History general knowledge quiz questions and answers



History general knowledge quiz questions and answers


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History general knowledge quiz questions and answers

Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round One


1. This nation’s Continuation War involved an alliance with Germany partially to respond to a neighbor’s use of the Aland Islands and ended during Gustaf Mannerheim’s presidency. It helped the Nazis because it allowed for submarine training in the Baltic and cut off the Murmansk railroad. This followed a 4 month war with fighting was over control of the (*) Petsamo mines, Lake Ladoga, and the the Karelian Isthmus, called the Winter War. They were a grand duchy controlled by Russia until 1917, and which was taken from Sweden. Inhabited by the Suomi, this is FTP what Baltic nation with capital Helsinki?
ANSWER: Finland (accept Suomi until it is mentioned)

2. This author edited Woman’s World for 3 years during which time, this author published The Happy Prince and Other Tales. Several previously-published essays were collected in Intentions, which came out the same year as two more collections of this author’s stories, Lord Author Savile’s Crime, and Other Stories, and A House of Pomegranates. Aubrey Beardsley published an English version of his play originally written in French, Salomé, and soon after appeared his A Woman of No Importance. The Dutchess of Berwick and Mrs. Erlynne appeared in his first major hit, (*) Lady Windermere’s Fan, and the title character loves Sibyl Vane and has the title object painted by Basil Hallward in this man’s only novel, The Picture of Dorian Grey. FTP, name this Irish author of The Importance of Being Earnest.
ANSWER: Oscar (Fingal O’Flahertie Wills) Wilde

3. A set of corporate practices developed by Motorola and practiced by 3M and Raytheon, among others, is named for this, implying exceptional quality and almost no manufacturing defects. The so-called empirical rule, or 68-95-99.7 rule, relates area to distance, which is expressed in terms of this quantity. The z-score is computed by subtracting mu from the individual raw score, then dividing the difference by this (*) number, in a process known as normalization. For the Wechsler IQ test it is 15, while for the Stanford-Binet it is 16. It is the root mean square of the differences between each data point and the arithmetic mean. Also defined as the square root of the variance, it is denoted by the Greek letter sigma. FTP, in statistics, this is a measure of the spread of values in a random variable or a probability distribution.
ANSWER: standard deviation (prompt on “sigma” before it is mentioned and prompt on "six sigma" before "empirical rule")

4. One legend says a wizard took part of Mount Killaraus and moved it here. The circular bank and ditch about 110 meters in diameter were the first parts to be created, along with the 56 Aubrey holes. The Q and R Holes in the middle were dug about 500 years later, and contained materials that were originally thought to have been transported from (*) Wales but are now theorized to have been deposited near the site by the Irish Sea Glacier. The sun rises directly behind the Heel Stone on the summer solstice, when Druidic ceremonies are held. FTP, name this prehistoric monument located north of Salisbury that is mainly known for its large circles of stones. ANSWER: Stonehenge

5. It was first observed in 1933 by its eponymous discoverers in tin and lead specimens. Rather than a sharp boundary at the edge of the sample, there is a gradual decay of the magnetic field across the penetration depth of the material. This is caused by persistent (*) currents which form on the surface of the material as it is cooled below the critical temperature, which completely cancel out the flux inside it, resulting in perfect diamagnetism. It allows the diamagnetic levitation of small items, including live frogs. FTP, name this uniquely defining property of superconductors, a phenomenon characterized by the complete expulsion of a magnetic field.
ANSWER: Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect
6. Its "Footnote" begins by repeating the word "Holy!" fifteen times. Its third and final section expresses solidarity with the person to whom it is dedicated by repeatedly stating "I'm with you in Rockland". Its second section begins with asking about a "sphinx of cement", and from there most of the lines begin with an invocation of Moloch. Like the rest of it, the first part of this poem features increasingly long lines about the exploits of (*) "angelheaded hipsters". The dedication is to a mental patient, Carl Solomon. FTP name this poem first published by Lawrence Ferlinghetti in 1956 that begins, "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, hysterical naked", a landmark beat poem by Allen Ginsberg.

7. This animal’s Y chromosome shares genes with the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes found in birds. It is one of the only animals known to use electroreception to locate its prey, by detecting electric fields generated by muscular contractions. The males have ankle spurs which deliver a cocktail of (*) venom. When this mammal was first discovered by Europeans in the 1700s, most scientists thought it was a hoax. It is one of the five remaining species of monotremes, or egg-laying mammals. FTP, name this semi-aquatic mammal commonly described as “duck-billed”.
ANSWER: platypus or Ornithorhynchus anatinus (accept “duck-billed platypus”)

8. This country’s ruler Kaleb invaded southern Arabia and ruled there until 525, and a century later, Armah gave asylum to early Muslims. Kassa Halyu had himself crowned Emperor Theodore II in 1855, and was succeeded by Johannes, who was himself succeeded by the signer of the Treaty of Ucciali. Starting in 1527, this country was overrun by Muslims led by Harar, and many of this country’s Falashas were repatriated to their religious homeland of (*) Israel in 1991 as part of Operation Solomon. This country was ruled by the Zagwe dynasty for 300 years after the fall of the Kingdom of Aksum, and in medieval Europe, this country was associated with the Christian kingdom of Prester John. Other famous rulers include Lij Yasu, Menelik II, and Haile Selassie. FTP, name this eastern African nation, formerly known as Abyssinia, with capital at Addis Ababa.
ANSWER: Ethiopia (accept “Abyssinia” early)

9. The Ugandan party of this name is led by Nsubuga Nsambu and won one seat in the 2006 elections. In Canada one joined itself with pro-conscription liberals to form the Unionist Party in 1917 and was formed by George-Etienne Cartier and John MacDonald, bringing together ultramontane Quebecois and Orange men. The most famous one traces its roots to supporters of (*) King James the 2nd and Robert Peel created this party from the Tories. FTP what is this party of Benjamin Disraeli and Margaret Thatcher, which suggests being to the right of the political spectrum.
ANSWER: Conservative-Unionist Party

10. This work ends with, “Le roi est mort, vive le roi! Ave Maria!” in its last chapter, “Farewell to Nemi”. Other chapters include “Killing the God in Mexico” and “Homeopathic Magic of a Flesh Diet”. Three chapters are devoted to Attis, five to Adonis, and four to Osiris. Several chapters are devoted to taboos, and another chapter discusses the Corn-spirit as several different animals. Its analysis of the Crucifixion was removed in later editions, and this work otherwise caused a scandal for its inclusion of Jesus in its depiction of otherwise pagan gods. Named after an object that (*) Aeneas and Sibyl presented to earn admission to Hades, FTP, name this seminal work of comparative anthropology by James Frazer.
ANSWER: The Golden Bough

11. In his first appearance in 1940, he is named Jasper, and his ostensible owner from then until 1952 is Mammy Two Shoes, a very stereotypical African-American housemaid. He sings "Is You Is Or Is You Ain't My Baby" to woo a potential mate in "Solid Serenade", and later competes for her affection with Butch. His main enemy takes care of an orphan in a diaper whose speaking roles are almost entirely in French as a Musketeer of sorts, but has also dressed up as a (*) pilgrim and eaten an entire turkey while he himself was dressed as an Indian. He is frequently antagonized by Spike and his son Tyke, bulldogs who inconveniently have a soft spot for collaborating with mice. FTP name this cartoon cat who never seems to succeed in catching Jerry.

12. Its discoverer posited this based on aberrations in recorded data from an earthquake in the Kulpa Valley. An ophiolite forms when rocks formed in this region are exposed due to an obduction into the continental crust. A proposal to drill a hole down to (*) it was cancelled by Congress due to insufficient support. This can define the boundary between the asthenosphere and the region above it when under mid-ocean ridges, but it usually lies entirely within the lithosphere. It was first identified by its namesake Croatian seismologist in 1909. FTP, name the boundary between the Earth’s crust and mantle.
ANSWER: Mohorovičić discontinuity (grudgingly accept “Moho”)

13. His final, unfinished novel concerns two Parisian Clerks who move into the country near Chavignolles to pursue every kind of intillectual stimulation and failing miserably. Related to that work, Bouvard and Pecuchet, is his Dictionary of Recieved Ideas, which is a spoof of the 2nd French empire. Another novel’s focus is a Carthaginian priestess, (*) Salammbo. His most famous works center on the selfless maid Felicite, the autobiographical Frederic Moreau, and the bored Norman wife Dr. Charles who commits adultery and suicide. FTP name this French author of A Simple Heart, A Sentimental Education, and Madame Bovary.
ANSWER: Gustave Flaubert

14. According to Pausanias, the statue of Britomartis in the temple of Olous was made by him, and in the Iliad, Homer calls him the creator of a wide dancing-ground. The son of Metion, after arriving in Sicily, he built a temple to Apollo and was taken in by King Cocalus, whose daughters murdered his former employer. The partridge avoids high places because his nephew, the inventor of the saw, was turned into one by Athena after he tried throwing Perdix off a tower, and his identity is revealed through a riddle about a sprial seashell. At the request of Pasiphae he made a wooden cow, he was locked up after (*) Ariadne fled, but in his escape his son didn't listen and ended up drowning. FTP, identify this mythological inventor, the father of Icarus and the man who built, and then escaped from, the labyrinth.
ANSWER: Daedalus
15. Tone poems by this composer include the semi-autobiographical A Hero’s Life and one with a really big cello solo, Don Quixote. Two of his symphonies describe single days: one, a day in the life of his household, including bathing the baby; in the other, he depicts a thunderstorm and the view from a mountain peak. In addition to Symphonia Domestica and Alpine Symphony, he depicted death by a squawk on a clarinet in one tone poem and an (*) elegant sigh in another, Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks and Death and Transfiguration. Appropriately, his last major work is his Four Last Songs, and his operas include Intermezzo, Die Frau Ohne Schatten, and Der Rosenkavalier. FTP, name this German composer of the opera Salome and an homage to Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra.
ANSWER: Richard Strauss

16. He asserted that “history repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce” in his discussion of France’s 1851 coup d’etat, and another work took the form of a letter to the Eisenbach political party. In addition to The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon and Critique of the Gotha Program he argued in one work that social relationships were being replaced with commodity fetishism and another begins with the line, “A (*) spectre is haunting Europe” and was co-written with Friedrich Engels. FTP, name this philosopher who penned Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto.
ANSWER: Karl Marx

17. Along with lead and belladonna, it is used to make Aqua Tofana. It is poisonous because it disrupts ATP production by inhibiting NAD+ in the citric acid cycle. During the Bronze Age, it was included in bronze to make the alloy harder. The Grainger challenge is to find an economical way to remove it from contaminated groundwater in countries such as Bangladesh. Some of it was found in Otzi’s (*) hair and Napoleon’s wallpaper and could’ve caused their deaths. FTP, name this metalloid with atomic number 33 and symbol As.
ANSWER: arsenic

18. One author from this country wrote a novel that gets its title from a letter by Henry James senior, and chronicles a resident of the Casa de Ejercicios Espirituales, who is a deformed member of the Azcoitias family. Another writer from this country wrote the poetry collections Sonnets of Death and Despair. An author who used to live here wrote the fantasy City of the Beasts along with a retelling of (*) Zorro. The most famous poet from here wrote a 340 poem cycle that examines Latin America from a Marxist view entitled Canto General. Home to the author of The Obscene Bird of Night, Jose Donoso, and the creator of Eva Luna who wrote about the Truebas in House of the Spirits, that author wrote about the dictatorship of Pinochet. The native country of Gabriela Mistral, this is FTP what South American nation, home to Isabel Allende and Pablo Neruda, with captial Santiago.



