The Reformation of the sixteenth century summary and notes



The Reformation of the sixteenth century summary and notes


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The Reformation of the sixteenth century summary and notes


Chapter 14: The Reformation


The Reformation of the sixteenth century, instrumental to the creation of the modern world, has its roots in the idealized early Christian Church and earlier reform movements.


Causes of the Reformation


        -Humanism and secularism- led people to question the church

-Printing press- helped to spread ideas critical of the church. It was much easier to spread critical words and influence others to join causes. Luther mass produces his ideas- his ideas create such a stir not because they’re original and unique, but because of his timing


-Powerful monarchs- challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe. They tried to take power away from the Church because they wanted more power for themselves.

-Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler- challenged his authority. Popes were Italian, and states outside of Italy felt like he shouldn’t have the authority to rule them.


-European princes and monarchs- were jealous of the Church’s wealth. They wanted the churches money for themselves.

-Merchants and others- resented paying heavy taxes to the Church


-Many Church leaders were corrupt and hypocrites. They told people not to indulge in pleasures, but they indulged in pleasures themselves.

-Many people found Church practices to be unacceptable, such as:

        -selling of indulgences, forgiveness of sins, and a guarantee into heaven

        -abuse of power

        -simony: selling church offices

-pluralism: holding more than one office. They did this to have more money and power, but the jobs were neglected and didn’t get done, which is absenteeism.

-having uneducated clergy: they made up sermons because they couldn’t even read themselves. They would just mumble nonsense in “Latin” even though they had no idea what they were saying. They would twist information in the Bible, and because people weren’t allowed to read the Bible, they just trusted them and followed what they said.

Popes who ruled during the Renaissance

        -patronized the arts

        -spent extravagantly on personal pleasures

        -fought wars

        -devoted too much time to worldly affairs to concentrate on spiritual duties

        -popes, such as Pope Alexander VI, had many children. This wasn’t supposed to be possible.

All of this ^ à upset and angered the public


Early Calls for Reform

John Wycliffe of England (1330-1384- 200 years before Luther)

-thought that scripture alone should be the standard of Christian beliefs and practices, not the papacy

-argued for: abolition of the veneration of the saints, pilgrimages, pluralism, and absenteeism

-called for:

-Individuals to read the Bible for him or herself- you shouldn’t rely on someone else’s interpretation, you interpret it yourself to know how to act

-The Church should be stripped of its property- He thought that this wasn’t what the Church was all about. This also helped him gain support of the nobles because the nobles wanted their land.

-His followers were called Lollards

-Bible translated into the vernacular: English- still only a small number of people could read it, but it was more than before

-believed women could preach which was a radical idea. He thought anyone and everyone has the chance to be a spiritual person, which went against the Church.

Jan Hus of Bohemia (1369-1415)

-he was a disciple of Wycliffe; he was moved by him and pushed his reforms. People then became more and more upset with the Church, but this caused civil unrest.

-he was put under house arrest, then burned at stake for his beliefs.

Christian humanists: Erasmus and More


The Early Reformation

-Early sixteenth-century reformers enjoyed an appreciative audience because of widespread dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church.


The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century:

-Typically, sixteenth-century Europeans remained loyal to the Catholic Church even as they criticized it for such abuses as clerical immorality, clerical ignorance, and clerical pluralism, including absenteeism.

-Europeans were still deeply pious and remained loyal to the Church

-however, many people were critical of the Church and its glory: especially humanists and Erasmus

-anticlericalism, or opposition to the clergy, spread throughout Europe

-the main criticized problems of the Church:

-clerical immortality: clergy members were more immoral than everyone else, which scandalized the educated faithful

-clerical ignorance: many priests couldn’t read or write and they just mumbled sermons in Latin that they didn’t even understand, so they were ridiculed and laughed at

-clerical pluralism with the related problem of absenteeism: many clergy members held multiple offices to get more money (pluralism), but because they held so many jobs, they neglected them

-People resented clerical privileges and immunities. Priests, monks, and nuns were exempt from civic responsibilities like taxes and defending the city. City governments tried to lessen this resentment by reducing clergy’s privileges and giving them public responsibilities.


Martin Luther:

-He wanted to be a lawyer at first

-He had extreme parents, and his dad was very overbearing

-He was mentally unstable-bipolar and OCD- first, he feels like he’s not good enough for his father, then he feels like he’s not good enough for The Father

-He was on his way to become a lawyer and was walking to lawyer school, when suddenly he was caught in a horrible thunderstorm. He prayed to God, saying if he survived, he’d devote his life to Him. He survives, so he does, and becomes an highly educated Augustinian friar.

