The Glory of Rome summary and notes



The Glory of Rome summary and notes


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The Glory of Rome summary and notes


Ancient Rome:

The Glory of Rome


I.                   Geography:

A.     Peninsula of Italy

B.     Geographical relationship to Africa, Mediterranean and Mesopotamia.

C.     Climate: Sub tropical

D.    River systems? Not the factor they were in Ancient times pre-Hellenic

E.      Barriers: Alps, Apennines, Po Valley

F.      Mountains and the African bias of Rome? 

G.     Comparison to Greece?

H.    Farmland?


II.                The Early Latin Peoples: The Etruscans: and the conquest of the Peninsula

A.     Time frame: 1200-750

B.     Another of the Indo-European groups that makes how many?

C.     Greek immigration sped up the development of this region-post Dark Age migrations to the region.

D.    We know little about the Etruscans, some of their traits?

                                                              i.      Skillful metallurgists

                                                           ii.      Avid traders, odd we don’t know more?

                                                         iii.      Confederacy of cities.

                                                          iv.      Took over Rome

                                                            v.      Contributes to the mythical foundation of Rome

1.       Romulus and Remus: twin brothers fought over the name…1 guess as to who won, and who lost.

                                                          vi.      Contributed to Roman alphabet

                                                       vii.      Received much from the Greeks including philosophy, alphabet and Religion.

                                                     viii.      Much of Rome comes from its Etruscan roots, great temples and Forums.

                                                         ix.      Made Rome into a city.

E.      Rome expels Etruscan king: Tarquin the Proud in 509 BCE.  Probably in response to a scandalous event known as the Rape of Lucretia.

F.      Beginnings of numerous conflicts, in large response to the Etruscan way of lifestyle, enamored with love, beauty and violence…traits that Rome will adopt as their own.

G.     The in fighting between them caused and perpetuated the Roman traditional love of violence.  See…Coliseum.

H.    Roman alliances with towns throughout the Latium region gave them the strength needed to defeat the Etruscans.

I.       Romans power and development slow, and in fact will not dispel the Etruscans out until a century after their rise to power.

J.       Rome power and battle with Etruscans slowed in 390 when the Celts or Gauls from Northern Europe sacked Rome and insisted on a hefty ransom of 10,000 lbs of Gold!

K.     Rome learned lessons from the Celtic conquest—mobilized their forces into mobile units called legions.

L.      Rome defeated the Etruscans eventually and faced a stiff challenge from the Samnites who were a formidable foe but who were less organized than their Roman counterparts.  The Peninsula was largely under Roman control.

M.   Rome shared in its empirical (not the thought process but the “empire”) glory with other cities in Latium, unlike the classical Athenians and Spartans.

N.     Granted the privilege of Roman citizenship to many.


III.             Stage II: Roman Republic

A.     Stage I: Pre-Roman, the confusing mosaic of civilizations in the peninsula.

B.     Italy in Stage II became a partnership, proved superior to the Polis by learning from the Persians and offering the gifts of sharing to its people.  Rome could consolidate as opposed to dominant a reason it lasted for close to 2,000 years in one form or another.  Greeks like a bright light in the sky that vanishes, Rome like a star.

C.     Roman Politics: “The Roman Senate and its People”.  Romans are crucial to the development of the modern political states that currently exist.

                                                              i.      Geniuses in the field of law and politics

                                                           ii.      Didn’t speculate Rome was into practicality find something that works and perfect it, big difference from the Greeks.  Focused not on the ideals of political philosophy, rather they applied much of the thought process synthesized by the Greeks by developing practical institutions and legal concepts.

                                                         iii.      This is one of the reasons not only for the stability and longevity of Ancient Rome but also its dynamic nature.

D.    Early political power lay in the hands of the aristocracy or Patricians, whereas the lower class or “Plebians” struggled to gain equality through political reform.  Clans were formed to consolidate power.

E.      Greatest institution: the Senate, which originated under the Etruscans and a council of elders who advised the King.

                                                              i.      Senate could not pass legislation it could only advise, but this advice gradually gained the force of law.