19. In this event’s subsequent lawsuit, the legal counsel of the defendants, Max Steuer, discredited a witness who did not alter a word of testimony after several repeats, which implied memorization, thus helping acquit Max Blanck and Isaac Harris. Their company had already gained fame two years prior in the Uprising of the 20,000, but it was this notorious occurrence which prompted the creation of the American Society of Safety Engineers. Probably started by a (*) lit cigarette, warning did not reach the 9th floor of the Asch Building in time, the only viable door was locked, and the fire escape quickly collapsed. FTP – Name this 1911 fire in a New York clothing factory.
ANSWER: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

20. A student of this work's artist, Anne-Louis Girodet, depicted a continuation of its story, in which a title character kills his sister for mourning her fiancé, The Death of Camilla. That sister is in the painting itself, along with several other women on the right-hand side. The central figures are preparing to fight an analogous group from Alba Longa, one of whom is Camilla's husband-to-be, who is killed in the altercation. A secondary focus is the background, whose arches number the same as the title (*) characters, while one of the men is clutching a spear in his right hand and himself being held by his brother. A man in front of them has one hand open and three swords in the other, while the three title characters stretch their arms forward towards the swords. FTP name this painting depicting a triplet of soldiers swearing to fight for Rome, by Jacques Louis David.
ANSWER: Oath of the Horatii

Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round One


1. Name these programming languages, FTPE:
[10] This dynamic language created by Larry Wall inspired Python and Ruby. The O’Reilly book on this language has a camel on its cover. Many “one-liners” are scripted in it.
ANSWER: perl (prompt on “Practical Extraction and Reporting Language”)
[10] This mid-level language was developed by Bjarne Soustroup at Bell Labs based on another language with a similar name. It inspired the “sharp” version of the language on which it was based. Most code written in this language features many curly braces.
ANSWER: C++ (“C plus plus”; prompt on “cpp”)
[10] This language, one of the oldest still in use, was developed by Rear Admiral Grace Hopper. It has over 400 reserved words, owing to its almost-natural-language syntax.
ANSWER: COBOL or COmmon Business-Oriented Language
2. Name these pillars of Islam from clues FTPE:
[10] This is a pilgrimage to the city of Mecca, and every Muslim is obliged to make this trip at least once in their lifetime.
ANSWER: hajj
[10] This is the practice of being charitable, and is obligatory for all who are able to do so.
ANSWER: zakat or alms-giving
[10] This second pillar requires that Muslims pray 5 times a day, facing the direction of Mecca.
ANSWER: salat

3. Name these literary fictional languages from descrpitions FTPE:
[10] In this language you will hear some words like Duckspeak, bellyfeel, crimethink, and unperson. It is from the book 1984.
ANSWER: Newspeak
[10] Words in this Russian based-language are Platties, chelloveck, britva, droog. Alex uses it in A Clockwork Orange.
ANSWER: Nadsat slang
[10] Hrududu, marli, ni-frith, and hrair are words in this language, spoken by bunnies in Watership Down.
ANSWER: Lapine language

4. Name these surrealist paintings FTPE:
[10] This famous painting by Salvador Dalí has cliffs and water in the background, with melting pocketwatches and a face in the foreground.
ANSWER: The Persistence of Memory
[10] This Rene Magritte painting depicts a fireplace with a mirror above it, with two candleholders and a clock on the mantel. There is a locomotive coming out of the fireplace.
ANSWER: Time Transfixed
[10] This first painting of Giorgio de Chirico has the viewer in the shadows of two buildings with columns, has a silhouette of an equestrian statue on the right, and shows the titular structure in the middle, with a light source that seems to be coming directly from the right.
ANSWER: The Red Tower

5. Answer the following about prominent military leaders of the German Empire:
[10] As the head of the General Staff in the years leading up to the First World War, this man devised a plan to fight a two-front war by rapidly knocking out France with a massive flanking attack through Belgium, according to his namesake "Plan."
ANSWER: Alfred, Graf von Schlieffen
[10] The Elder was a Prussian Chief of Staff who engineered the victories in the Second Schleswig War, Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War. The Younger was his nephew and successor to Schlieffen as the chief of the General Staff and modified his Plan significantly, but failed to achieve rapid victory over France in WWI.
ANSWER: Helmuth von Moltke
[10] Called back from retirement at the start of WWI, this General worked with Erich Ludendorff to destroy the Russian Army at Tannenberg. In 1925, he was elected President of the Weimar Republic, and was responsible for appointing Hitler as Chancellor in 1933.
ANSWER: Paul von Hindenburg

6. Name these chemists involved in the development of the periodic table FTPE:
[10] The invention of the periodic table is usually credited to this Russian chemist, who was able to predict the properties of some undiscovered elements with his table.
ANSWER: Demitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
[10] This German chemist proposed the Law of Triads, which involved triplets of elements that have similar properties, such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
ANSWER: Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
[10] This English chemist came up with the law of octaves, which proposed that when placed in order of increasing atomic weight, elements with similar properties recurred at intervals of eight.
ANSWER: John Alexander Reina Newlands

7. Name these Molière works FTPE:
[10] Orgon’s family set up a trap for the title character, so that Orgon’s son Damis, while hidden under a table, can catch the title character trying to seduce Elmire, Orgon’s wife. The plan was to prove to Orgon that the title character isn’t as righteous as he seems in this play.
ANSWER: Tartuffe
[10] Nicole, Lucile’s maid, is in love with Covielle, who is the lackey of Cléonte who is in love with Lucile. Lucile is the daughter of title character Monsieur Jourdain in this comédie-ballet whose title is meant to be an oxymoron.
ANSWER: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme or The Bourgeois Gentleman
[10] While many comedies from the time contained asides given to the audience while the other characters don’t notice, the characters in this play demand to know to whom these asides are being delivered. It is said that Molière himself played Harpagon, the title character in this five-act satirical comedy.
ANSWER: L’Avare or The Miser

8. Answer these questions about friction FTPE:
[10] Deceleration caused by friction between an object and air molecules is called this.
ANSWER: air resistance
[10] Tires and ball bearings are able to change sliding friction into this kind of friction, so that a vehicle will experience less deceleration.
ANSWER: rolling friction
[10] The amount of kinetic energy that is converted to heat is given by the constant of kinetic friction times the integral of this force.
ANSWER: normal force

9. FTPE name these things about music before 1600:
[10] The predominant type of chant sung by monks was this kind, named for a pope and contrasted with Ambrosian chant. It developed into Organum and used modes from the Dorian system.
ANSWER: Gregorian chant
[10] These were secular pieces of music that were written for multiple parts. Monteverdi's 8th book of these was entitled The Battle of Tancred and Clorinda and they are contrasted with motets.
ANSWER: Madrigals (prompt on "ricercare")
[10] This Italian composer is probably the most famous renaissance composer, writing the Pope Marcellus Mass along with a book of madrigals that he didn't like.
ANSWER: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (accept either underlined portion)
10. It was used in cities like Copal and Tikan. FTPE:
[10] The only deciphered Mesoamerican writing system, the symbols this used were thought to have been adopted from the Olmec and the Epi-Olmec, but now seems to be the original writing in Mesoamerica.
Answer: Maya script
[10] Maya Script is an example of this partly logographic writing system, which comes from the Greek for "sacred carvings", and is commonly used to refer to the Egyptians.
Answer: Hieroglyphs
[10] Mayan Script was found at the Temple of Inscriptions which was dedicated to the funeral of K'inich Janaab' Pakal at this archaeological site near the Ucumacinta River.
Answer: Palenque

11. Identify these 20th Century philosophers FTPE:
[10] This French existentialist catalogued his beliefs in Being and Nothingness, but is most well known for applying his beliefs to fiction like the plays The Flies and No Exit.
ANSWER: Jean-Paul Sartre
[10] This German controversially collaborated with the Nazis, marring his reputation built on works like Being and Time inspired by the phenomenology of Husserl.
ANSWER: Martin Heidegger
[10] This Algerian-French deconstructivist authored Of Grammatology which analyzes the relationship of speech and writing in Western culture, along with Writing and Difference and Speech and Phenomena.
ANSWER: Jacques Derrida

12. It chronicles the obese Ignatius J. Reilly living with his mother in New Orleans, attempting jobs at Levy Pants and Paradise Vendors before escaping with his pseudo-girlfriend, Myra Minkoff. FTPE:
[10] Name this novel.
ANSWER: A Confederacy of Dunces
[10] This author of A Confederacy of Dunces committed suicide more than a decade before his magnum opus was published.
ANSWER: John Kennedy Toole
[10] A Confederacy of Dunces is set up a bit like this author’s Consolation of Philosophy, Ignatius Reilly’s favorite book. It was written while its author was in prison awaiting execution.
ANSWER: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius

13. Give these things related to a venereal disease FTPE:
[10] This curable STD is caused by a spirochete, and victims include Paul Gauguin, Henry VIII, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
ANSWER: syphilis
[10] This unethical syphilis experiment in Alabama was performed on a group of 600 blacks, who were left untreated so that the course of the disease could be followed.
ANSWER: Tuskegee syphilis study
[10] This type of lesion forms at the point of contact with a spirochete in primary syphilis, about 10-90 days after exposure.
ANSWER: chancre

14. Name these parts of a cathedral FTPE:
[10] This part is associated with Jesus’ head, and is usually the location of mosaics, paintings, and various other iconographies.
ANSWER: apse
[10] This is the location of the altar, and is associated with Jesus’ heart.
ANSWER: crossing
[10] This is located under the crossing, and is where relics are stored.
ANSWER: crypt

15. Name these cities in Pakistan, FTPE:
[10] Its largest city.
ANSWER: Karachi
[10] Its capital, constructed in the 1960s.
ANSWER: Islamabad
[10] This city just south of Islamabad served as the nation's capital while the latter was being constructed. In 2007 Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in its Liaquat National Park.
ANSWER: Rawalpindi

16. In 1898, a conflict occurred between the United States and Spain. Answer the following FTPE.
[10] The Spanish-American War was fought over the independence of this nation, which was previously controlled by Spain.
[10] Part of the reason the Americans joined the Cuban fight for independence was the explosion of this ship on the coast of Cuba.
ANSWER: U.S.S. Maine
[10] The Battle of San Juan Hill also included the assault of this hill by Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders.
ANSWER: Kettle Hill

17. FTPE, answer these related questions about a novella:
[10] This novella uses the story-within-a-story device, with an unnamed narrator recounting another character's retelling of his journey. The protagonist arrives at the Central Station and discovers that his steamship has been sunk. After repairing it, he sets out to find Kurtz, the anti-hero of the story, whose last words when he dies are “The horror! The horror!”
ANSWER: Heart of Darkness
[10] Almost 75 years after Heart of Darkness was written, this author published an essay criticizing it, called An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's “Heart of Darkness”. In it, he accuses Conrad of perpetuating xenophobic stereotypes of Africans. This author was himself criticized by some for his criticism of Conrad.
ANSWER: Chinua Achebe or Albert Chinualumogu Achebe
[10] This 1979 film directed by Francis Ford Coppola is an adaptation of Heart of Darkness, telling the story of Captain Benjamin Willard, who is sent into the jungles of Vietnam to assassinate Colonel Kurtz.
ANSWER: Apocalypse Now

18. Answer the following about real-life places Odysseus may have visited during his long detour through places that weren't home sweet home, FTPE:
[10] After killing Polyphemus, Poseidon tries to kill Odysseus with a storm, but Athena guides him to Scheria, the home of these people. Nausicaa finds him and introduces him to her father, King Alcinous.
ANSWER: Phaeacians
[10] Some Maltese have been advocating the theory that their island Gozo is this island home of Calypso, who kept Odysseus in sexual imprisonment for seven years.
ANSWER: Ogygia
[10] This channel of water is sometimes suggested as the location of the monsters Scylla and Charybdis, due to its perilous eddies and currents dangerous to any ancient mariner.
ANSWER: Strait of Messina

19. Name these films in the Library of Congress's National Film Registry FTPE:
[10] The film with the longest title in the Registry is this 1964 with Peter Sellers playing the title role, among others.
ANSWER: Dr. Strangelove or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
[10] The Registry contains five movies directed by this early director, including Intolerance and The Birth of a Nation.
ANSWER: D(avid) W(ahr) Griffith
[10] William H. Macy plays car salesmen Jerry Lundegaard, who hires two men to capture his wife in an attempt to scam his father-in-law, in this Coen brothers film, the most recent in the Registry, which, despite its name, takes place mostly in Minnesota.

20. Name these agreements that Russia signed, FTPE:
[10] The Russo-Japanese War was ended by this treaty signed in a town in New Hampshire.
ANSWER: Treaty of Portsmouth
[10] This 1689 treaty between Russia and the Qing Empire saw the former relinquish hopes of gaining access to the Sea of Japan and established the border between Russia and China along the Stanovoy Ridge and Argun River.
ANSWER: Treaty of Nerchinsk
[10] This 1939 non-agression pact between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia is named for the foreign ministers of the two nations.
ANSWER: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (prompt on “Treaty of Non-agression between Germany and the USSR”, “Nazi-Soviet Pact”, “German-Soviet Non-agression Pact”, etc.)


Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Five


1. The discovery that led to this event was registered under the name of George Cormack due to anti-Native American racism of the time, but the actual discovery was by Tagish First Nation member Skookum Jim Mason.  For two winters, famine threatened the area due to the influx of people, famously depicted by Charlie Chaplin eating a (*) shoe.  Later regulation by the Mounties forced incomers to bring a year’s worth of supplies.  Dawson City became a boom town of over 37 times its current population, but under Sam Steele’s command the Mounted Police was able to avert disorder.  FTP – name this late 19th Century mass migration for mineral prospecting along a Canadian River.
ANSWER: Klondike Gold Rush (prompt on Yukon Gold Rush)

2. Many of his later works like Puck of Pook's Hill are set in Sussex, and he married the sister of his collaborator on The Naulahka. He wrote about the horrors of five years of his childhood spent in a foster home in "Baa Baa, Black Sheep", a story in the collection Wee Willie Winkie. His place of birth is the setting for many of his more famous works, including a story in The Phantom Rickshaw about Daniel Dravot and Peachy Carnahan, "The Man (*) Who Would be King". Racial superiority was the impetus for exhorting Europeans to "send forth the best ye breed" in "The White Man's Burden", while many of his other poems were first published in Barrack-Room Ballads. FTP name this Anglo-Indian author of Kim, Gunga Din, and The Jungle Book.
ANSWER: (Joseph) Rudyard Kipling


3. Their ability to absorb and scatter solar radiation is measured by their SSA. Black carbon has an SSA of 0.23, indicating that it very absorbing. According to the IPCC, it is difficult to model the effect of these on global warming, because of uncertainties regarding their atmospheric burden, anthropogenic contribution, and their optical parameters. Inhalation of these can cause diseases such as silicosis and black lung. They are a major source of pollution in industrial cities such as Mexico City and Beijing. Examples of these include (*) smoke, dust, and smog. They differ from sols in that the continuous medium is always a gas, usually air. FTP, give this term which in common usage can also refer to a spray can capable of dispensing it. 
ANSWER: aerosols (accept “particulate matter” before “spray can” is read; do not prompt on “sol”) 


4. During his stay as hostage in Thebes, he was greatly influenced by Epaminondas, and returned home to the throne after the death of brother  Perdiccas .  It was during this time that he invented the use of the sarissa pike and formed the core of the army that would fight at the seige of Methone, where an arrow penetrated his right eye.  Later, his forces annihilated the Sacred Band of Thebes and decicively defeat the Theban ally Athens at (*) Chaeronea, following which he formed the League of Corinth, sometimes called the Hellenic League.  However, his invasion of Persia was just getting underway when he was murdered by his bodyguard Pausanias of Orestis.  FTP -- Name this father of Alexander the Great.
ANSWER: Philip II of Macedon (accept the name with either underlined part)


5. He concluded that the minds of the “primitive” man and the “civilized” man are the same, but that their responses to situations are different because of their different cultural backgrounds, which he then used to disprove the universality of Freud’s Oedipal Complex in Sex and Repression in Savage Society. He founded a school of anthropology that focuses on how an individual’s needs are served by societal institutions, practices and beliefs, and how the psychology of an individual can change their society, known as functionalism. His most famous work involved study of the Kula ring system. (*) FTP, name this Polish/Austrian anthropologist whose most famous works include Myth in Primitive Society, Magic, Science and Religion, and Argonauts of the Western Pacific.
ANSWER: Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski 

6. His 4-movement Violin Concerto in D Major contains a Tocatta, 2 Arias, and is ended with a Capriccio and was choreographed by George Balanchine in Balustrade. Another collaborations with Balanchine involved the late serialist work Agon and he arranged the Star Spangled Banner along with writing the Dumbarton Oaks concerto after moving to America. His neoclassical works include a work with a double fugue movement that lacks violin and viola and sets “Expectans expectavi Domini” and ends with psalm 150, and is known as the Symphony of (*) Psalms. More famous for works depicting the struggles of Ivan Tsarevich against Katschei, while another is split into the sections Adoration of the Earth and The Sacrifice and depicts a pagan ritual where a virgin dances herself to death. FTP name this Russian born composer of the ballets Petrushka, The Firebird, and The Rite of Spring.
ANSWER: Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky

7. Most of them are pseudoscalars, and the heaviest is a vector. One set of neutral ones require a small correction for charge-parity violation, and they were originally believed to be carriers of the strong force. Their flavorless varieties are known quarkonia, which include the J-Psi, or charmonium. Examples of these particles that exist outside of the quark model include glueballs and tetraquarks and (*) Hideki Yukawa won the Nobel Prize for predicting these. Named for the heavier of the two quarks in their composition, FTP, name these strongly interacting hadronic bosons whose name comes from the Greek word for middle.
Answer: Mesons

8. The last section of this work talks about the monistic and pluralistic ways of reading Whitman’s poem “To You,” and earlier its author asserts that there are two types of people: tender-minded and tough-minded. The second section of this work discusses a man chasing a squirrel around a tree and posits the question “Does the Man go round the squirrel or not?” Subtitled “A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking” this work was published after its author’s previous works (*) Varieties of Religious Experience and Principles of Psychology. FTP, identify this work, which names the philosophical movement led by C. S. Peirce and John Dewey, written by William James.
ANSWER: Pragmatism

9. This author asked “Mortals, what one of you that loves not me / Abundantly more then my sisters three?” in the Air section of The Four Elements, while another work is a discussion between two sisters near the Lacrim flood, The Flesh and the Spirit. A more famous work include the lines “The world no longer let me love;/ My hope and Treasure lies above” and is entitled (*) Verses upon the Burning our House. She did not know that her brother in law secretly published her most well known works, which include To My Dear and Loving Husband. FTP name this poet of The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung up in America, the first famous woman American author.
ANSWER: Anne Dudley Bradstreet (accept either underlined portion)

10. Barnard 33 is an example of a dark one. The Wings of the Butterfly one and the Red Square one are examples of the bipolar type. The Pleiades is an example of a reflection type, which do not produce much visible light, and the Omega one is an example of an emission type, which contain ionized gas. Italo Calvino wrote in his short story “At Daybreak” about living in one. The term was originally used for any extended astronomical object, and was used to describe the Andromeda Galaxy at one time. (*) The Eagle one contains the Pillars of Creation, and other notable ones include the Cat’s Eye and Crab ones. FTP, give the name for an interstellar cloud of dust, gas, and plasma, which comes from the Latin for “mist”, also known as a “stellar nursery”.
ANSWER: nebula


11. It is alleged that she had an affair with Ares that resulted in the birth of Parthenopaeus, and the centaurs Hylaeus and Rhaecus tried to rape her.  Her father Iasus abandoned her because he wanted a boy, but a she-bear was sent so she couls suckle.  Her face was “too boyish for a girl, but too girlish for a boy,” and she was a child, her fortune said that marriage would be her ruin.  Toxeus and Plexippus were killed over a gift to this figure by their nephew, and Rhea made her and her husband into the lions that pull her chariot after she failed to pay her respects to Venus, as Hippomenes was lent three (*) golden apples in his race with this hunter, who killed any who challenged her to a foot race and lost.  FTP, Meleager killed his uncles over a gift to what mythical female hunter?
ANSWER: Atalanta

12. This author wrote a short story in which onlookers waiting for a bus observe a series of tragedies in the rain, “Beneath the Shelter”. In addition to “The Answer is No” and “The Conjurer Made Off With the Dish”, this author wrote a novel in which Gamasa captures a genie that puts a double in his place that gets beheaded after the ruler decrees that no more virgins shall be killed. Said Mahran is the title character of this man’s novel The Thief and the Dogs, and (*) Ahmad al-Jawad is the patriarch of the family at the center of this author’s most famous work. For ten points, identify this author of Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street, the Egyptian who wrote the Cairo Trilogy.
ANSWER: Naguib Mahfouz

13. A legendary curse attached to his tomb would unleash the demons of war into the country of anyone who enters, and sure enough, three days after Mikhail Gerasimov opened his tomb, the Nazis invaded Russia. After destroying the armies of Bayazid I at Ankara and recieving the submission of the sultan of Egypt, he turned East planning a final great expedition against China, but fell ill and died in 1405. This leader (*) slaughtered 20,000 inhabitants of Baghdad, razed Delhi to the ground, and depleted Damascus of its artisans during his conquests. FTP - Name this Mongol-Turkic conqueror who strove to make his capital Samarkand the most splendid in all Asia.
ANSWER: Timur-e Lang (Timur the Lame, Tamerlane, Tamburlane)

14. An 1832 tour of northern Africa inspired many of this artist's later works, including Women of Algiers in Their Apartment. At the Paris Salon a decade earlier, he had displayed his first major work, Dante and Virgil in Hell. He was friends with Frederic Chopin and George Sand, whom he painted in 1838, and may have been the illegitimate son of Charles (*) Talleyrand. He greatly admired Lord Byron, using one of Byron's plays as the basis for his The Death of Sardanapalus, and showing support for the cause Byron died fighting for with The Massacre at Chios. FTP name this French artist best known for his commemoration of the July Revolution of 1830, Liberty Leading the People.
ANSWER: (Ferdinand-)Eugène(-Victor) Delacroix

15. One lies on the counter of an apothecary in Riverside Scenes at Qingming. Its name is derived from a word meaning “table sprinkled with sand or dust” because the first version of one used by the Babylonians were like that. The quipu of the Incas used (*) string, the Russian schoty has wires that are bulged upward in the center, and the Roman ones use grooves in tablets. The Chinese suanpan can handle decimal and hexadecimal, while the Japanese soroban that has two beads less can only count in decimal. FTP, name this counting device whose most well-known version consists of beads on wires set in a wooden frame. 
ANSWER: abacus   

16. His collections of poetry include Playful Evil, Easter of Gea, and a translation of Goethe’s Roman Elegies. The influence of psychologist Alfred Binet can be seen in his essay On Humor, and other psychological themes can be seen in his short story collections The Trap and And Tomorrow, Monday.... He wrote about Sicily in the late 19th century in The Old and the Young, but his most successful novel was The Late Mattia Pascal. He is most famous, though, for his plays, including (*) Right You Are (If You Think You Are), Henry IV, and one featuring The Boy, The Child, The Son, The Stepdaughter, The Father, and The Mother. FTP name this Italian playwright best known for that play, Six Characters in Search of an Author.
ANSWER: Luigi Pirandello


17. Kalinga used to be home to many of its followers, until Ashoka invaded and converted the region to Buddhism. Each Kalchakra consists of one progressive time cycle and one regressive time cycle, mirroring the turning of a wheel. According to its cosmology, we are currently in the 5th period of a regressive time cycle. It holds that Tirthankaras, or “fordmakers”, of which there have been 24 in the “present age”, reveal the truth and show others the path to enlightenment. A person's jiva, or soul, can take on a new body after physical death. It has two main sects, Digambara and Svetgambara, the main difference being whether the wearing of (*) clothes is allowed. Adherents practice Ahimsa, which means “non-violence”, or absence of desire to harm any living thing, in order to prevent the accumulation of harmful karma. The devout often cover their mouths to avoid harming insects. FTP, name this religion founded by Mahavira in ancient India.
ANSWER: Jainism or Jain Dharma

18. It is different from other buildings of its style because its bas-reliefs depicting the churning of the Ocean of Milk proceed in a counter-clockwise direction and it faces west instead of east. The quincunx of towers represents the five peaks of Mount Meru. This building was used as the capital city for King Suryavarman II, and is surrounded by a moat. It appears on the flag of the country it’s located in, and was once dedicated to (*) Vishnu, but is now a Buddhist temple. Its name comes from Sanskrit for capital and Khmer for temple, and it is an example of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. FTP, name this Cambodian temple built in the 12th century.
ANSWER: Angkor Wat or Angkor Vat


19. In the unedited version of this song a much heavier metal interlude is begun by an E minor arpeggio which is ended by a held  note carrying over into the 3rd verse as the A minor theme is reintroduced. It discusses the seasons, wind, sun, and rain as examples of cyclic death, and the narrator desires to be like them. HIM did a cover of this song as a duet, and it also inspired their “Join Me In (*) Death.” The 2nd verse cites that 40,000 men and women redefine happiness every day, and says that Romeo and Juliet are together in eternity. In the last verse it is clear that a woman can’t go on, and the title character appears after her candle disappears and the curtains blow before taking her hand and flying, representative of her suicide, in FTP what single from the 1976 Agents of Fortune album by Blue Öyster Cult?
ANSWER: (Don’t Fear) The Reaper

20. Somatic hypermutation occurs in their variable domains, and serves to increase their binding strength through affinity maturation. The nicking and breaking of DNA by AID and uracil DNA glycosylase at two S regions followed by non-homologous end joining results in their isotype switching, and their variable regions are encoded in V, D, and J segments. Their monomer consists of four polypeptide chains, two heavy and two light, and, of their five classes, one is a pentamer and one a dimer. IgM and IgA are examples of these proteins produced in the humoral (*) immune system by B cells, which, FTP, bind to antigens.
Answer: Antibodies or immunoglobulins

Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Five


1. Given an American naval commander and his famous quote, state the battle in which it is uttered, FTPE:
[10] Master-Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours."
ANSWER: Battle of Lake Erie
[10] Rear Admiral David Farragut, "Damn the torpedoes!  Full speed ahead!"
ANSWER: Battle of Mobile Bay
[10] Commodore George Dewey, "You may fire when ready, Gridley."
ANSWER: Battle of Manila Bay

2. Name these digestive enzymes FTPE:
[10] These enzymes break down starch into maltose, and can be found in saliva and the pancreas.
ANSWER: amylase
[10] This water-soluble enzyme serves as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of ester bonds in lipids. It cleaves 44 amino acids from its zymogen to form more of itself. It works in acidic environments with pH 1.5 to 2.
ANSWER: lipase
[10] Discovered by Theodor Schwann, this first animal enzyme to be discovered.
ANSWER: pepsin