-He gave voice to the dissatisfaction with the Church as he protested the sale of indulgences in The Ninety-five Theses.

-he became a priest and a professor at the University of Wittenburg and taught theology (later flees to Saxony)

-as he studied at Wittenburg, he was being eaten away by the fear of going to hell. He felt like he was a sinner and no matter how many confessions he made, he wouldn’t be absolved. (He was OCD)

-the head of the monastery (the abbot) told him to read St. Paul’s letters

-he started reading and then he found the truth: salvation isn’t achieved through good works, it’s through faith

-He wants everyone else to know his new truth. But the problem is, it goes against the Catholic Church’s idea that salvation is achieved through faith, good works, and penance.

-At first, he believed you should treat Jews kindly- he was hoping that would get them to convert. However, when it doesn’t work, he gets angry and is vicious against the Jews.

What makes Luther mad

-The Church needed more money to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral, so they hire Albert as bishop, who hires Tetzel.

-Tetzel was collecting money by selling indulgences. He was a great advertiser and had ads everywhere, and he even made a chart of prices of forgiveness of particular sins.

-The Catholic Church believed:

-sinners must be reconciled with God by confessing and doing an assigned penance (=a religious act, like praying or fasting)

-Sometimes, earthly penance isn’t enough, and people went to purgatory (=place where souls on their way to Heaven after death went to make amends for their earthly sins)

-the Church has the authority to grant sinners remission of penalties for sins with the “treasury of merits.” This was a collection of all the virtuous acts that Christ, the apostles, and the saints had done. An indulgence was a piece of paper that acted as a virtuous act from the treasury of merits for penance. People believed that indulgences secured total remission of penalties for sin and could substitute for both penance and time in purgatory. The pope or other church officials signed and sold indulgences.

-Luther though this was awful, and he couldn’t believe that ignorant people believed that they had no further need for repentance once they bought indulgences.

-So he posts a list of why indulgences are wrong on the church door, called “Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences.”

-then, his students make copies and spread them everywhere.

-if it had not been for the printing press, Luther’s ideas wouldn’t have created such a stir.

Diet of Worms

-Charles V and Pope Leo X put him on trial. Charles V is the holy Roman emperor, the most powerful figure, and sees himself as a champion of Christianity. He is also the judge of the trial.

-calls the Diet of Worms (1521)

-It’s not a fair trial.

-When the Catholic authorities called for him to recant at the Diet of Worms, Luther refused, citing the authority of Scripture over the pope. He said that if they could prove it to him that he’s wrong, then he would recant his beliefs. However, they don’t convince him, and nothing gets done.

Issues the Edict of Worms

-it declares Luther an outlaw and a heretic

-all of his writing must be burned

-nobody was allowed to help him or shelter him

-Frederick of Saxony (Frederick the Wise) gives him protection.

-Luther translates the Bible from Latin to the vernacular (German). It wasn’t a unique idea, but it’s what he does with it that makes a difference


-he used propaganda pictures because everyone could see them

-1st time of mass propaganda

-7 headed monsters = members of Church

-very powerful: don’t have to be able to read, any language can understand

-printing press helped them spread


        -Catholic Church used this type of art to bring people back to Catholicism

What’s different from the Catholic Church

-He believed that authority is from all believers of Christianity

-everyone gets into heaven

-spiritually, women are equal: that is, they have equal access to heaven, not on Earth



Protestant Thought:

-The term Protestant referred to all non-Catholic western European Christians. German princes coined this term at the Diet of Speyer.

-In Zurich, Protestant reformer Ulrich Zwingli expressed many ideas similar to Luther’s. He thought that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and attacked indulgences, Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy. He also had the support of city authorities who resented the privileges of the clergy.

-General Protestant beliefs included:

        -salvation by faith vs. Catholic salvation by good works and faith

-religious authority rests in the Word of God as revealed in the Bible and interpreted by individual conscience vs. Catholic’s belief that religious authority rests in the Bible and teachings of the church

-the Church as a spiritual priesthood of all believers vs. Catholic Church as a clerical, hierarchical institution headed by the pope

-the highest form of life is both ecclesiastical and secular vocations vs. Catholic’s highest form of life is monastic and religion over secular

-Protests didn’t agree on everything. The primary area of disagreement for early Protestants was the meaning of the Eucharist.

-Catholics and Luther believed in transubstantiation: the bread and wine actually physically changed the body and blood of Christ

-Though, Luther believed it was a result of the mystery of God, not the actions of a priest

-Zwingli believed in consubstantiation: it’s a symbolic change, not a physical change


The Appeal of Protestant Ideas:

-Numerous factors influenced the spread of Protestantism

        -it appealed to the educated by stressing individual reading of Scripture and Luther advocated the reforms that they wanted.

