  • South Carolina
  • Mississippi
  • Florida
  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Texas
  • Virginia
  • Arkansas
  • Tennessee
  • North Carolina

-The North consisted of all other existing states of time, including the newly formed West Virginia


Causes of War

  • Disagreement over slavery
  • Disagreement over State’s rights vs. power of the Federal Government
  • Election of Lincoln-South felt they had no political power
  • Economic differences between the North & South
  • Firing on Fort Sumter


Civil War Figures

  • Jefferson Davis
    • President of the Confederacy
    • Did not raise enough $ for the Confederacy, but did raise a formidable army
    • Was imprisoned for treason for about a year after the war, but was eventually released
  • Clara Barton
    • Worked during the Civil War to collect and distribute supplies
    • Founder of the American Red Cross
  • Ulysses S. Grant
    • Commander of the Union army
    • Was known for his brutal fighting tactics; would do anything to win and achieve unconditional surrender (“The Butcher”)
    • Later became 18th president
  • Abraham Lincoln
    • Elected as 1st Republican President in 1860; began term in March 1861
    • Was president during the Civil War-his original goal was to preserve the Union
    • Issued “The Emancipation Proclamation” which freed all slaves in rebellion states (not slaves in border states) and gave a moral purpose to the war (Jan 1, 1863)
    • Wrote/ read “The Gettysburg Address” to commemorate loss at Gettysburg; also stated Union worth fighting for (Nov 1863)
    • Re-elected in Nov. 1864; began term in March 1865
    • Lincoln believed in peace & forgiveness towards the South 
    • April 14, 1865- Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated; he was killed by John Wilkes Booth (Southern supporter) in Ford’s Theater; VP Andrew Johnson became president
  • Robert E. Lee
    • Famous military family; went to West Point
    • Was considered to be the best General of the day; Lincoln asked him to lead Union army, but Lee turned him down when VA seceded
    • Proved to be a brilliant general- however, the lack of supplies, materials, and men lead to defeat
    • After war, his plantation became Arlington National Cemetery; Lee became president of Washington College in Lexington, VA (today Washington & Lee University)
  • Frederick Douglass
    • Born a slave, but was educated
    • Meet with Lincoln; helped persuade him to issue “The Emancipation Proclamation”
    • Campaigned for use of African American soldiers
    • Continued to fight for equality and civil rights for African Americans after the war 
  • David Farragut
    • Life-long member of the Navy
    • Fought for North
    • Most famous naval commander of the era
    • Had many naval triumphs; helped to capture the Mississippi River
  • George McClellan
    • Union general at start of war; at battle of Antietam
    • Fired by Lincoln for being too indecisive
  • William Tecumseh Sherman
    • General for North
    • Used total warfare- path of destruction through the South-destroyed farms, food, railroads, schools, buildings, etc. (Sherman’s March)- Civilians were also targeted with this strategy

Key Battles

  • Fort Sumter
    • Union controlled fort in port of Charleston, S.C.
    • First shots of the war 
    • No one killed during shooting, but six killed during accidental explosion
  • 1st Battle of Bull Run
    • Stonewall Jackson received his nickname
    • South won & believed they had won the war; many soldiers went home
  • Shiloh
    • 25,000 casualties
    • Showed how bloody the war would be
    • Taught generals the importance of strategy- digging trenches, sending scouts, & building fortifications
  • Antietam
    • Bloodiest single-day battle in American history (26,000 casualties)
  • Gettysburg
    • Lee decided to press his advantage and invade North; also wanted supplies
    • Lee did not have Stonewall Jackson- he died after the battle of Chancellorsville
    • 3 day battle fought on July 1, 2, & 3, 1863
    • Turning point of the war- Lee never had enough men to invade North- was on defensive; lost men he could never replace
    • Bloodiest Battle in American history- Union=23,000; Confederacy=28,000
  • Vicksburg
    • City on the MS River-last holdout preventing Union from controlling river
    • Battle ended on July 4, 1863 after a month-long siege
    • Confederacy was cut into 2
  • Fighting in Virginia
    • May 1864 to June 1865
    • Fighting in wilderness of Virginia
    • High losses for both sides- South could not replace the men lost


Strengths of the North

  • Large population due to immigration
  • 90% of the country’s industry and factories
  • More railroads 


Strengths of the South

  • Superior military leadership
  • Most of war fought in South- home field advantage
  • More of a reason to fight



    • Located in Georgia; Union prisoners were kept in this camp
    • 12,000 died out of 45,000- no food, shelter, clean water lead to disease/death
    • Henry Wirz, camp commander, only person to be executed as a war criminal


African Americans & the Military

  • Allowed to join Union army after the Emancipation Proclamation
  • Put in segregated units, had higher mortality rates, & paid less



  • April 9, 1865
  • Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia; the South had run out of men & supplies- Sherman’s March had wrecked complete havoc on South
  • Unconditional surrender- South had to give up completely


Effects of War

Political Change:

  • 13th Amendment- ended slavery in entire country; 14th Amendment- made former slaves citizens; 15th Amendment- gave African American Males the right to vote
  • Federal government- proven to be the most powerful gov’t; never again is secession attempted; income tax also adds to power of federal gov’t.

Economic Change:

  • Total destruction of the South- economy ruined by very high inflation (money worthless); Sherman’s March destroyed physical landscape; much of the population killed; South’s economy takes decades to recover
  • The North’s economy grew and North became wealthy

Technological Change:

  • Weapons become more deadly
  • New military strategies developed (trenches)

Social Change

  • 4 million freed slaves
  • Terrible loss of life
  • Family life very disrupted
  • Many men were amputees/disabled


Major Issues after War:

  • Integration of the 4 million newly freed slaves into society
  • Restoration of Southern states to the Union


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