3. Yeah, everyone knows about Hercules' labors, so it's time to see what else you know about the muscle-bound idiot.  Answer the following about the other stuff he did, FTPE.
[10] This centaur tried to take his wife Deianira, but Hercules shot him.  With his dying breath, he got the best of the brute by convincing his wife to use his blood in order to preserve Hercules' love.  Deianira would later get jealous and inadvertently kill Hercules.
ANSWER:  Nessus
[10] Of course we're going to touch on the myths.  Hercules ended up being Eurystheus' fetch boy for twelve years in order to repent for killing his kids by this wife.
ANSWER:  Megara
[10] When hearing of the utter faithfulness of this wife of Admetus, Hercules went and got her back.  In some legends, this involved beating up Thanatos himself.
ANSWER:  Alcestis 

4. Name these artists with something in common FTPE:
[10] This artist who moved to New Mexico started going blind at the age of 84, and painted subjects that are usually rocks, shells, animal bones, and most notably flowers.
ANSWER: Georgia O'Keefe
[10] She started out very late in her life, and her scenes of rural life were used on covers of Hallmark cards and became very popular. She lived to the age of 101.
ANSWER: Grandma or Anna Mary Robertson Moses
[10] She is known for diluting oil paint with turpentine or kerosene, so that the pigment would soak into the canvas, a technique known as "soak stain". One famous work is Mountains and Sea.
ANSWER: Helen Frankenthaler

5. FTPE, name these alpha stars of different constellations. Note that you will need to provide the common name of the star, and not just "alpha" followed by the name of the constellation.
[10] This fifth brightest star in the sky and brightest star in Lyra will be the north star in about 12,000 years.
[10] This star whose name comes from the Arabic for "tail" is the brightest star in Cygnus.
[10] While not part of the Hyades star cluster, this star appears as such to the naked eye. It is the brightest star in Taurus.
ANSWER: Aldebaran

6. This man wrote the poem Eloisa To Abelard, which was the source of the title Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. FTPE:
[10] Identify this satirical British poet from the 1700s who wrote The Dunciad, which was features the goddess Dulness, as well as An Essay on Man and An Essay on Criticism
ANSWER: Alexander Pope
[10] This mock epic by Pope revolves around Belinda trying to protect a snippet of her hair that Lord Petre wants. Also present is the gnome Umbriel.
ANSWER: The Rape of the Lock
[10] This other poet was the "hero" of the second edition of The Dunciad. Alexander Pope reviled his works such as The Provok'd Husband, and took every possible chance to insult him.
ANSWER: Colley Cibber

7. Let's find out how much you know about Japan at the turn of the 17th century, FTPE:
[10] This man started a shogunate named after him in 1603, and remained in power until his death in 1616.
ANSWER: Tokugawa Ieyasu
[10] Tokugawa Ieyasu's ascension to power was the culmination of 3 years of gains after his victory at this battle, the most important in Japanese history.
ANSWER: Battle of Sekigahara or the Realm Divide
[10] At the Battle of Sekigahara, Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated forces loyal to this son of Yono and a man who united most of Japan before Tokugawa did.
ANSWER: Toyotomi Hideyori (prompt on Toyotomi; do not accept Toyotomi Hideyoshi)

8. FTPE, answer these questions about the Russian language:
[10] Russian belongs to this subfamily of the Indo-European languages. Other languages in this group include Polish and Bulgarian.
ANSWER: Slavic or Slavonic languages
[10] With his brother Methodius, this sainted monk devised the first alphabet for Slavic languages in the 9th century. A different alphabet named for him is used for writing Russian to this day.
ANSWER: St. Cyril
[10] This is the alphabet that Cyril introduced. It is not used today, but looks mega-freaky and mega-awesome.
ANSWER: Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa (regional variants exist, so be lenient with pronunciation)

9. Name these types of musical scales from clues FTPE:
[10] In The Sound of Music, Maria teaches this scale to the Von Trapp children in the song “Do-Re-Mi”.
ANSWER: major scale
[10] Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov’s Flight of the Bumblebee opens with a descending scale of this type.
ANSWER: chromatic scale
[10] Hatikvah, the national anthem of Israel, opens with part of an ascending scale of this type.
ANSWER: minor scale

10. Answer these questions about John Bardeen, FTPE:
[10] Bardeen was the first person to win two Nobel prizes in the same field. The first one was awarded to him for the invention of this device, which he invented with Shockley and Brattain. Composed of semiconductors, they are divided into PNP and NPN types and are commonly used as amplifiers or switches in electric circuits.
ANSWER: transistor
[10] Bardeen’s second Nobel prize was for co-developing BCS theory with Cooper and Schrieffer. BCS theory describes the conventional type of this electromagnetic phenomenon, in which certain materials become superdiamagnetic and conduct DC current with zero resistance when cooled near absolute zero.
ANSWER: superconductivity or superconductor
[10] Semiconductors in transistors, p-type and n-type, have impurities deliberately added to them as part of this process. Boron, arsenic, or phosphorus is added in order to create extra valence electrons or holes into which electrons can move.
ANSWER: doping

11. FTPE Identify these things about a Jewish French philosopher:
[10] This author of Creative Evolution and Matter and Memory.
ANSWER: Henri Bergson
[10] Henri Bergson wrote an essay on this action, subtitled "An Essay on the meaning of the Comic." It is what one often does when something funny happens, or they are tickled.
ANSWER: laughter (accept word forms like laugh, etc.)
[10] Bergson developed this concept as an explanation for evolution. It is a 2 word phrase coined in Creative Evolution.
ANSWER: elan vital or vital force or clear equivalents

12. Name these Asian rivers FTPE:
[10] This third longest river in the world is found in China, flowing nearly 4,000 miles before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai.
ANSWER: Yangtze or Chang Jiang River
[10] The river valley that bears this name was home to the Harrapa civilization, and it is one of the five rivers for which the region of Punjab was named.
ANSWER: Indus or Sindh or Sindhu or Hindu or Abasin or Sengge Chu or Yindù River
[10] The city of Mandalay lies on this longest river in Burma.
ANSWER: Irrawaddy or Ayeyarwady River

13. Name these types of goods, FTPE:
[10] These goods, such as air and lighthouses, are non-rival and non-excludable, meaning consumption by one individual does not reduce the amount available to others.
ANSWER:Public goods
[10] In contrast to experience goods, these are goods whose features and characteristics are easily evaluated before purchase.
ANSWER: Search goods
[10] Named after an economist known for his work on conspicuous consumption, these are goods for which people’s preference increases as a direct function of the price because they are perceived as exclusive or high-status products. Some examples are luxury cars, wines, and perfumes.
ANSWER: Veblen goods

14.  Name these women who had visions FTPE: 
[10] She had many religious visions from St. Margaret, St. Catherine, and St. Michael, but most famously she had a vision from God that told her regain her homeland from English control during the Hundred Years’ War. 
ANSWER: Joan of Arc 
[10] She wrote that she had visions from childhood, and started recording her visions in 1141 when God told her to do so. She compiled her visions into three books: Scivias, Liber vitae meritorum, and De operatione Dei. 
ANSWER: Hildegard of Bingen 
[10] In 1774 she had a vision that told her to reestablish her church in America, which is called The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing. There are only four members remaining today, settled at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. 
ANSWER: Mother Ann or Ann Lee Stanley

15. FTPE, name these classical architectural orders: 
[10] This order was seldom used in Greek architecture, although it was Greek in origin. It was invented by Callimachus, who was inspired by a woven basket with a square tile over it, through which an acanthus plant had grown. 
ANSWER: Corinthian 
[10] This order features more slender columns than the earlier Doric order, and has a capital made up of a volute resting on top of an echinus. The volutes of the capitals are constructible using only a compass, straightedge, string, and a right angle. 
ANSWER: Ionic 
[10] This Italian order features unfluted columns and unadorned capitals and entablatures. It is simple like the Doric order, but uses the proportions of the Ionic order. Called “carpenter’s Doric” in gardening, it was used for military buildings and warehouses, because of its strong look. 
ANSWER: Tuscan 

16. Identify these Latin American authors who spent time in and wrote about the USA FTPE:
[10] This Mexican poet was inspired by Mexicans in Los Angeles to write the book length essay discussing Mexican identity from mythical, religious, and socio-cultural perspectives The Labyrinth of Solitude. He also wrote Sun Stone about the planet Venus.
ANSWER: Octavio Paz Lozano
[10] This Colombian author wrote a lot about the village of Macondo, based on Aracataca, and some of his works include the story of the Arab Santiago Nasar's murder, Chronicle of a Death Foretold, as well as the story of the Buendias, 100 years of Solitude.
ANSWER: Gabriel Garcia Marquez (do not prompt on a partial answer)
[10] This Cuban poet and journalist is sometimes credited with the creation of Modernismo and wrote works like Versos Sencillos. He is most notable for organizing support for Cuban and Puerto Rican independence from Spain during his exile in the US, where he also served as consul to Argentina.
ANSWER: José Julián Martí y Peréz

17. Name these related things FTPE: 
[10] This fast food chain is named after a character from the 1971 film The French Connection who was named after a real police detective Eddie Egan, who got his nickname because of his keen observational skills. 
ANSWER: Popeye's
[10] Some of these fruits have been found buried in Pompeii, but they are more commonly found stuffed with pimento in martinis. 
ANSWER: olives
[10] This model organism is related to the plant Gregor Mendel worked with, but its seeds contain a neurotoxin and causes odoratism when ingested.
ANSWER: sweet pea

18. Vishnu takes different forms, depending on what the situation requires.  Identify the following about his ten avatars, FTPE.
[10] The first avatar, Matsya, is Vishnu in the form of this animal, and Manu builds a ship which was then tied to its great horn in order to survive the Flood.
ANSWER:  fish
[10] The second avatar, the tortoise Kurma, had a mountain put on his back, which, along with the serpent Vasuki as a rope,was then used to obtain the elixir of immortality.  Unfortunately a deadly poison also came up, which this god swallowed, thus obtaining his blue neck.
ANSWER:  Shiva
[10] The seventh avatar of Vishnu is as this epic hero, while the sixth avatar is him “with an axe.”
ANSWER:  Rama 

19. Name these poisonous gases FTPE:
[10] This product of partial combustion of carbon compounds, and turns hemoglobin into carboxy-hemoglobin, which cannot deliver oxygen.
ANSWER: carbon monoxide or CO
[10] This gas had an almond-like odor, and was used by the Nazis as a method of mass murder.
ANSWER: hydrogen cyanide or HCN
[10] This gas is the cause of odor in rotten eggs and farts, and usually results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, like in swamps and sewers. It blocks oxygen and stops cellular respiration if inhaled, but there are enzymes in the body that can detoxify it, so  low levels of it are safe.
ANSWER: hydrogen sulfide or H2S or sulfuretted hydrogen or sulfane or sulfur hydride or sour gas or sulfurated hydrogen or hydrosulfuric acid (prompt on sewer gas)

20. In this book, the character George Hurstwood descends from his middle class life into poverty. FTPE:
[10] Identify this novel about a certain Ms. Meeber who social climbs to become a famous actress.
ANSWER: Sister Carrie
[10] This man wrote Sister Carrie as well as the story of Clyde Griffiths who kills Roberta Alden. That novel is An American Tragedy.
ANSWER: Theodore Dreiser
[10] This man is the title character of the novels The Financier, The Titan, and The Stoic. He is a businessman in Philadelphia.
ANSWER: Frank Cowperwood (accept either underlined portion)


Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Four


1. Many naval vessels have at one point carried this name such as the Admiral Kuznetsovand the Ulyanovsk.  The most famous one sits on the former site of Prince Dolgorukiy’s hunting lodge on Borovitskiy Cape at the confluence of the Neglinnaya River and a river bearing the name of the city it is located in.  Though the aforementioned one is by far the most famous, many others exist such as the one in Novgorod. (*) FTP, name this complex on the Moscow River that bears the name of the Russian word for fortress, which became synonymous with the government of the Soviet Union.    
ANSWER: Moscow Kremlin (Do not accept Red Square)

2. This movement founded in the 18th century was opposed by a group whose name literally means “those who oppose”. Founded on the two principles of religious panentheism  and Devekus, communion between God and man, adherents are distinguished by their wearing of kolpiks and satin caftans.  Organized into dynasties, among them Ger and Belz, (*) they typically segregate themselves from secular civilization. Found primarily in Crown Heights or Israel, FTP  name this form of Orthodox Judaism originating with the Baal Shem Tov who count among its members, Chabad Lubatvich who can be found on college campuses worldwide.
ANSWER: Chasidism(also except Hasidim/Hasidut/Chasidic Jews)

3. On its northern coast is Point Pedro, and its rivers include the Yan Oya and Aruvi Aru. Off its coast is Delft island, and the Victoria Falls Reservoir is in its center. Its largest mountain is Pidurutalagala, and the North Eastern province's capital is Trincomalee. The peninsula on its northern tip connected by Elephant Pass and is named after the city Jaffna, which has been a rebel base. It got one of its former names from the city Kandy. The (*) Adam's bridge connects it to the mainland, and spans the Palk Straight. Buddhism was brought here by Ashoka's son Mahinda. FTP name this island nation which has had an ongoing civil war between the southern Sinhalese and the northern Tamils, who practice Hinduism, with a de facto capital at Colombo and which is near India.
ANSWER: Sri Lanka