                                                           ii.      Patricians dominated these legal societies until 471 BC with the creation of the Concilium Plebis or the Plebian Council gained the right to meet and pass ordinances.

                                                         iii.      Chief Magistrates (exec. Leaders) were elected to 1-year terms at first only open to patricians, later relaxed.

                                                          iv.      366 BC expanded executive to include Praetors or fill in consuls, dealt with the administration of justice.  Declared means by which the law was interpreted in their eyes.  These later became regional governors in the age of Roman conquest.

F.      Development of Law-key Roman achievement.  Began as a set of rules that regulated the lives and relations of citizens.  This civil law consisted of statues, customs and forms of procedure.  Roman assemblies added to the body of law and were interpreted by Praetors.  The body of law grew as legislation from legislative bodies was added.

                                                              i.      As the empire grew it became necessary to settle disputes amongst foreign groups and the Roman citizens.

                                                           ii.      Judicial significance of Praetors became evident as their decisions began to add to the concepts of Roman law-precedent.

                                                         iii.      Development of two types of law: People Law (ius Gentium) and Natural Law (a concept later expanded by John Locke-ius Naturale)

                                                          iv.      Struggle of the orders-developed between the classes, plebians wanted political representation and safeguards against patrician abuse.  Key was the advent of the Roman Empire and the rise in significance of the Plebians in the Military.

1.       First showdown: 494 BC Plebians seceded from the state!  Literally walked out of Rome and refused to work or fight.  As a result concessions were made.  Patricians four years later passed the Lex Canuleia-allowed for inter marriage between the groups.  Plebians also gained the right to elect their own officials-Tribunes.  They in turn protected the plebians from the arbitrary conduct of the patrician magistrates. 

2.       Much of Roman history and modern political systems forged out of the conflict between these two groups.

3.       Next step equalizing the law.  Only patricians interpreted the law, they were the only ones with access to the courts.  The plebians wanted a codified, equalized system of laws.  They got there wish-The Twelve Tables.

4.       367 BC a joint effort gained plebians the right to one of the two consuls who ruled Rome.

5.       Struggle of the Orders finally ended in 287 with the passage of the lex Hortensia-gave plebian council the force of law for all in society.  All citizens were now equal under the law.


IV.              The Age of Overseas Conquest: 282-146 BC

A.     Rome embarked on a series of conflicts making it the ruler of the Mediterranean world.  Many out of response not greed or indifference to others. 

B.     Samnite War had drawn Rome into the Southern part of Italy in 282 BC they grew alarmed by the surging new city state: Tarentum.  Tarentum realizing the danger called for help to Pyrrhus the king of Eprhrius a relative of Alexander the Great.   Pyrrhus won two key battles but eventually was defeated due to the heavy losses.  By 275 BC the Tarentums were driven from Italy.

C.     Sicily: Carthage could not take the region.  The area-Messena which group that controlled the strait between Italy and Sicily.

                                                              i.      The result the First Punic Wars 264-241 BC-the legendary wars of Ancient Rome.

                                                           ii.      Key to victory the Romans ending their reluctance to build a navy, despite their hatred of the water!  This was the key to the victory.  Emphasized Romans welcoming change as a benefit.

                                                         iii.      Only the beginning

D.    Second Punic War: As Carthage became dominant nearby in Africa (180) and Spain the Romans feared a second conflict.  Their worst nightmares became a reality as the Carthaginians discovered their hero-Hannibal.  An innovator in tactics and a brilliant strategist who rivaled Alexander the Great.

                                                              i.      Defying orders from Rome he took the city of Saguntum the war was on in 218 BC.  This began a spectacular march for Hannibal that saw him nearly take Rome single handedly.  Key victories at: Trebia, Lake Transimene and Cannae.  Spread great devastation in Italy but could not penetrate the three key areas of Latium, Etruria and Samnium.  The practice of granting citizenship was all that saved Rome from devastation.