        -attracted the literate and thoughtful middle classes because Luther appealed to their intelligence. His words were smuggled into convents, where some nuns accepted Luther’s idea that celibacy wasn’t worthy and left their convents, while others remained

        -its emphasis on the priesthood of all believers à raised the religious status of laypeople and provided greater income for city treasuries

        -Luther’s linguistic skills as expressed through hymns, psalms, and catechisms à his words were easily remembered and imprinted central points of doctrine on the mind

        -the printing press à rapidly spread Luther’s ideas

        -the reformers’ willingness to work with political authorities à they worked to gain support of political authority. Zwingli worked closely with the city council of Zurich. Luther worked closely with the elector of Saxony and he even instructed all Christians to obey their secular rulers in one of his works.

                -when the a territory’s ruler became protestant, the public became protestant

-The Reformation first spread beyond the German states into Denmark-Norway.

-Other areas had violent reactions and Lutheranism was gradually imposed, like in Norway and Iceland. Swedish Gustavus Vasa spread Protestant ideas to the Swedish Church.


The Radical Reformation:

-Radical Protestants rejected the idea that church and state must be united.

-Radicals were a voluntary community of believers.

-They were often pacifists and refused to hold office or swear oaths, which were required of any position of authority. They also made the distinction between the Christian community and the state.

-Basing their ideas on the New Testament Church, they faced hatred and harsh persecution because many authorities maintained that separation of church and state would lead to the secularization of society and economic dislocation.

-Worried that their religious differences would lead to civil disturbances, civil authorities banished or executed radicals.

-Their ideas provided the foundation for Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists, and the United States ’ separation of church and state.


The German Peasants’ War:

-they were mad about: land for their livestock being taken, heavy taxes à happening at a time when crops were bad

-When lay and ecclesiastical lords increased their demands on peasants, who were already suffering deteriorating economic conditions, revolt erupted in 1525.

-Luther wrote about equality for access to heaven, but some people misunderstood is saying “Everyone is Equal”

        -The peasants claimed Luther’s support, but he did not advocate open rebellion.

-Luther first agreed with the revolt, except for the violence.

-Then, he tells the nobles to slaughter the peasants because they are misinterpreting his words, leading to the death of over seventy-five thousand peasants.

-Peasant conditions did improve moderately after the revolt, but the lay rulers gained power and influence.

-However, the Reformation lost much of its popular appeal after 1525.


The Reformation and Marriage:

-Luther and Zwingli decided to marry; Luther to a former nun, Katharina von Bora, and Zwingli to a Zurich widow, Anna Reinhart

-Wives of Protestant reformers had to create respectable roles for themselves. They were expected to be models of wifely obedience and Christian charity.

-Protestants praised marriage as ordained by God, but they did not believe it was a sacrament.

-They emphasized spiritual equality within the marriage, but with wifely obedience to the husband.

        -Women were advised to be cheery and obedient.

        -Men were advised to treat their wives kindly and considerately, but also to enforce their authority.

-Protestants did broaden justification for divorce. They thought that the only solution for some marriages, such as ones that experienced adultery or impotence, was divorce and remarriage.

        -Divorce was still a last resort though

-Condemnation of prostitution frequently led to that profession losing its legal status.

-Closing of convents led to fewer opportunities for unmarried women. Marriage became the only occupation for upper class women, where as before, they were educated and protected in convents.


The Reformation and German Politics:

-Political factors, such as the decentralization of power in the Holy Roman Empire and the events leading to the election of Charles V of the Hapsburg family as emperor, created a climate that was crucial to the success of the Reformation.


The Rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty:

-War and diplomacy were ways that states increased their power, but so was marriage.

-The benefits of an advantageous marriage stretched across generations. Advantageous marriages transformed the Austrian Habsburg family into an international power.

-Frederick III married Princess Eleonore of Portugal à small amount of territory, lots of money

-His son, Maximilian, married Mary of Burgundy, Europe’s most prominent heiress who inherited Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the powerful duchy of Burgundy à the Austrian house of Hapsburg became an international power.

-This powerful marriage angered France, who considered Burgundy to be French territory, which started centuries of conflict between the house of Hapsburg and kings of France.

-Maximilian married his son and daughter to the children of Ferdinand and Isabella, the rulers of Spain, southern Italy, and the Spanish New World empire.

-this resulted Charles V, his grandson, controlling about half of Europe, plus Spain’s New World Empire.

-Only the emperor’s influence united these incredibly diverse peoples, but Charles worked to impose a political and religious unity.