4. An early known example of one was Kur, who was killed by Enki, Ninurta, and Inanna. In Korea , they are said to resemble the outlines of mountain chains. The Chinese type is usually benevolent, and their bones were believed to have medicinal uses.  Pliny the Elder wrote of one fighting with an elephant, while Cadmus killed one that guarded Castalian Springone, and another called Ladon (*) guarded the apples of Hesperides.  In Asia they fly without wings and control the rain and the four oceans, while in Europe they have wings and usually guard hoards of treasure, only to be slain and have their treasure taken. FTP, name this mythical creature that is always seen in a Chinese New Year parade.
ANSWER: dragons  
5. Ted van der Parre is the only Dutch winner of this annual competition, while former champions from Britain include Gary Taylor and Geoff Capes. Since hosting and winning in the first six years of this competition's existence, America has hosted only twice, in 1997 and 2007, and produced only one winner, in 2006. Events include Farmer's Walk and Keg (*) Toss, and former champions include Finns Janne Virtanen and Jouko Ahola, and Swede Magnus Samuelsson, the self-professed "king of" one of the signature events, the Atlas Stones. One commentator is 3-time champion Bill Kazmaier, while the three 4-time champions have been two Icelanders, Jón Páll Sigmarsson and Magnús Ver Magnússon, and the current champion, Mariusz Pudzianowski. FTP name this programming staple of ESPN2 that requires contestants to complete activities such as lifting barrels loaded with weights and pulling trains.
ANSWER: (Met-Rx) World's Strongest Man (prompt on Strongest Man; do not accept generic terms like "strongman competitions")

6. In Article 9, the parties agreed to maintain cruisers off the coast of Africa to help enforce the abolition of the slave trade, while Article 10 dealt with extradition, an issue highlighted by the Caroline Affair involving political fugitives from the failed Upper Canada Rebellion. Granting 7,015 square miles of disputed territory to one of the parties, it also defined the boundaries from (*) Lake of the Woods 49 degrees north to the Rocky Mountains, but the question of Oregon was left undecided.  FTP – name this US-Britain treaty of 1842 named after two diplomats, which concluded the so-called Aroostook War.
ANSWER: Webster-Ashburton treaty

7. They are functionalized via 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition in the Prato reaction, and their 6, 6 bonds can react as dienes or dienophiles in the Diels-Alder reaction. They are resistant to hydrogenation, but they can be oxidized via osmium tetraoxide and a 2002 study showed that they can organically synthesized, but they are usually generated by a current between graphite electrodes. They can form inclusion compounds known as endohedral and according to Euler's theorem their smallest type needs twelve pentagons to form a closed and stable molecule. (*) Nanotubes are a cylindrical version of, FTP, these carbon allotropes which often take the shape of soccer balls.
Answer: buckminsterfullerenes or buckyballs (accept buckytubes or carbon nanotubes during the first sentence)

8. Its 42nd chapter, entitled “Vanished into the Clouds,” is left blank, implying the title character's death. Earlier, the title character contemplates the transience of life after the death of his wife, who wished to become a nun after her husband married the Third Princess. Throughout his life, the main character engages in many affairs with different women, including his half-brother's (*) concubine and his stepmother, with whom he fathers the future emperor. Very few of the characters are given an explicit name, so modern readers keep track of them using nicknames based on, for example, the color of the character's clothing. FTP, name this Heian period work written by Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu, considered by some to be “the first novel.”
ANSWER: The Tale of Genji or Genji Monogatari


9. He published his first paper about “the testicles of eels” at the University in the city he lived most of his life. The analysis of “Irma’s Injection,” a dream based on the botched nasal surgery of his patient Emma Eckstein, whom he had prescribed cocaine, formed the basis of one of his most important works. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle, he introduced the theory of the death drive, or Thanatos, which is in constant conflict with Eros, the life drive. Otto Rank, formerly one of his closest colleagues, disagreed with his (*) Oedipus complex theory and was consequently expelled from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He proposed a structural model of the psyche as being divided into the id, ego, and super-ego. FTP, name this Austrian author of The Interpretation of Dreams, known as the “father of psychoanalysis.”
ANSWER: Sigmund Freud

10. There are over 367 known proofs for this, including a proof by differential equations, a proof using similar triangles, a proof by rearrangement, and Euclid’s proof which appeared as Proposition 47 in Book 1 of the Elements. However, there cannot be any (*) trigonometric proof for it because the trigonometric identities are themselves proven using it. By its converse, which is also true, tying 12 equally-spaced knots in a loop of rope may have allowed ancient Egyptians to construct right angles. A more general form of it is the law of cosines, which holds true for all triangles. FTP, name this theorem of Euclidean geometry which states that the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of its legs.
ANSWER: Pythagorean theorem

11. The piece opens with triplets of octave chords of G. The title character is sings that he is charmed by an unnamed child's "beautiful shape" and offers the child his mother's golden garments, his daughters' nightly dance, and promises to play games with him. The four parts are all sung by one person, where a higher range signifies the child's part, a lower range signifies the (*) father's part. The child is dying of an unknown ailment, and is claiming to see the title figure, while his father is telling him he is only seeing trees and clouds. FTP, name this piece that uses Johann von Goethe's poem as lieder, written by Franz Schubert.
ANSWER: The Erlking or Der Erlkönig

12. It occurs because, due to the spin-statistics theorem, electrons have half-integer spin and therefore their wavefunctions are asymmetric under exchange of particle positions. Materials that display this property align their dipoles into Weiss domains which are divided by Bloch or Néel walls and a (*)hysteresis curve describes the magnetization of such materials under an external field. Because this effect competes with entropy as the temperature rises, it is no longer displayed by materials above the Curie point. FTP, name this phenomenon, a tendency to maintain spontaneous magnetization, often seen in cobalt and iron.
Answer: Ferromagnetism

13. Examples of this civilization's writing have been found in the village of Cascajal outside their earliest known building site, San Lorenzo. Other major cities in its heartland by the Tuxtla mountains are Tres Zapotes and its capital, built on an island in the Tonalá River. Much of their art is based on a jaguar god, including much in that capital, La Venta. Some historians have hypothesized that (*) African traders visited this civilization, thus explaining the Negroid facial features of this culture's distinctive giant stone heads. FTP, name this civilization that was succeeded by the Zapotecs and Mayans, among others, after flourishing from 1200 BC to 400 BC, the oldest in Mesoamerica.
ANSWER: the Olmec civilization

14. He wrote about Gordon Comstock and Dorothy Hare in two of his earlier novels, Keep the Aspidistra Flying and A Clergyman's Daughter. He told of his childhood in an autobiographical essay published three years after his death, Such, Such Were the Joys and described his experiences among poor miners in northern England in The Road to (*) Wigan Pier. He warned against using overly obtuse and meaningless speech in his essay Politics and the English Language using the example of "a not unblack dog". His first book talked about his time in the title cities, Down and Out in Paris and London, and other works based in his travels include Homage to Catalonia and Burmese Days. His most famous works include characters like Parsons, Syme, and Boxer, and, more centrally, Napoleon and Winston Smith. FTP name this author of Animal Farm and 1984.
ANSWER: George Orwell or Eric Blair

15. One of these is a homohexamer structured to have a hole in its center, and it hydrolyzes ATP which shifts the structure of what it binds to. That specific kind is diametric and is structured in 6 bundles. They can activate primase, and they come in rho and DNAb families, along with superfamilies based on motifs found in their structures. (*) 5’-3’ kinds require a covalent bond to single strands, and all of them move along a phosphodiester backbone of a nucleic acid. FTP name this class of enzymes that separate nucleic acid strands before replication and are named for DNAs structure. 
ANSWER: Helicase 

16. The Messinians were driven out of here by the Spartans after the battle of Aegispotami, and its first bishop took part in the council of Ephesus. Pope Pius the 5th was canonized for an outburst he made predicting the outcome of a conflict here, and after it Sokullu rebuilt his country’s navy. Uluc Ali Pasha led one side here, (*) while forces of Spanish, Venice, and the papal States were led by Don John of Austria. Fought off the coast of Naupaktos, which had been controlled by the Ottomans, it was the first time a Christian fleet defeated the Turks. FTP name this city that is the name of a famous 1571 battle. 
ANSWER: Battle of Lepanto (accept Naupaktas before mentioned) 


17. Seven are made of marble, while the other nine are cast in either brass or bronze. They are polished smooth, but have a flat edge shaved off at the top. The first one was mounted on a conical support, while the brass one in the Guggenheim is on an “organically irregular stem” and the marble one at the Metropolitan Museum of Art has a marble base. The artist called it a “project before being enlarged to fill the vault of the (*) sky”. One was notoriously taxed by U.S. Customs when the artist brought it into the country because it was considered “raw material” and not art, which caused a court battle in 1927. FTP name this series of sculptures by Constantin Brancusi depicting the motion of an avian.
ANSWER: Essence of Bird in Space 


18. This element is used in lamps that produce short, intense flashes of light like stroboscopes and high-speed photography. The existence of its 129 isotope in many meteorites suggest that it is a product of the decay of iodine-129. Another isotope of this element, with atomic mass 135, is produced by uranium fission, while its most common isotope has an atomic mass of 132. In 1962, Neil Bartlett formed a red, crystalline solid out of this element’s hexafluoroplatinate, and other compounds this elements form include one with Cs2F8 and a series of fluorides, of which the easiest to prepare is (*) tetrafluoride. These compounds all go against the conventional wisdom that compounds can not be made from noble gases. First isolated by Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers in 1898 by fractional distillation of krypton, FTP, name this noble gas with atomic number 54 and chemical symbol Xe. 
ANSWER: xenon (accept “Xe” early) 

19. This poem’s last section begins, “Passing the visions, passing the night,” and the penultimate one mentions “battle-corpses, myriads of them” and “debris of all the slain soldiers of the war”. The 14th section proclaims, “praise! praise! praise!”, continuing the pattern of repetition established earlier in the poem by the eighth section, which begins nearly every line with “As”; the sixth, which begins nearly every line with “With”; and the second, which begins nearly every line with “O”. In 1946, this poem was set to music by Paul Hindemith. Its first line is the title of the poem, which is followed by “And the great star early droop’d in the western sky in the night”. Followed in the collection in which it appears by O (*) Captain! My Captain!, FTP, name this elegy for Abraham Lincoln written by Walt Whitman.
ANSWER: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d

20. In one lecture he discussed the Greek origin of the word “hymn” in relation to Holderlin’s poem “Der Ister,” while he argued that each new work of art inherently changes the meaning of existence in his essay “Origin of the Work of Art” that appears in his collection Off the Beaten Track.  In his most famous work  he asserted the need for escaping from the “hermeneutic circle” and discussed the concept of Aletheia and Dasein, which was heavily influenced by his teacher Edmund (*) Husserl. FTP, name this German philosopher who wrote Being and Time.
ANSWER: Martin Heidegger

Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Four


1. Name these Edgar Allen Poe works from descriptions FTPE:
[10] He asks the reader to "Hear the sledges" with these titular objects, that keep "time time time / In a sort of Runic Rhyme / To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells."
ANSWER: The Bells
[10] This short story is narrated by Egæus, who is "ill of health, and buried in gloom," who is infatuated with his cousin. He pulls out her teeth when he thinks she died to keep for himself, but then she wakes up. Creepy.
ANSWER: Berenice
[10] This story concerns prince Prospero, who throws a giant party to avoid a disastrous plague ravaging the country. Of course, someone shows up with the disease and kills everybody there.
ANSWER: The Masque of the Red Death

2. FTPE Answer these things about Israel and its wars:
[10] Israel invaded and temporarily occupied this peninsula in response to Gamal abd el-Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez canal in 1956. It was a big mistake backed by France and Britain.
ANSWER: Sinai Peninsula
[10] Golda Meir resigned after being caught in this 1973 war, begun when Egypt and Syria surprise attacked Israel.
ANSWER: the Yom Kippur war or Ramadan war
[10] This word translating as “shaking off” is used to describe the Lebanese response to Rafiq Hariri’s assassination or 2 waves of Palestinian violence in the late 1980s and after 2000 to try and overthrow Israel.
ANSWER: intifada

3. [10] In Norse myth, these are taken from you and used to build Naglfari, a ship found in Helheim that will carry the forces of Loki to the battle that will take place at Ragnarok.
ANSWER: clipped fingernails
[10] This ship was fitted with a speaking timber on its bow, and Orpheus was among its crew members.
[10] After the death of Baldur, he, his wife Nanna, and his treasures were placed on this ship.  It was the largest in the world, so the giantess Hyrrockin was called in to push it off.
ANSWER: Ringhorn