                                                           ii.      The Roman General Scipio Africanus copied Hannibal’s methods, took Spain and began pillaging the Carthaginian claims.  The Roman navy prevented the Carthaginians from reinforcing Hannibal.  As the Navy brought Scipio to Carthage, Hannibal was recalled to defend Carthage, and was defeated in a battle that changed or preserved forever Western Heritage and Roman History.

E.      Not done yet!  The Third Punic War ended in 146 BC when Scipio’s grandson Scipio Aemilianus defeated and destroyed Carthage and will alter conquer Spain.

F.      Rome turns to the East and the Hellenistic Kingdoms:

                                                              i.      Rome really not interested at first, their hand forced by the Macedonians who made an alliance with Hannibal against Rome.

                                                           ii.      When they defeated the Macedonians, they turned much of the Kingdoms in the East to Roman Provinces.


V.                 The Old Values and Greek Cultural Influences:

Many considered conquering the Mediterranean a misfortune!  See quote on page 182.  Discuss?

End of a simple life, doorsteps to Empire!

Everything had to change, and many viewed these changes as severe!

One answer to this challenge came with embracing the culture of the Greeks. 

Power of the Paterfamilias and familial relations.

Female virtues and duties 183


Farmers utilized animals in their daily lives

Cash crops: wheat and flax

Slavery in Rome: came to Rome via war as prisoners, spoils or tribute.  Their impact on Rome is mountainous.  Slaves came from the Hellenistic East, Africa or Carthage

                                                              i.      Romans did not enslave on the basis of inequality rather it was on the basis of convenience and war.

                                                           ii.      No racial element

                                                         iii.      Manumission the freeing of individual slaves deemed highly talented.  Eventually outlawed due to frequency.

Roman Religion:

                                                              i.      Developed largely out of Etruscan/Greek influence.  Deities took on human form, seemed like rip-offs due to their similarities.

                                                           ii.      Superstitious people who believed in the presence of spirits who could inhabit any corner of your house or a forest.  Needed to be warded off with magic or incantation.

                                                         iii.      Rituals such as those mentioned by Ovid (184)

                                                          iv.      Rituals that influenced the Christians.

Greatness befalls Rome in the midst of its conquest.  As a result Rome became a great city, a glorious city without peer.  Spoils of War led to momentous architectural achievements.  Rome’s responsibility led to their becoming a sophisticated society.  As their society and institutions became more sophisticated they began to adopt Hellenic traditions.

Rome fostered and built upon the Hellenic ideas of the past.  Greek traditions seeped into all aspects of Roman life.  Cultural absorption.

                                                              i.      Paintings copied

                                                           ii.      Histories replicated

                                                         iii.      Poetry emulated

                                                          iv.      Comparison to Mesopotamia?

                                                            v.      Literature started out echoing a Greek voice but, their own voice will be achieved in time.


VI.              The Late Republic: 133-31 BCE

A.     Roman politics and constitution were inadequate given the needs of a large sophisticated state.

B.     Provincial “Republic” administration adopted.

C.     Tax collection

D.    Armies.

E.      Roman Generals and their power becoming a problem, as they were difficult to control.

F.      Economic strains given the endless warfare and lack of infrastructure.

G.     Latifunda state: see US South

H.    Landless men and army, a political force led by Tiberius Gracchus (166-133 BCE).  An aristocrat who was appalled by the land disbursement and the problems of the landless.  Particularly the plight of the legionaires (185)

                                                              i.      Proposed redistribution of land on the basis of need.  Obviously this primitive form of socialism was ill received by those who owned land.

                                                           ii.      Tiberius and his idealism were slain by a group of Senators in 133 BCE-the beginning of a bad trend in Rome.

I.       Gaius Gracchus: took up the cause (153-121 BCE) became more powerful than his less talented brother.  Pushed for help for the poor, send the poor to colonize the tip of Italy.  Release crowding and help poor.  All be granted citizenship.  Senators respond again by killing not only him but 3,000 of his followers.

J.       Gaius Marius: ushers another new age into Roman politics-ushering the landless into the army and creating a volunteer army that was loyal to him and reaped their spoils.  Promised land and wealth to veterans who served with him.  However, the Senate refused to grant his request after the fact setting the stage for Military rebellion and anarchy.  This set off serious disturbances all through out the empire as people fought for citizenship and land.