The Political Impact of the Protestant Reformation:

-Most sixteenth-century Europeans believed civil authorities rightfully determined the form of religious practice. Religious practice remained a public matter which everyone participated in.

-Almost everyone believed that religious differences represented a political threat to the security of the state.

-The religious storm launched by Luther swept across Germany: he appealed to German patriotism because people felt more connected to their nation with their language and traditions than the papacy

-Many German rulers embraced the Reformation, usually for political and economic gain

-However, Charles V defended Catholicism.

-As a result, religious wars erupted.

-The first battleground was Switzerland. Catholics and Protestants went to war, then quickly decided a treaty was better than fighting. The treaty allowed each canton (area of territory) to determine its own religion and ordered each side to give up its foreign alliances so they wouldn’t be in the middle.

The Imperial Diet

-Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and he defended Catholicism.

-He tried to stop the movement and spread of Protestantism

-He called the Imperial Diet (diet= meeting of leaders)

-He was hoping to convince the Lutheran German princes to turn back to Catholicism.

-However, they show up with their own interpretation of the Bible, later called the Augsburg Confession, and don’t give in.


-German Princes vs. Charles V

-Protestant territories formed a military alliance, with German princes at the head.

-Charles V sent an army to Germany to crush the German princes.

*however, he was in a series of war with the French, called the Habsburg-Valois Wars. He was also defending his territory from the Turks. SO, he couldn’t send as strong of an army as he wanted.

-Charles V found that he was fighting for religious unity and a more unified state against territorial rulers who wanted to maintain their independence. He was defending the church and the empire.

-Charles V was initially doing well, which alarmed France and the pope who didn’t want him to become more powerful.

-France sent aid to the German princes.

-The pope withdrew papal troops.

-With multiple wars going on, Charles V couldn’t devote as many troops as he wanted to.

-Charles settles in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg

-declares that German princes could decide what faith people have to follow: Catholic or Lutheran.

-Calvinism isn’t included à creates later problems

-However, it was not an act of religious freedom or tolerance. The princes could decide what the state would be, but the people underneath them still couldn’t choose the religion they wanted.

-Charles V constantly spent his time traveling and going from place to place

-He spent the end of his life in a monastery and abdicated the throne. He divided his empire because he thought it was too large for one person to rule.

-gives Phillip II (his son) = Spain, Netherlands, Portugal , and all their territories, including the New World – he gets the better deal

-gives his brother Ferdinand = German provinces, Austria, Hungary, and the title of Holy Roman Emperor – gives him the most troubled territories


The Spread of the Protestant Reformation:

-Reformers such as John Calvin built on the ideas of Luther and Zwingli to develop their own theology and spread Protestantism into England, France, and eastern Europe.


The Reformation in England and Ireland:

Henry VIII

-he considered himself “defender of the faith”- he was awarded the title by the pope

-he wanted a son: he married Catharine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, who gave him a daughter, Mary

-The Church wasn’t happy with the marriage in the first place- Catharine was originally married to his older brother Arthur who died

-Charles V doesn’t allow the divorce because he’s related to Catharine (she’s his aunt) and annulling the marriage would have made Catharine and Mary illegitimate

-broke with the Catholic Church when the pope did not quickly annul his marriage

-Act of Restraint of Appeals: declared king the supreme sovereign in England and forbade appeals to the papacy, establishing the king as the highest legal authority in England

        -Supremacy Act: declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England

        -John Fisher and Thomas More opposed Henry’s decision and then were beheaded

-Serving as the head of the new Church of England, the king used the religious changes to strengthen royal power and wealth.

-Thomas Cromwell influenced him to dissolve the English monasteries for their wealth à the redistribution of land strengthened the upper class

-Cromwell also reformed and centralized the king’s household, council, and secretariats

-most clergy and officials accepted Henry’s moves

-Pilgrimage of Grace: massive multiclass rebellion (largest in English history)

-his wives:

        -Catharine à Mary

        -Anne Boleyn à Elizabeth

        -Jane Seymour à Edward VI

Edward IV (1547-1553)

-strong Protestant beliefs

-Thomas Cranmer- Book of Common Prayer- was the basis of the Church of England (Anglican Church)

-he died- was very sickly

Mary (1553-1558)

-enforced strict Catholicism

-wanted a baby but had stomach cancer

-she looked pregnant though

-was unpopular

        -executed many Protestants, causing them to fleeàwas known as “Bloody Mary”

        -married Phillip of Spain, which was an unpopular marriage

-dies in 1558


- restored the Church of England, creating a compromise between Catholic and Puritan extremes.