4. He is considered the first person to introduce Upanishadic thought to European philosophy. FTPE:
[10] Identify this German pessimist who wrote "On the Basis of Morality".
ANSWER: Arthur Schopenhauer
[10] This most famous Schopenauer work says that indirect objectifications of on of the title objects happens when we apply the principle of sufficient reason to time, space, and causality.
ANSWER: The World As Will And Idea or The World As Will And Representation
[10] This 2 volume collection of essays by Schopenhauer opens with a "Sketch of a History of the Doctrine of the Ideal and the Real" and "Essay on Spirit Seeing and everything connected therewith."
ANSWER: Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays

5. FTPE, name these neurotransmitters: 
[10] This neurotransmitter has functions in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the PNS, it binds to receptors on skeletal muscle cells, allowing sodium ions to enter the cell and stimulate muscle contraction. 
ANSWER: acetylcholine or ACh 
[10] This neurotransmitter produced in the basal ganglia can act on the sympathetic nervous system, causing increased heart rate and blood pressure. Patients with Parkinson’s disease are given a precursor to it, since it can cross the blood-brain barrier while this neurotransmitter itself cannot. 
ANSWER: dopamine (prompt on “L-dopa” or “levodopa”) 
[10] This amino acid acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain. Drugs acting as agonists of it, such as alcohol and barbiturates, can cause anterograde and retrograde amnesia. 
ANSWER: Gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA 

6. FTPE identify these things about an author:
[10] This author wrote the novels The Moor's Last Sigh, and his newest work is about terrorism in Pakistan, entitled Shalimar the Clown.
ANSWER: Ahmed Salman Rushdie
[10] This notorious Salman Rushdie novel opens with Saladin Chamcha and Gabriel Farishta falling out of an exploded airplane. Parts of this novel about Mohammed prompted a fatwa from Ayatollah Khomeini ordering Rushdie's execution.
ANSWER: The Satanic Verses
[10] This novel follows Saleem Sinai, who was switched with Shiva at birth. He has a psychic connection to 1,000 other people born in the same hour as him.
ANSWER: Midnight's Children

7. Answer these questions about the relatives of the English language FTPE:
[10] English and other languages such as Dutch and Icelandic belong to this branch of the Indo-European language family.
ANSWER: Germanic languages (do not accept German, or anything more specific)
[10] Many consider this language spoken today by 500,000 people, mostly in the northern Netherlands, to be English's closest relative.
ANSWER: Frisian
[10] In fact, Standard English's closest relative is this one, formerly thought of as a dialect but declared to be a separate language in 199x. It was the vernacular of David Hume and Robert Burns.
ANSWER: Scots (do not accept Scottish English)

8. Answer the following about a famous Japanese painting FTPE:
[10] This 1832 Ukiyo-e woodblock print is of an enormous wave that looks like its about to fall on some boats.
ANSWER: The Great Wave off the coast of the Kanagawa Prefecture (accept any combination of those words as long as the underlined parts are there) or Kanagawa oki nami ura
[10] The Great Wave of Kanagawa is the first part of a series of 36 views of this mountain. It is featured directly in the center of the background of The Great Wave and presents calm contrast with the motion of the waves.
ANSWER: Mount Fujiyama or Fuji-san
[10] This artist of the 36 views of Mount Fuji later added 10 views to that collection, along with creating 100 Views of Mount Fuji. He had strong religious beliefs about Fuji, and frequently changed his name to reflect his art.
ANSWER: Hokusai Katsushika or Tokitaro or Tawaraya Sori or Hokusai Tomisa or Taito or Iitsu or Gakyo Rojin Manji

9. FTPE, name these techniques used in forensic science:
[10] This technique attempt to find the gun used in a crime by analyzing the marks and striations left on the bullet when it was struck by the hammer and fired through a rifled barrel.
ANSWER: ballistic fingerprinting (do not prompt on “fingerprint” or “fingerprinting”)
[10] Unlike ballistic fingerprinting, this technique tries to use the chemical makeup of a bullet to connect it with others possessed by the suspect, based on the idea that each batch of bullets has a unique elemental makeup. It was first used after the assassination of JFK in 1963, although in 2004 it was deemed “unreliable and potentially misleading” by the National Academy of Sciences.
ANSWER: comparative bullet-lead analysis (accept “CBLA”)
[10] This pH indicator is used in the Kastle-Meyer presumptive blood test, turning pink when in the presence of blood. It is also used in toys as a component of disappearing inks.
ANSWER: phenolphthalein or HIn

10. FTP, name these presidential candidates who got owned. 
[10] This nominee was called “friend of the rapist” because he gave 10 weekend passes to Willie Horton, who promptly raped another woman on one of those weekend passes. He also ran against George HW Bush in 1988. 
ANSWER: Michael Dukakis 
[10] This future president got killed by James Monroe in 1820 and was again flogged by Andrew Jackson in 1828. 
ANSWER: John Quincy Adams (prompt on Adams, do not accept John Adams) 
[10] It turns out the Watergate scandal probably would not have made a difference because Nixon ate this person alive in the electoral college voting in 1972. 
ANSWER: George McGovern

11. How green is your knowledge? Name these operas by Giuseppe Verdi from descriptions, FTPE:
[10] The title princess dies in the Temple of Vulcan with her beloved, Radames. Although she herself is Ethiopian, the opera is set in Egypt.
[10] A jester puts a hit on his patron, the Duke of Mantua, only to find that his daughter, Gilda, who loves the Duke, gets killed instead.
ANSWER: Rigoletto
[10] Set in fifteenth-century Spain, the titular Manrico is killed by the Count di Luna over the love of Leonora. Melancholy ensues when it turns out that Manrico is actually the count’s brother.
ANSWER: Il Trovatore or The Troubadour

12. FTPE, answer these questions about the Millennium Prize Problems in mathematics.
[10] This problem asks whether every simply connected compact 3-manifold is homeomorphic to a 3-sphere. Grigori Perelman proved it in 2003, making it the first Millennium Prize Problem to be solved.
ANSWER: Poincaré conjecture or Poincaré theorem
[10] A prize of $1,000,000 will be awarded to the first person to solve each of the seven Millennium Prize Problems by this non-profit foundation based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
ANSWER: Clay Mathematics Institute (accept "CMI")
[10] The list of Millennium Prize Problems parallels the list of 23 influential problems compiled by this early 20th century German mathematician, even though the only problem they share is the Riemann Hypothesis, the 8th problem on his list. He is also known for his basis theorem and his axioms of geometry.
ANSWER: David Hilbert

13. FTPE, name these people whom conspiracy theorists and other morons think wrote Shakespeare.
[10] This author of Novum Organum died of pneumonia after going outside in the cold to test if meat could be preserved by stuffing meat with snow. Those who believe he wrote Shakespeare's plays point to some nonsense word in Love's Labor's Lost that anagrams to something completely contrived in Latin.
ANSWER: Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St. Alban
[10] In an egregious violation of Occam's Razor, many claim that this author of The Jew of Malta and Tamburlaine faked his own 1593 death in a bar fight and survived long enough to write Shakespeare's plays 20 years later.
ANSWER: Christopher Marlowe
[10] A far too great number of people think this earl who sponsored a couple of acting plays wrote through Shakespeare to conceal his identity as a homosexual. Unfortunately, he died in 1604, 12 years before the real Shakespeare.
ANSWER: Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford (accept either)

14. FTPE Identify these things about a composer:
[10] This piece begins and ends with a sarabande that is labeled the "aria", and in between it is manipulated in 30 different ways. It was written to supposedly cure the Count Kaiserling's insomnia.
ANSWER: Goldberg Variations
[10] This Baroque composer wrote the Goldberg Variations along with the St. Matthew's Passion and his Art of the Fugue. He is considered the most important Baroque composer ever.
ANSWER: Johann Sebastian Bach (prompt on "Bach," "J Bach," or "Johann Bach" because he had multiple children who were named Johann and went on to be mildly askable)
[10] This collection for keyboard by Bach was originally 24 preludes and fugues in every key. He went back and added 24 more preludes and fugues, and it is named for the tuning system of a harpsichord, not its sense of contentedness.
ANSWER: The Well-Tempered Clavier

15. Name these related things FTPE: 
[10] In this Wallace Stevens Poem, a man mistook the shadow of his equipage for the title creature, whose eye was also the only moving thing among twenty snowy mountains. 
ANSWER: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird 
[10] In the nursery rhyme “Sing a Song of Sixpence” there are this many blackbirds in a pie. 
ANSWER: Four and twenty (grudgingly accept equivalents)
[10] “Blackbird” was a song by this group, who used it as an introduction to their other song, “Yesterday”.
ANSWER: The Beatles

16. Name these landmarks in China FTPE: 
[10] When the Simpsons visited China, on a plaque was written “on this site, in 1989, nothing happened.” It is named after the Gate of Heavenly Peace, which separates it from the Forbidden City. 
ANSWER: Tiananmen Square (do not prompt on/accept Tiananmen) 
[10] In Kafka’s short story, the narrator is a man, neither laborer nor architect, who takes part in building pieces of this title structure. 
ANSWER: Great Wall of China 
[10] An 800-ton damper, in the shape of a huge ball of welded steel plates, hangs inside from the top of the building, and helps stabilize this tower in extreme weather. 
ANSWER: Taipei 101 

17. He wrote The Elective Affinities about Edward and his wife Charlotte. FTPE:
[10] FTPE who is this German author who also wrote a play about a man who sold his soul to the devil along with Master Wilhelm's Apprenticeship?
ANSWER: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
[10] This is the aforementioned 2-part play about a man who sold his sold to the devil. Characters in it include Mephistopheles and Gretchen.
[10] This Goethe novel features another woman named Charlotte, who the title character is in love with. He kills himself when she marries another man, inspiring some retards to commit suicide in real life.
ANSWER: The Sorrows of Young Werther or Die Lieden des jungen Werthers

18. Answer these particle physics questions FTPE:
[10] They get their name from Finnegan's Wake, and is one of the basic constituents of matter.
ANSWER: quark
[10] They were first postulated by Wolfgang Pauli, and their current name was coined by Enrico Fermi. About 70 of them pass through a person in their lifetime.
ANSWER: neutrino
[10] This is a combination of a charm quark and charm antiquark. It is also called a psi particle, but it was given this name, which resembles the Chinese character for Samuel Ting's last name.
ANSWER: J particle

19. FTPE name these cultural initiation rites. 
[10]Originally seen in ancient Egytpian drawing and required by Oriental Orthodox and African churches for membership, this is the removal of the prepuce. 
ANSWER: circumsion 
[10] Derived from the mitzvah of mikveh, this singletime purification ritual is practiced to absolve you of original sin. 
ANSWER: Baptism 
[10] This custom originating in the 10th century is typically seen around when the girl is six years old. Resulting in lotus gait, it started to decline in the 20th century after attacks by Social Darwinists, feminists and missionaries convinced the Chinese it made them appear barbaric.  
ANSWER: foot-binding

20. His only extant line of poetry has survived because of how hilariously bad it is, and his works of philosophy include On the Republic and Stoic Paradoxes. FTPE:
[10] Name this jerk who was elected consul in 63 BC, generally considered Rome's finest orator.
ANSWER: Marcus Tullius Cicero
[10] During his time as consul, Cicero made 5 orations against this political enemy of his. He claimed that this man was planning a revolution, but he may have gone so far as to plant evidence damning him.
ANSWER: Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
[10] In addition to writing about the Catiline Conspiracy, Roman historian Sallust chronicled Rome's war against this king of Numidia, lasting from 111 BC to 104, when he died of cold and starvation in a prison cell six days after being paraded through the streets of Rome.
ANSWER: Jugurtha
(That line of poetry, "o fortunatam natam me consule Romam", is egotistical, repetitive and hugely ugly and nasally, and generally mockable . . . as it was as immortalized by Juvenal, as it has reached us today.)


Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Ten


1. One character attempts to sell chocolate-coated cotton, after buying an entire year’s worth of Egyptian cotton on impulse. The protagonist is part of the “two to the fighting eighth power” squadron stationed on an Italian island. Snowden’s death  affects the protagonist greatly, leading him to ask, “Where are the Snowdens of yesteryear?” Aarfy rapes and murders Michaela, who represents pure innocence. M&M emterprises, run by Milo (*) Minderbinder, is really a black market racket. Its title refers to the illogical military rule that prevents Doc Daneeka from grounding the protagonist. In the final chapter, it is discovered that Orr has deserted to Sweden, which leads Yossarian to escape to Sweden himself. FTP, name this novel set in World War II by Joseph Heller.
ANSWER: Catch-22 

2. During the Hellenistic period, the millefiori technique was developed, allowing people to create intricate designs in it. A light green type of this, called trinitite, was formed as a result of the Trinity nuclear test. It is formed by quenching a melt. In medieval Europe, the bullseye of the crown type of this was less expensive than the outer edges. Because of the lack of electric transition states in the range of visible light and because of its homogeneity, it is usually transparent. (*) Some common types include the Germania, soda-lime, and borosilicate types. Natural ones, such as obsidian, are usually produced in lava flows. It is cooled through its transition temperature quickly enough so that a crystal lattice cannot form, hence they are amorphous. FTP, name this solid material commonly used in window panes.
ANSWER: glass (prompt on “amorphous solid” or “non-crystalline solid”)

3. The most primitive members of this group are sea squirts, whose motile larval stage sports a muscular post-anal tail.  In craniates, the nervous system develop into a brain and head, while pharyngeal slits become gills, such as those in hagfishes, which technically are not true fish.  True fishes have jaws while lampreys do not, but since they both belong to the subphylum (*) vertebrates, they have an extensive skeletal system, including a spinal column evolved from the shared notochord. FTP – name this phylum in the Animal Kingdom to which amphibians, reptiles, and mammals all belong.
ANSWER: Chordates or Chordata

4. In one legend, she took the form of a wild cat and killed all who come near, but Thoth told her stories to get her to come back, and her cult was centered at Dandarah.  People would come to her temples to have dreams explained, and her cult was unusual as men and women were priests.  Known as the Lady of the Limit, during the war between Horus and Seth, she danced naked around Ra in order to cheer him up.  Often identified with Aphrodite, she is often depicted behind Osiris, in the form of Sakhmet, and another god had to get her drunk in order to prevent her from wiping out humanity.  The “Eye of Ra”, her name translates as (*) “the House of Horus”, and her headdress features a sundisk.  FTP, identify the Egyptian goddess depicted with the head of a cow.
ANSWER: Hathor 

5. Among the most famous adventures of this novel are those of the Spider Monsters and the Skeleton Monster. One of the four protagonists is lazy and gluttonous, and has eight abstinences he must abide by which make up part of his name. Another was trapped under a mountain as a punishment for a misdemeanor, but was freed and given an opportunity to redeem himself. He has magic power for seventy-two transformations (*) whereas the glutton only has thirty-six. FTP, name this novel in which Chu Pa-chieh, the half-pig glutton, Sun Wu-k’ung, the half-monkey fighter, and the loyal Sha Monk all help the Buddhist priest Hsuan-tsang embark on a pilgrimage, one translation of which is called Monkey, written by Wu Ch’eng-en in Ming Dynasty China.
ANSWER: Journey to the West or Hsi yu chi or Xi you ji or Monkeybefore it is mentioned

6. Typically, one side is flat and has a shorter lead to mark the cathode side, as they must be inserted in the right direction. The flat side corresponds to a straight line segment on one side of their circuit diagram symbol. In AC applications where the current exceeds the breakdown voltage, they can be protected by placing a second one in inverse parallel. Although they are much more reliable than incandescent sources, (*) they can still be damaged by a sudden change in temperature, which might cause cracks to form in the epoxy resin in the packaging. Aluminum gallium arsenide is used in red and infrared ones, while blue ones require a quantum well and are thus more expensive to produce and rarer. The color of the plastic casing does not significantly affect the color. FTP, name this electronic device which exhibits electroluminescence and allows current to flow in only one direction.
ANSWER: Light-Emitting Diode (prompt on “diode”)

7. After his father died at the Battle of Point Pleasant, his mother moved to Missouri and he was raised by his sister and his brother, who trained him to become a warrior. On a trip south, he won over members to his cause by predicting the New Madrid earthquakes and claiming that a comet was a good omen, because his name meant Shooting Star. With his brother, a reformed alcoholic who became known as The (*) Prophet, he set up the city of Prophetstown, which soon saw the arrival of many Native Americans for his confederacy. Two years before being killed at the Battle of the Thames, forces under his brother were soundly defeated by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe. FTP, name this Shawnee leader whose war for Native American unity was later subsumed into the War of 1812.
ANSWER: Tecumseh or Tekamthi (be lenient with vowels)

8. It has been called “The Helen of Geometers”, because it often caused quarrels among 17th century mathematicians. First studied by Nicholas of Cusa and named by Galileo, it is an example of a roulette curve. It is related to the epitrochoid and hypotrochoid curves, which can be constructed using a Spirograph toy. The solution to both the (*) tautochrone and brachistochrone problems, its area is 3 times that of the generating circle, and its length is 4 times the diameter of the generating circle. FTP, name this curve traced by a fixed point on the edge of a circle rolling along a straight line.
ANSWER: cycloid

9.  Contrary to popular belief, this painting was popular enough to be reproduced by Gerrit Lundens in oil, which is now found in the National Gallery in London. It was moved in 1715, and in the process it was cut down, losing 3 figures on its left side. It was commissioned by Franz Banning (*) Cocq, and its subjects were probably taking part in a parade. In the background a mustachioed man lifts a blue and gold striped banner, while another beats a drum on its right side. FTP name this group portrait of a ceremonial marching company by Rembrandt, so misnamed because of the dirt accumulated on over the ages.
ANSWER: The Night Watch or The Company of Franz Banning Cocq before that name is read

10. One of these belonging to an elite trainer can generate voodoo dolls out of ice, and also create wispy bands of ice around targets, which that trainer then uses to track down with her powder case. An episode was made with Santa Claus and this Pokémon, which was known in Japan as Rougela. In another episode, three of these were overprotective of another Pokémon which would later evolve into it, Smoochum. After complaints, this Pokémon’s complexion (*) was changed, because she was originally depicted as being in blackface. According to the Pokédex in Red/Blue, “It seductively wiggles its hips as it walks.” FTP, name this Pokémon, #124, an ice/psychic type with egregiously feminine features.
ANSWER: Jynx (accept Rougela early)

11. The penultimate section of this work was adapted into Land of the Rising Sun, the national anthem of Biafra, and other uses for the same tune include A Prayer for Wales and We Rest on Thee. When it was first performed, it was the last of four movements, the other three of which were later published as Scènes historiques. For a while, it had to be performed under the title Impromptu due to Russian rule, but the name by which it goes today was first suggested by Axel Carpelan, a fan of this work. Words for that penultimate section were written first by Wäinö Sola, and then rewritten two years later by V.A. (*) Koskenniemi to support the namesake nation in a war against Russia. FTP, name this tone poem about the native land of composer Jean Sibelius.
ANSWER: Finlandia (accept “Finlandia Hymn” until “last of four movements”)

12. This novel begins in Gateshead Hall, with John Reed bullying his cousin, who fights back and is taken to the red room as punishment. After a near-death experience on the moors of northern England, the title character is taken in by the Rivers family and assumes the false surname of Elliot. She later shares her inheritance of 20,000 pounds with the Riverses, after discovering that they are her cousins. After spending eight years at Lowood School, (*) the title character advertises and is hired at Thornfield Manor as a governess for Adèle Varens. After unsuccessfuly trying to marry her employer, she discovers that he has been keeping Bertha Mason, his violently insane wife, locked up in the attic. FTP, name this novel written by Charlotte Brontë in which the title character falls in love with Mr. Rochester.
ANSWER: Jane Eyre

13. In the north is Qeshm Island, a free trade zone, 21 miles away to the south is the territorial exclave of Musandam, and it is mentioned but left unnamed in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.  In following with a Traffic Separation Scheme, the traffic lane is only 6 miles wide, consisting of 2-mile inbound and outbound lanes with a 2-mile buffer zone in between.  Some 35 percent of the world's and 75 percent (*) of Japan's oil supply pass through this strategic passage, which was the location of the 1984-1987 Iran-Iraq Tanker War.  FTP, name this opening to the Persian Gulf. 
ANSWER: Strait of Hormuz 

14. A League against these helped James Wilson found The Economist publication.  Thomas Malthus believed 80 shillings for a quarter-hundredweight to be fair price, and Duke of Wellington devised a sliding scale which reduced it to 73 shillings.  They were first instituted by the Tory government of Lord Liverpool, and after the disaster of (*) Peterloo Massacre, the Six Acts declared any reform movement meeting "an overt act of treasonable conspiracy".  Later repealed by Sir Robert Peel, these were, FTP, what last protectionist policy of the mercantilist era which placed a tariff on imported grain, not the namesake maize product?
ANSWER: Corn Laws  

15. These cause the only known diseases that can be sporadic, genetic, or infectious. They behave somewhat like ice-nine in Kurt Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle. Initially controversial because they violate the central dogma of molecular biology, the abnormal ones propagate themselves by causing the normal molecule to fold itself into the abnormally structured form, without the use of nucleic acids. They can cause Kuru, (*) as well as scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. They aggregate to form plaques called amyloids, which disrupt tissue structure and make brain tissue appear “spongelike”. FTP, name these infectious agents responsible for mad cow disease.
ANSWER: prions or proteinaceous infectious particles

16. This man began to collect portraits of famous people in 1845, eventually compiling them into his 1850 A Gallery of Illustrious Americans.  At the outbreak of the American Civil War, he embarked on a project that costed $100,000 and would eventually bankrupt him.  Among his hired staff were Alexander Gardner and Timothy H. O'Sullivan (*) and 20 others, each of whom were given a mobile darkroom, capturing scenes of Civil War battlefields, including shots of Antietam which were exhibited in "The Dead of Antietam".  FTP -- Name this pioneering American photographer, who took the pictures of every president from John Quincy Adams to William McKinley.
ANSWER: Mathew Brady

17. Hardin’s tragedy of the commons is sometimes said to be an example of a multi-player generalization of it. It demonstrates that in a non-zero-sum game, the Nash equilibrium isn’t necessarily Pareto optimal. In its iterated form, successful strategies tend to be nice, (*) retaliating, forgiving, and non-envious, making tit-for-tat one of the best deterministic algorithms. In its payoff matrix as described by Douglas Hofstadter, the sucker’s payoff must have the lowest value and the temptation to defect payoff must have the highest value. FTP, name this game in which each of two players can choose to either cooperate or defect.
ANSWER: prisoner’s dilemma

18. Much of his love poetry is addressed to Jeanne Duval, and although his projects The Lesbians and Limbo never appeared in book form, six poems excised from his most famous work were republished in Wreckage. His translation of "Mesmeric Revelation" was the first of many that would later be part of a collection of translations of Edgar Allan Poe, Extraordinary Tales. Various poems in prose were published posthumously in (*) Paris Spleen, while "Spleen and Ideal" is the first section of his most famous work. Other sections include "Parisian Scenes", "Wine", "Revolt", "Death", and one that shares its name with the title of the work. FTP name this French author of Les Fleurs du Mal, or The Flowers of Evil.
ANSWER: Charles(-Pierre) Baudelaire

19.  In 2004, the Pet Shop Boys created a new soundtrack for this movie, while the original was composed by Edmund Meisel. At the climax, the word “Brothers!” is shown on the screen and the title entity passes unharmed in the fifth and last section, “Rendezvous with a Squadron”. Its third section, “A Dead Man Calls for Justice”, sees the people of a certain port mourning the death of Vakulinchuk, (*) who died leading a rebellion over meat infested with maggots. Cossacks are then called into that port city, Odessa, and ruthlessly massacre citizens by marching down a staircase with guns pointed. FTP, name this 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein that begins and ends with the story of the title warship.
ANSWER: The Battleship Potemkin or Bronenosets Potyomkin

20. These people called themselves the gag-gigga, meaning "black-headed people."  During the rule of Ennantum of Lagash, who unified many city-states and even extended the realm to Elam.  The last king of the Lagash dynasty, Lugal-Zage-Si was the last king of the ethnicity, conquering (*) Uruk, where he established his capital.  Following his rule, the lands came under the domination of Semitics from Akkad, during which their native language phased out of common ussage.  FTP – What civilization is credited with the invention of the wheel, and the establishment of the first writing system, which is called cuneiform. 
ANSWER: Sumerians 


Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Ten


1. Alkaloids are amines produced by plants, and sometimes animals or fungi. FTPE, name these alkaloids with pharmacological effects.
[10] This xanthine alkaloid, found in over 60 plants, acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans and is the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive substance, with over 90% of adults in North America consuming it daily.
ANSWER: caffeine (prompt on “guaranine”, “mateine”, or “theine”)
[10] This bitter-tasting alkaloid found in the bark of the South American cinchona tree was the first effective treatment for malaria. It is also an antipyretic and an analgesic.
ANSWER: quinine (prompt on “quinidine”)
[10] This highly poisonous alkaloid is used to induce polyploidy in plants, producing, for example, seedless watermelons. It is used to treat gout and also as a catharthic and emetic.
ANSWER: colchicine

2. Name these Stendhal works FTPE:
[10] In this novel, Julien Sorel is the son of a carpenter who is convicted for shooting his ex-lover Madame de Rênal.
ANSWER: The Red and the Black or Red and Black or Scarlet and Black or Le Rouge et le Noir
[10] This only other Stendhal novel details the story of Fabrizio del Dongo, who fights for Napoleon at Waterloo and is confused about whether or not he has been in "a real battle", and is arrested for murder and imprisoned.
ANSWER: The Charterhouse of Parma or La Chartreuse de Parme
[10] This novella's title is the pen name of Marie-Henri Beyle. The title character falls in love with Pietro Missirilli, who is executed, and ends up marrying Livio Savelli, a man she scorns.
ANSWER: Vanina Vanini