K.     Sulla brings an end to the chaos, he made himself dictator behind the strength of his powerful army in 88 BCE.  Despite giving up the dictatorship 9 years later he had set Rome on the path towards anarchy, military rebellion, violence and chaos.  The Senate and republican institutions had lost their way.

L.      Late Republic is dominated by dominant military figures and conflict from the likes of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Marc Antony (not the singer).  Cicero the great statesman tried to combat this phase but his words, powerful as they were, fell upon deaf ears.

                                                              i.      Despite his peaceful urges and powerful words, nothing could stop the cycle that had begun.

                                                           ii.      “concord of the others”

M.   Pompey and Caesar possessed the real power in Rome, they along with Crassus formed the first ruling triumvirate.  An agreement between three egotistical powerful military leaders designed to progress each other’s interest…problem?

N.     Longest shadow cast by Caesar whose charisma and bravery were legendary.  Very gifted intellect who won battle after Battle in Spain, and Gaul. 

O.    Civil war in 49 BCE: ego’s take hold after Crassus dies leaving Caesar and Pompey head of a fragile coalition that ended in suspicion and violence.

P.      Caesar victorious in a civil war between the two and will go on to lead Rome to glory implementing very basic programs like those suggested by the Gracchus brothers years before: land reform, public works and colonization.  The advanced citizenship of these colonies was beneficial at tax time.

Q.    His power grew to great as he’ll be assassinated in 44 BCE on the ides of March 3-15 by a group of Senators led by Brutus.

R.     A second Triumvirate would emerge led by his meek 18-year-old adopted grandnephew Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidius (the latter having been Roman military leaders under Caesar.)

S.       Octavian eventually wins the power struggle by raising the fears of people concerning Antony whose torrid affair with the queen of Egypt Cleopatra would make Rome into an Egyptian colony!  Octavian defeats the pair (Cleo and Antony) at the battle of Actium in Greece.  A long period of peace and prosperity to follow: Pax Romana.


VII.           The Pax Romana:

A.     Augustus put an end to civil war and brought about an incredible 45 years of peace.

B.     Faced many difficulties: major one restoring the political identity of Rome vis-à-vis the republic.

C.     Challenges

                                                              i.      Rebuild constitution

                                                           ii.      Rebuild institutions of Government

                                                         iii.      Demobilize army

                                                          iv.      Danger of barbarians (see DBQ for Rome)

                                                            v.      Welfare of provinces.

D.    The leader during the Golden Age

E.      Went against Rome’s desire for change

F.      Senate became more powerful and bureaucratic.  Expected to become more powerful however they didn’t have enough authority given to them.

G.     Challenge: how to restore democracy without losing power: Answer: Princeps Civitatis.  First among equals.

H.    Took supreme control over Military

I.       Did he really restore the republic?  No, he created a constitutional monarchy with some democratic elements.  Something really completely new that has been emulated in places like the United Kingdom.  Carefully kept his real powers in the background presenting the façade of a democracy.

J.       The most powerful consul due to his military presence.

K.     Held the power to cal senate in and out of session, present legislation, had indirectly created the power of emperor.

L.      Frontiers greatest concern-(see first 15 minutes of Gladiator for reference), the barbarians from Europe posed great problems for Rome. (DBQ)  Germanic tribal warriors.

                                                              i.      It was here that his true power and control over the army and their resources made him powerful.

M.   Founded at least 40 new colonies.

N.     Never solved armies influence over Rome long term, they truly controlled state.


VIII.        Administration and Expansion under Augustus (formerly known as Octavian)

A.     Census for purposes of military numbers, taxation, and urban planning.

                                                              i.      Results 70-100 million (28 BC)

                                                           ii.      Census aided Provincial administration

B.     Encouraged local self government and urbanism

C.     Religion-became state sponsored-worship of the goddess Roma.  Method of control and organization.

D.    Momentous achievements to modern times: the civilization of Rome into the wilderness of Northern and Western Europe.