-took a more neutral position to appease them both

        - traditional services, but said in English, clergy could marry, less strict

-took the position of “supreme governor of the Church of England”- not “head” so Catholics could be loyal without denying the pope, and “head” might be inappropriate for a woman

-Elizabethan Settlement: outward conformity to the Church of England

-the Anglican Church moved in a Protestant direction

        -monasteries were not re-established

        -bishops and priests could marry


        -king and queen = the head

        -still very formal and traditional

-fended off the Spanish Armada

-Phillip of Spain wanted to marry her


-Most Irish remained loyal Catholics and resented the Protestant Church of Ireland.



John Calvin

-The most influential person in spreading Protestantism was John Calvin

-had different ideas than both Luther and Catholicism

-writes The Institutes of Christian Religion

-Calvin motivated Christians through the doctrine of predestination. Predestination is the idea that god has already decided your fate

        -the elect (the chosen ones) predestined to go to heaven

-your actions decide if you’re in the elect or not: if you have a good life with a lot of wealth, it means God chose you

-people worked hard to live a moral life and be wealthy, so they could convince themselves they’re part of the elect

He set up a theocracy in Geneva.

-theocracy= ruling system based on religious ruler

-emphasized a high standard of morality

-used the Genevan Consitory to regulate citizens’ lives

-strict rules and laws

-he gave the same harsh and strict punishments for troubles of all degrees

        -both missing Church and stealing = huge punishments

The Spread of Calvinism

-spread especially to the middle class, then even to the nobility

-he was a bright guy, so his writing appealed to intellectuals and his preaching captivated people

-spreads all over Europe

-Calvin’s emphasis on hard work led to a vigorous activism

-Calvinism became the dominant force in Protestantism.


The Establishment of the Church of Scotland: John Knox

-A political struggle between Catholic monarchs and Protestant nobles led the nobles to embrace the ideas of Calvin as interpreted by John Knox.

-Knox visited Geneva and creates his religion based off Calvinism

-political struggle between Mary Queen of Scots and Protestant nobles

        -Phillip of Spain also wanted to marry Mary to overthrow Elizabeth, but Elizabeth ends up killing him

-nobles kicked out Mary Queen of Scots and put her son James in power. James was a child, so they had a regent. A regent rules until a small child is old enough to rule. They embraced John Knox’s ideas.

-Scottish barons created a strictly Calvinist Presbyterian Church of Scotland, governed by ministers (not bishops as in the Catholic Church) known as presbyters.

-known as the Presbyterian Church


Anabaptists (Lutherans and Anglicans)

-against people being baptized when they were young

-believed in being baptized as an adult

-the problem was the high infant mortality rate: if you die and hadn’t been baptized, you’d go to hell, so all the unbaptized babies would go to hell

-Catholics and Lutherans resisted them

-a militant group took over Munster: believed in a communistic state of equality and polygamy

        -They destroyed literature and art, basically anything anti-Christian.

        -They created New Jerusalem.

-Then, the Catholics and Lutherans joined together to destroy them. After an 18-month siege, Munster was taken back. The Anabaptist leaders were tortured and hung from St. Lambert’s Church.


The Reformation in Eastern Europe:

-Ethnic diversity, coupled with political and economic struggles, led some groups in Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary to adopt Protestantism in eastern Europe.


        -they adopted the ideas of Jan Hus, then Luther’s ideas spread

        -Catholic Reformation promoted a Catholic revival in Bohemia

        -this complicated situation would be one of the causes of the 30 Years War


-rulers granted Polish szlachta (nobility) extensive rightsà the monarchy was weak and had to cooperate with the szlachta

-largest cities = Gdansk and Cracow

        -Poland-Lithuania represented great diversity, with people speaking their native language

-Lutheranism spread, but met 2 major obstacles: King Sigismund I banned Luther’s teachings in Poland, and strong anti-German feelings didn’t allow Lutheranism to spread that much outside German towns

-Calvinism on the other hand, appealed to the Polish szlachta even more because it originated in France, not Germany

-Jan Laski helped spread Calvinism in Poland


        -Hungarian students went to Wittenberg and spread Lutheranism

-the battle of Mohacs- Hungary split up into 3 parts: Ottoman Turks, Habsburgs, and Ottoman-supported Janos Zapolya

-Mohacs led to a great advance of Protestantism


The Catholic Reformation/ Counter Reformation  

-After 1540, Protestant growth was slowed by the strong response of the Catholic Church, which included both internal reform and a Counter-Reformation that challenged Protestants intellectually, politically, militarily, and institutionally.