                                                              i.      Pushed the Romans farther into the areas controlled by Germanic barbarians.

                                                           ii.      Key to Europe building.

                                                         iii.      Conquest of Spain, Gaul, founded new towns, roads.

                                                          iv.      Suffered great losses in 9 BC at the Battle of the Teutoburger Forest.  Rhine valley remained a frontier.

                                                            v.      Austria, Bavaria, Hungary, Serbia, and Romania fell.

                                                          vi.      All linked by Roads expanding the empire, increasing Cultural Diffusion and making it easier to govern.

                                                       vii.      Military camps became towns and major cities. 

                                                     viii.      Barbarians came into contact with Hellenistic ideas

                                                         ix.      Constant/systematic barbarian policy.


IX.              Literary Flowering:

A.     Peaceful time brought about great literature

B.     Horace: the poet son of a slave and a tax collector.  Received an excellent education in Athens.  Celebrated Rome’s newly won peace and prosperity.  Celebrated Augustus

C.     Roman poets like Horace emphasized and celebrated the dignity of humanity and the range of its accomplishments. They stressed the physical and emotional joys of a comfortable, peaceful life.  Highly polished, elegant in style and intellectual in conception.

D.    Virgil: Georgics-a celebration of agriculture.

                                                              i.      Masterpiece-Aeneid the epic that is the equivalent of Homeric works.  Founding of Rome by Aeneas-a Hero of Troy

                                                           ii.      Linked legend of Romulus and Aeneas and connected Rome with Greece in literature.

                                                         iii.      Passionate expression of Roman greatness.

E.      Ovid: author of pleasures (later came under fire for “erotic” works which were against the policies of Augustus) and celebrated the culture of the day.  Fasti-festivals of the religious year.  Celebrated the Pax Romana and the greatness and simplicity of Rome.

F.      Livy Rome’s great historian.  From the Founding of the City.  Trained in Greece, he admired the heroes of the past, wrote about Augustus.


X.                 The death of Augustus:

A.     14 BC the age of the Pax Romana will continue but his impact will be deeply felt in all of World History.

B.     Significance on 194 (last 2 paragraphs before Christianity.)


XI.              The coming of Christianity

A.     Pontius Pilate puts the defiant Jesus to death inspiring a new faith.

B.     Roman influence in the Jewish region was anything but peaceful

C.     Augustus treated the Jewish well allowing for them to practice their faith however; they won no prizes by placing the infamous King Herod in power.  Accepted Greek culture as superior to his own, murdered members of his own family.  After his death a great civil war broke out.

D.    Matters controlled by the creation of a Sanhedrin-highest judicial body in the Jewish tradition.

E.      Roman troops and Jewish guerrillas inflamed the anger on both sides, as did the presence of publicans!

F.      Two Jewish movements arose in the time before the death of Christ:

                                                              i.      Zealots: extremists who wanted to rid Judea of the Romans.  So resolute they even refused to pay taxes.  Savage conflict.

                                                           ii.      Messiac: a group that had an apocalyptic sentiment that the end was near and the coming of a Messiah would arrive and save the Jews from the Romans.  This philosophy became more and more common in the wake of the Roman Jewish conflict.

                                                         iii.      John the Baptist and the Essenes movement

G.     Paganism: believers in the Greco-Roman faith.  Three types during this period:

                                                              i.      Roman state religion

                                                           ii.      Traditional Roman cults

                                                         iii.      Mystery religions from the Hellenistic East

H.    Paganism provides little or no emotion in the lives of people, those cults that did provide emotion were not deeply or widely penetrated, thus their impact was small.  Hellenistic mystery cults like Tyche were common and growing in popularity.  They were emotional, yet somewhat exclusive by region and were not widespread.

I.       Enters Jesus of Nazareth

J.       Story of Jesus (Class discussion)

K.     Problem of the “Historical Jesus” (Class discussion)

L.      Jesus true image as a “Political Figure” in the eyes of Rome.

M.   Spread of Christianity made easy by the Pax Romana there peaceful society, vast roads and beginning linguistic unification.

N.     Paul of Tarsus believed in the universal teachings and spread of the faith.  Traveled wide and spread the word, his ideas won out over those of Peter’s.

O.    Why Christianity?

                                                              i.      Supplied the emotion that was lacking.

                                                           ii.      Men and women, slave and noble

                                                         iii.      Universality of Paul’s teachings.

                                                          iv.      Difficulty of urban Roman life, made it popular.

                                                            v.      Forgiveness

                                                          vi.      A caring thoughtful divinity figure

                                                       vii.      Cause

                                                     viii.      Community

                                                         ix.      Forgiveness and release from Sin

                                                            x.      Afterlife

                                                         xi.      Organizational structure.


XII.           The Julio-Claudians and the Golden Age of Rome

A.     Many of the post-Augustian emperors were from the Julian and Claudian clans.  These included horrific leaders like Caligula (Horses and government) and Nero (burned down the city to build an amusement park!  Never confirmed)

B.     Tiberius and Claudius sound rulers.

                                                              i.      Claudius: felt intimidated by the immense authority of the job-transmitted his authority to an able administration of Bureaucrats.  Delegated power, key innovation for Rome.

C.     Flavian Dynasty: following the ineptitude of Nero.  Carried on the works of Augustus, during the era of Five Good Emperors.  Became a full blown monarchy

                                                              i.      Nevra

                                                           ii.      Trajan

                                                         iii.      Hadrian

                                                          iv.      Antoninus

                                                            v.      Marcus Aurelius

D.    They found out that the easiest way to run the empire was through the administration of a powerful, dominant monarch.  However, a capable and expansive Bureaucracy grew with them.  Official and organized they were the strength or imperial Roman leadership.  Civil Service and military separated.  Talent in each area cultivated.  (Civil Service Exam)

E.      Changes in the Roman Legion: a halt to conquest, Rome was already too big with too many slaves.  Frontiers fixed.  Integration of Legions as Romans ran out of Italians!


XIII.        Life in the Golden Age:

A.     A happy time

B.     Decadent/Violent culture as emphasized by the gladiatorial games.

C.     An enormous city with a population approaching ¾ of a million.

D.    Characteristics of cities?

                                                              i.      Fire and Police departments

                                                           ii.      Streets narrow, sanitation poor.

                                                         iii.      Comparatively healthy, yet not very healthy

E.      Life in the Golden Age:

F.      A happy time

G.     Decadent/Violent culture as emphasized by the gladiatorial games.

H.    An enormous city with a population approaching ¾ of a million.

I.       Characteristics of cities?

J.       Fire and Police departments

K.     Streets narrow, sanitation poor.

L.      Comparatively healthy, yet not very healthy

M.   Free grain and wine provided for citizens, subsidized for others.

N.     Entertainment-key.  Gladiators, Chariot racing.

O.    Rise of farmers and Western Europe.

P.      Trade enjoyed a golden age, thanks in part to the Pax Romana and the Roads.

Q.    Depended heavily on Foreign Grain.

R.     Growth of Industry (201)

XIV.  Rome and the East:

A.     March to empire brought them into contact with many other peoples

A.The chaos of the Hellenistic/post Alexandrian age came under their yoke.

A.Romans v. Iranians (Parthians)


B.     Parthians a people who had entered Iran during the time of Cyrus the Great.

B.They took control over parts of the region after the death of Alexander and the confusion of Hellenism.

C.     Empire that stretched from Armenia to Babylonia to Bacria in the East.

C.Followed Persian dynamics of leadership-Federalism and Satrapies

C.Lacked a bureaucracy, yet very successful governing the large region.

D.    Long peace between groups yet, the Romans wanted Mesopotamia and Armenia and periodically tried to take them.  Long struggle between the two.

E.      Romans on the short end of the stick even after the Parthians fell and the Sassanids took over.

E.The Roman emperor Valerian actually taken captive by the Persian (Sassanid) king Shapur.

F.      Trade:

                                                              i.      Despite the conflicts this didn’t prevent trade from flourishing the region including with Iran.