-3 goals:

        1) reforming the church

      2) reconciliation

      3) outreach: spreading/ reconverting


1) The Reformed Papacy:

-Pope Paul III accomplished significant reforms within the Church

        -improved education and moral standards for the clergy;

        -prohibition of pluralism, absenteeism, prostitution, and the selling of Church offices (simony)

        -establishment of new religious orders that preached to the common people

-Pope Paul II created the Holy Office to get rid of heretics

        -the Roman Inquisition successfully destroyed heretical influence within the Papal States.

        -Index of Prohibited Books (burned them)

        -murdered heretics

1 and 2) The Council of Trent:

-created by Pope Paul III

-created to :

        -Reform the Catholic Church

                -prohibited pluralism, simony, selling into heaven

-The Tridentine decree Tametsi- required a witness to be present during all marriagesà ended all secret marriages

                -all clergy must be educated

                -got rid of monasteries

        -Reconciliation with Protestants- goal = Protestants meet and talk about Scripture


- Scriptures + tradition = equally important; except, the pope is the main interpreter not the individual, which is different from Protestants’ belief

                -heaven = faith, repentance

-reconciliation with Protestants = failure

-problem for protestants= they still had such different procedures and ideas and refused to compromise

        -problem for Catholics = pope makes final decision on Bible, and the Protestants refused to accept

3) Outreach: New Religious Orders:

-Two new religious orders spread Catholicism and were successful at getting large numbers of people to convert. Both orders emphasized education.

        1) the Urseline order of nuns

                -founded by Angela Merici

                -famous for education of women

-its importance: now that these women are educated, they can educate their children à spreads Catholicism

-Angela worked for many years among the poor, sick, and uneducated. She established the order to combat heresy with Christian education.

-they sought to re-Christianize society by teaching and training young girls as future wives and mothers

-Council of Trent: stressed claustration (strict enclosure) of religious women and called for an end of active women ministries

-So, Angela had great difficulty gaining papal approval

        2) the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

                -founded by Ignatius Loyola

                -resisted the spread of Protestantism

                -converted Asians and Latin American Indians to Catholicism

                -spread Christian education all over Europe

-Loyola decided to give up his military career as a Spanish soldier and become a soldier of Christ. He gained insights from seclusion and prayer and wrote Spiritual Exercises. This work directed the individual imagination and will to reform and new spiritual piety.

-Loyola gathered many supporters and papal support

-the first Jesuits were from the wealthy merchant and professional classes

-their goal = “to help souls”

-The Society of Jesuits developed into a highly centralized, tightly-knit organization.

-Members vowed “special obedience to the sovereign pontiff regarding missions.” This basically meant that they were committing to go anywhere for the help of souls. The flexibility and willingness to respond at any time or circumstance formed the Jesuit tradition.

-They achieved phenomenal success for the papacy and attracted many recruits.

-Their schools first concentrated on the children of the poor, then the children of the nobility.

-They exerted great political influence.

                -The Jesuits also focused on missionary efforts in Asia and Latin America.


Religious Violence

 -The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars between Spain and France.

        -Spain was the winner.

        -France had to acknowledge Spanish dominance in Italy, where much of the fighting had taken place

-Because both Protestants and Catholics saw the other as a dangerous element that could ruin society, they combated each other using riots, wars, and witch-hunts.


French Religious Wars:

-The Habsburg-Valois Wars cost the French government more than it could afford. King Francis I tried 2 new ways to raise revenue:

        1) sale of public offices- was only a temporary source of money

        2) a treaty with the papacy, the Concordat of Bologna

                -Francis agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council

                -French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots

                -it gave the monarchy a rich supplement of money and offices and power over the church

-established Catholicism as the state religion.

-France: Huguenots (French Calvinists) vs. Catholics

        -Huguenots appealed to the nobility, the more educated population, and the wealthier classes

-10% of the population was Huguenot, which was more powerful than it suggests because most of the 10% were powerful nobles

-Huguenots, especially the nobility, used religion to exert independence from the weak French monarchy.

-Both Calvinists and Catholics believed that the others’ books, services, and ministers polluted the community. Preaching, baptism, marriages, and funerals triggered violence.

-Huguenots, attacking the icons of the Catholic Church, frequently resorted to mob violence

St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre

-The problem starts after Henry II, King of France, dies in a jousting competition in a weird accident where the joust stick pierces through his and his brain. This happened at a huge festival celebrating the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis which ended fighting between the Habsburg and Valois (Charles V) which had started during the Italian Wars.

        -Henry was able to keep conflict from boiling over

        -He was married to Catharine Medici

-Henry II’s son, Francis II, rules for 2 years, then dies from illness

        -weak leader

-He was married to Mary Queen of Scots (whose mom was a French noblewoman). She was related to the Guise family

        -Guise = very catholic

-While in power, Francis is influenced by Mary, and allows the Guise family to call the shots. As the Guise family gets more and more powerful, conflicts with the Huguenots arise.