                                                           ii.      Roads and trade routes, unbelievable trade with Russia, China, and beyond.

                                                                        ii.Trade stops like the Stone Tower in Afghanistan

                                                         iii.      Cities arose as trade grew.  Urban cities.

                                                          iv.      Along with trade went Ideas, such as coins, religion, plays, literature, etc

                                                                        iv.Flourishing sea trade as well, as far away as India and Indonesia.

                                                                        iv.Han Greatness, they opened up the Silk Road the Asian trading connection to the Parthians.  Rome was now communicating with the Chinese and beyond.


XV. the Empire in Crisis.

A.                Five Good Emperors period gives way to a period of chaos and stress…an era portrayed fictionally in the film Gladiator (focusing on the change of leadership from Marcus Aurelius to his son Commodus.)

B.                 Rome’s greatness dealt a serious blow with the death of Marcus Aurelius

C.                 Commodus his son achieves the throne, and will eventually be murdered and a period of civil war and chaos ensues.

D.                Septimius Severus established the Severan Dynasty in 193 AD, this lineage able to stabilize the empire at outset but failed down the stretch leading to another civil war.

E.                  Between 235 and 284 AD an astonishing 20 Emperors ascended the throne, many were assassinated, all Augustan principles destroyed.

F.                  Unfortunately for Rome as they were unable to keep their own house in order the Barbarians of Europe were strengthening their position into one of power with immense migrations to the Roman frontiers.

G.                Jordanes History of the Goths, allows for us to get a 6th century perspective on the events of the day.  Goths fought Vandals, Goths fought Huns etc…these tribes victorious and defeated moved across boundaries and eventually approached Roman borders.

H.                As time wore on these Goths/and other Germanic tribes found huge gaps in the once powerful Roman defense…these gaps allowed them to conquer parts of the Roman Frontier.  Examples-205.

I.                   Rome’s aggressive offensive stance left their defense in shambles.


XVI.         Diocletian: a partial resurrection of Rome


A.     Diocletian puts a partial end to the turmoil of the third century (284-305 AD)

B.     Repairing the damage done in the century was a huge challenge

C.     Claimed a mandate from God, title “dominus” or Lord

D.    A gifted administrator who recognized the plight of Roman decline.

E.      Realized the challenges were bureaucratic in nature, corruption in provincial governments…they were unpaid, and they paid themselves in taxes they felt the need to collect.

F.      Divided Rome into two halves-East and West, dual emperors that he selected.

G.     Creation of the Tetrarchy. Of which Diocletian was supreme.

H.    Each half split again see map 207.

I.       Pefectures and dioceses the governing bodies.

J.       As Rome west will split amongst economic, social and political factors, Rome East will remain untouched and will become Rome East or Byzantium (named after the Capital of Rome East under Constantine).

K.     Split identity as the two halves developed different needs and interests they gradually grew apart and developed different personalities.

L.      The period also realized that Christianity was growing in immense power and couldn’t be ignored.

M.   Responses to the problems of agriculture and the economy as drawn up by Diocletian and Constantine form the basis for Medieval Europe. 

N.     Coin debasement: the difference in metallic content and valued content (Fiat currency) see classroom discussion) and inflation.

O.    Civil liberties and freedom suffered as the problems were dealt with, such as price fixing.

P.      “payment in kind and taxation” 207?

Q.    Lock into professions

R.     Rise of landlords amid the chaos sews the seeds for Medieval Feudalism.


XVII.      The Acceptance of Christianity:


A.     Constantine took the steps to legalize Christianity and make it the official faith of the empire.   Christians had suffered great amounts of intolerance and violence; whish is unlike a Polytheistic society.

B.     Marta Sordi offers a unique perspective on the exaggeration of the martyrs.

C.     Denial of gods and the accusations of Atheism

D.    Christian misconceptions from Rome: page 208-09.

E.      Gradual acceptance and overturning of the misconceptions beginning with Emperor Trajan.

F.      Council at Nicea creates Orthodoxy or teachings, Nicean Creed.

G.     Eventually the new city of Byzantium “New Rome” will be founded upon Christian Principles.


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