-After Francis II dies, Henry II’s other son, Charles XI, becomes king.

        -However, he is 10 years old and can’t rule

        -His mother Catharine Medici is his regent and calls the shots

        -She pushes Mary out of power and reasserts her own power.

        -However, she still sides with the Guise family’s position on Catholicism.

-what gets people upset

1) Conde, a member of a powerful noble Huguenot family, was accused as part of a murder plot and was executed

        2) Duke of Guise sees Huguenots praying in a barn and sends henchmen to slaughter them

-these both lead to religious war

-The Guise get support from Spain;

- Huguenots à German and Swiss mercenaries.

-Catharine Medici decides to marry her daughter Margaret (of Valois) to a leading Huguenot, Henry Navarre.

        -She intended for this to end the religious fighting.

-But the Guise family comes up with another plan. They say that all the most powerful Huguenots will be at the wedding, so let’s slaughter them all.

-The Guise are mad at the Huguenots because duc de Guise was assassinated by a Protestant fanatic.

-the wedding is a 2 week event, so they wait until the wedding is done, then they plan to kill them

-It turns into a bloodbath as wedding guests are massacred à the fighting spreads to the streets of Paris

-this religious violence spread to other provinces

-Catholic League = killing of Protestants

        -led to a fifteen-year civil war

        -However, Henry Navarre SURVIVES- he wasn’t supposed to

-Henry III rules for a brief period of time.

-He has a plan of revenge: he summons Guise brothers to a meeting in the royal bedchamber, then kills them.

        -He is Catholic, but he thinks that the Guise have too much power.

        -He is later murdered by a crazy fanatic priest.

-BIG problem: there’s nobody left to rule. Even Charles XI dies of illness.

-Henry Navarre should become king-he married Margaret- but he’s Protestant.

        -He converts to Catholicism and pays money to those who pledge allegiance to him.

        -politiques: putting interests of France over religious beliefs

        -He becomes Henry IV, ruler of France

-He’s from the Bourbon family who rule till the French revolution. Many members of the Bourbons are Protestant and they have a claim to the French throne.

-He creates the Edict of Nantes

        -granted limited tolerance of Protestantism and Huguenots

        -However, it didn’t completely satisfy everyone à 18 attempts on his life, until he’s killed in 1610.

        -But, he reestablished the French monarchy and brought France semi peace


The Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands:

-Remember: Ferdinand and Isabella semi-unified Spain. Then their grandson Charles V inherited half of Europe, including the Netherlands. He gives Phillip II the Netherlands.

-Phillip II has a big problem:

-He didn’t know about people living in the Netherlands- he grew up in Spain-so he doesn’t know how to rule

-Known as the “paper pusher”- he stayed in Spain (Madrid) and wrote and delegated orders and policies. Charles V on the other hand traveled all around.

-the Netherlands was one of the richest and most populous regions in Europe. It was a leader in manufacturing, banking, and commerce.

-Major cities = Amsterdam, Ghent, Brussels, and Antwerp

-He decides to put his half-sister Margaret of Parma to rule as a regent

-Resentment built up in the Netherlands:

        -hostility to foreigners

        -distrust of royal advisors

        -lack of understanding of local conditions

-All the discontent boiled up with Phillip II’s religious policies.

        -Phillip II= Catholic and Netherlands = Protestant and Catholic

        -He wants to be the “defender of the faith” and wants to force them to be Catholic.

        -He begins the Inquisition and orders the enforcement Catholicism with the Council of Trent.

-Town governors and noblemen resisted Philips’ religious decrees.

-especially Prince William of Orange—urged Margaret to adopt a policy of toleration along the lines of the Peace of Augsburg: Margaret eventually agrees to it.

-leads to Calvinists’ revolt in summer of 1566

        -Catholic statues and other icons are burned and destroyed.

        -Church houses are used as meeting houses.

        -turns into open revolt

-So, Phillip II was determined to punish the rebels—sends Duke of Alba

        -He creates the Council of Blood- 9,000 convictions, many executions and 60,000 Protestants fled

-Army pillaged towns for pay and then slaughtered entire populations – to make an example out of cities where revolts occurred

-THIS leads to rebellion. Phillip raised taxes in order to maintain forces—led to more revolts

-Spanish government in Netherlands loses control: Margaret resigns and Alba is relieved of his command à another problem: in order to make war, you have to pay for the army

-Phillip II raises taxes to pay for the troops that he sent to end the rebellion à

        -more rebellion, soldiers out of control

        -soldiers went years with only partial pay now roam southern provinces

        -Spanish Fury in Antwerp- 7,000 were killed and 1/3 of the city burned to the ground

-November 8, 1576: declaration where the northern and southern provinces of the Low Countries put aside their religious differences and united in revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs

        -This declaration was the first major expression of the Netherlands’ national self-consciousness

        -The Pacification of Ghent called for:

                1) the expulsion of Spanish troops from the Low Countries

                2) the restoration of provincial and local prerogatives

                3) an end to the persecution of Calvinists, or anyone else for religious reasons

-While the signatories didn’t abjure their allegiance to King Phillip II of Spain, it was clear that they wished any reconciliation to be on their own terms.

        -It was a document very much in line with William I of Orange’s beliefs.

-North- Union of Utrecht-wanted complete independence = United Provinces

        -Phillip doesn’t accept this—fight against Spanish

        -Twelve Years Truce lasts until 1609

-end result = 2 countries: South – Spanish Netherlands

  North – United Provinces (Holland later on)


The Great European Witch-Hunt:

-caused by:       

        -religious tension

        -economic strife

        -Pope Innocent VII in 1484 has a papal bull on witches- says they are out there à begins witch craze

-Germany= most witch executions

        -fragmented society

        -protestant superstitions

        -Protestant areas > Catholic areas

-80% of women:

        -take care of children

        -make food

        -easily swayed by the Devil

        -more prone to following emotions

        -in a position that could be blamed (kitchen, raising childrenà illness, food poisoning)

-between 1500 and 1660: 50,000-80,000 witches/warlocks executed

        -Germany = 26,000 killed

        -France = 10,000 killed

        -England = 1,000 killed

        -Ireland = 4 killed (Catholic)

*in England and Ireland, smaller numbers because the tests to see if someone was a witch was much stricter than other places – more evidence needed

-trials = check for witches mark

        -birthmarks = signs of sleeping with the Devil

        -prick you and you don’t bleed in birthmark

        -torture you and a mark shows up

-Spanish guy had a retractable knife that didn’t go in, so got paid

-Factors in the increase of witch-hunts

        -the heightened sense of God’s power and divine wrath in the Reformation

-the idea of what a witch was changed: witches were now the ultimate heretics accused of making pacts with the devil, instead of people who used magical power to get what they wanted

-The large number of females executed as witches reflected a negative view of women.

-some people displayed misogyny, or hatred of women, and thought that women’s sexual desires could only be filled by a demonic lover

-Ideas about the diabolical nature of witchcraft spread to the common people, especially through illustrations in pamphlets and broadsides

-witch trials were secret, but executions weren’t – they were public spectacles witnessed by huge crowds

-legal changes (from accusatorial legal procedure to inquisitorial legal procedure) played a role in causing and allowing massive witch trials

-accusatorial: a suspect knew the accusers, and if the accusers were wrong about the charges they brought, they were punished   

-inquisitorial: legal authorities brought the case, not the accusers

-this change made people much more willing to accuse others because they never had to take personal responsibility for the accusation or face the accused’s relatives

        -Inquisitorial judicial procedures made it easier to gain convictions of accused witches.

        -Inquisitorial procedures involved intense questioning of the suspect, usually involving torture

-Some inquisitions, like Spain, Portugal, and Roman Inquisition were very lenient in treatment of accused witches.

-They doubted whether the people accused as witches had actually made a pact with the Devil and thought they were just superstitious and ignorant peasants who should be educated instead of executed.

        -sent accused witches home with a warning and a penance

-the process of witch trials:

-Began with a single accusation in a village or town. Tensions within families, households, and neighborhoods often played a role in these accusations.

-Once a charge was made, judges began to question other neighbors and acquaintances, building a list of suspicious incidents that might have taken place over decades

-The suspect was brought in for questioning by legal authorities. They were often tortured.

-Once the initial suspect had been questioned, the people who had been implicated were brought in for questioning.

-This might lead to a small hunt, or a “witch panic” (=larger hunt)

-Panics were most common in the part of Europe that saw the most witch accusations in general: Holy Roman Empire, Switzerland, and France à these areas had small government units who were jealous of each other and divided by religion.

-Sometimes panics resulted when legal authorities rounded up a large group of suspects, usually right after some type of climatic disaster

-Doubts as to whether people were witches and were actually making pacts with the Devil gradually spread among the same authorities who originally persecuted witches

-prosecutions for witchcraft became less common and were gradually outlawed.

-belief in power of witches continued among uneducated people, but educated people now sneered at this as superstition. People stopped bringing witch accusations to trial because they knew they would be dismissed, and the witch trials ended.


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