3. FTPE, name these addictive stimulants that are widely abused around the world:
[10] This most famous stimulant was first developed as a pain reliever and was endorsed by Sigmund Freud, as well as being inserted into drinks like Coca-Cola 
ANSWER: Cocaine 
[10] Nicknamed “Tina”, this drug was used by the Germans in World War II to combat fatigue and is trademarked under the brand name Desoxyn. 
ANSWER: Methamphetamine (also accept crystal meth) 
[10] Most used in Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, this drug is most famous  with Scrabble players for being a “q without a u” words. 
ANSWER: Qat (accept Khat, Kat, Gat, Chat, Jaad, and Miraa) 

4. Answer these questions about conic sections, FTPE:
[10] This non-negative quantity associated with every conic section is the ratio of the distances PQ and LQ, where P is a fixed point, L is a fixed line, and Q is the conic section. For a circle it is zero, for a parabola it is one, and for a hyperbola it is greater than one and less than infinity. Denoted e or epsilon, it can also be thought of as how much the conic section deviates from a circle.
ANSWER: eccentricity (grudgingly accept “first eccentricity”, however do not accept “linear eccentricity”)
[10] Conic sections are defined in terms of the eccentricity, a fixed point called the focus, and this fixed line which does not contain the focus. A parabola is the locus of points which are equidistant from it and the focus. In a circle, it is infinitely far away from the focus.
ANSWER: directrix
[10] This quantity, denoted l, appears in the polar equation for a conic section. It is defined as half the length of the chord parallel to the directrix which passes through the single focus, or one of the two foci.
ANSWER: semi-latus rectum (be lenient, prompt on “latus rectum”)

5. FTPE, answer these related questions about heat transfer: 
[10] This mechanism of heat transfer cannot occur in a vacuum because it depends on the movement of fluids. It can occur naturally when there are differences in the density of a liquid, causing it to rise. 
ANSWER: convection or convective heat transfer 
[10] This is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid below its freezing point without it becoming solid, because of the lack of nucleation sites around which crystals form. It is the principle behind liquid hand warmers. 
ANSWER: supercooling 
[10] Convection and supercooling are proposed explanations for this counter-intuitive phenomenon, observed by its namesake Tanzanian high-school student in 1963 when he was making ice cream and discovered that hot ice cream mix freezes faster than cold ice cream mix. 
ANSWER: Mpemba effect 

6. Identify these about religions that cropped up in Rome FTPE:
[10] This religion has roots in Indo-Persian sun worship, had tauroctony altars in caves, excluded women, and held that the highest God was infinite time or Aion. December 25th was it winter-sun rebirth holiday.
ANSWER: Mithraism (prompt on "Mithra" or "Mithras")
[10] This Egyptian goddess was the focus of a unified religion the Ptolemaic dynasty tried to form, and became a significant cult among the lower classes, with her temples constructed after Caligula legalized her cult.
ANSWER: Isis or Aset
[10] This religion arose in Judea after its God was crucified and resurrected. Its leader Paul was later crucified, and it was later split into Orthodox and Protestant variants along with the original Catholic Rite.
ANSWER: Christianity

7. The African Great Lakes are formed as part of the Great Rift Velley, and includes Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake by volume.  FTPE name these other African Great Lakes:
[10] The second deepest lake in the world, this lake forms part of Tanzania's western border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  It lent its name to the colonial region of continental Tanzania.
ANSWER: Lake Tanganyika
[10] Also known as "Livingstone's Lake" because he was the first European to see it, this enlongated lake is filled with more fish species than any lake on the planet.  The naming of the lake itself is a subject of controversy, since it was traditionally called Lake Nyasa, though it now shares its common name with the landlocked country it borders, with the capital of  Lilongwe.
ANSWER: Lake Malawi
[10] Africa's seventh largest lake, it sits between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, and was formerly known as Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, after the Congolese dictator who had named it after himself.
ANSWER: Lake Albert

8. Name these Thornton Wilder works FTPE:
[10] Perhaps the most produced American play, it takes place in Grover’s Corners, and much of the story is told by the Stage Manager.
ANSWER: Our Town
[10] In this play, the story of the 20th century Antrobus family also recounts the beginning of the Ice Age, the start of the Great Flood, and the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
ANSWER: The Skin of Our Teeth
[10] This Wilder novel is about a friar who wants to find the answer to why several people died when the titular bridge collapses.
ANSWER: The Bridge of San Luis Rey

9. FTPE, answer these questions about everyone’s favorite ubiquitous pharaoh, Ramses the Great.
[10] Ramses is often associated with the pharaoh who released a bunch of Jews in this book of the Torah.
ANSWER: Exodus or Shemot
[10] Ramses fought a war with these people whose capital at Hattusa was rediscovered in the beginning of the 20th century.
ANSWER: Hittites
[10] Ramses got more or less owned by the Hittites and was forced to retreat after this 1274 BC battle, most likely the largest chariot battle ever fought.
ANSWER: Battle of Kadesh

10. It was an extension of atonality used in works of the 2nd Viennese School FTPE:
[10] What is this compositional technique where one uses all 12 tones of the scale in a row before beginning the next 12 tone row.
ANSWER: Serialism
[10] This man developed serialism as an extension of his earlier creation of atonality. He wrote such works as the opera Moses and Aron and Pierrot Lunaire.
ANSWER: Arnold Schoenberg
[10] This French BBC conductor took serialism one step further, applying it to dynamic markings and creating the totally serialized works Polyphonie X, Structures, and The Hammer Without Master.
ANSWER: Pierre Boulez

11. Identify these about a South African author FTPE:
[10] This novel follows the reverend Steven Kumalo, who travels to Johannesburg to find his criminal son Absalom. On the way he runs into his brother and sister living in sin.
ANSWER: Cry, The Beloved Country
[10] This man wrote Cry, The Beloved Country, as well as the book about Pieter van Vlaanderen who is arrested for having an affair with the black woman Stephanie called Too Late The Phalarope.
ANSWER: Alan Paton
[10] This novel features Prem Bodasingh, and Indian woman, and Hugh Mainwaring who loves her, as well as Robert Mansfield and the Afrikaner Jan Fischer.
ANSWER: Ah, But Your Land is Beautiful

12. FTPE name these pre-Socratic philosophers:
[10] This Eleatic spent all of his time arguing with people who disagreed with Parmenides, and proposed the so called "paradoxes of multiplicity and motion" which include "if you keep bisecting a line you will never reach its end."
ANSWER: Zeno of Elea
[10] This resident of Miletus was the first to create a philosophy independent of Greek religion, and believed that water was the source of all existence.
ANSWER: Thales of Miletus
[10] This author of On nature and Purifications is considered to have developed the theory that earth, air, fire, and water were the 4 elements of life. Love and Strife constantly war in his belief system, and he supposedly jumped into Mt. Etna to prove he was a God. Guess not.
ANSWER: Empedocles

13. Name these early colonial leaders, FTPE: 
[10] This Quaker founded a colony named for him in 1681, from which Delaware later split off. 
ANSWER: William Penn 
[10] This theologian founded the colony of Rhode Island based upon precepts of religious tolerance and separation of church and state. 
ANSWER: Roger Williams 
[10] This man, the 2nd Baron Baltimore, was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. The ownership of the colony was given to him because his father George died shortly before it was granted. 
ANSWER: Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (be nice and prompt on “Lord Baltimore”) 

14. Answer these questions about mitochondria FTPE:
[10] This theory states that a prokaryote survived endocytosis by another cell and became the mitochondria.
ANSWER: endosymbiotic theory (accept word forms)
[10] The inner membrane of a mitochondrion forms these folds, which provide a lot of surface area in the mitochondrion.
ANSWER: cristae
[10] Because mitochondrial DNA is inherited from one's mother, this is the name of the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor for all living humans.
ANSWER: mitochondrial Eve

15. Name these historically significant hills, FTPE:
[10] This hill, whose name means "place of the skull", was the site of Jesus' crucifixion.
ANSWER: Golgotha or Calvary
[10] This hill saw a Pyrrhic victory for the British in 1775, in one of the first major battles of the American Revolutionary War.
ANSWER: Bunker Hill (also accept Breed's Hill, as much of the actual fighting took place there)
[10] According to Aeschylus, Orestes was tried upon this hill for killing his mother and her lover. Earlier, it had functioned as the site of the council of elders of Athens, before Ephialtes deprived it of almost all its functions in 462 BC.
ANSWER: the Areopagus or Areios Pagos

16. This Geat fights a monster and his brother before being killed fighting a dragon. FTPE: 
[10] Name this thane of Hygelac, the title character of an Old English epic poem. 
ANSWER: Beowulf 
[10] The monster Grendel is attacking the Danish kingdom under this king, whose main hall is called Heorot. 
ANSWER: Hrothgar or Hroðgar 
[10] Beowulf begins with the funeral of this Danish king, an ancestor of Hrothgar. 
ANSWER: Scyld Scefing or Shield Sheafson 

17. Name these space telescopes that are part of NASA’s four Great Observatories FTPE:
[10] This infrared space observatory is the last of the Great Observatories, and was launched in August 2003. It is the first to capture light from extrasolar planets.
ANSWER: Spitzer Space Telescope
[10] This telescope that focuses on the visible and ultraviolet light spectrum is the first of the Great Observatories, despite its original launch date being delayed by the Challenger disaster.
ANSWER: Hubble Space Telescope
[10] Like Hubble, this x-ray observatory is a satellite, and its name comes from Sanskrit for “moon” or “luminous” along with the name of a man who has a limit governing white dwarves. It is the third of the Great Observatories and was launched in 1999 from the space shuttle Columbia
ANSWER: Chandra X-ray Observatory (prompt on "Chandrasekhar")

18. Events in Eastern Europe sometimes happen in threes.  FTPE:
[10] Though chronologically the third, the Second event of this name provoked the Thirty Years’ War, when two Imperial governors were cast out of a window from the Bohemian Chancellery.
ANSWER: Defenestration of Prague
[10] The First and Second Balkan Wars were fought over Ottoman-held possessions in Macedonia and Thrace.  The term “Third Balkan War” is sometimes used to describe the conflict that resulted in the breakup of this federal republic.
ANSWER: Yugoslavia
[10] Three of these events took place between 1772 and 1795 involving the schemes of Prussia, Russia, and Habsburg Austria.  As a result, a certain country disappeared off the map for over 120 years.
ANSWER: the Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth(accept equivalents, prompt on "Poland")

19. FTPE answer these questions about polycephaly:
[10] This deity has four heads, and had five before Shiva punished him for lying by cutting one off. 
ANSWER: Brahma (do not accept Brahman or Brahmana, as they are completely different concepts)
[10] This Roman god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings, and endings has a temple that only opens in time of war. He is usually depicted with two.
[10] In Shinto myth, this troublemaker saved the day by having an elderly couple prepare eight vats of wine and set one at each gate in preparation of the arrival of the eight-headed dragon Koshi.  After slaying him, he obtained his sword, Kusanagi.
ANSWER: Susano-o (accept Susanowo or Susanowa no Mikoto) 

20. Given the description of a work by Marcel Duchamp, name it FTPE.
[10] A very stylized woman is seen walking at several different points of time. Despite one critic's outrage, no shingles are depicted.
ANSWER: Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 or Nu descendant un escalier n° 2
[10] In the top is a lone woman, while the bottom contains her nine suitors. The scene is composed out of oil, varnish, lead, and dust wedged between two large, transparent panes.
ANSWER: The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even or La mariée mis à nu par ses célibataires, même or The Large Glass
[10] A reproduction of the Mona Lisa with a goatee and mustache drawn on it. Its name is a French pun meaning "She's got a hot ass."
ANSWER: L.H.O.O.Q. (accept pronunciation as in English or like French "Elle a chaud au cul", or I guess also accept mispronunciations of the French)


Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Eight


1. Hippocrates wrote that it was the most widespread disease of his time, and called it phthisis. Edvard Munch’s sister, the subject of The Sick Child, died of it. The bacteria that causes it multiplies only about once a day, so infection is easily prevented by those with normal immune systems. Inmates of Georgian prisons are known to swap sputum to be tested positive for this disease and transferred to (*) quarantine prisons with better facilities. In March 2007, Andrew Speaker became the first individual to receive a CDC isolation order since 1963 when he entered the United States while infected with the multi-drug-resistant type of this disease. FTP, name this disease caused by mycobacteria, also known as TB.
ANSWER: tuberculosis (accept TB before the end of the question)

2. He wrote about his disgust with conventional education in Beneath the Wheel, and other early works describe artists, Gertrud and Rosshalde. He was a bookseller until writing about a failed writer in his first novel, Peter Camenzind, while more mature works of his include Narcissus and Goldmund. He was psychoanalyzed by J.B. Lang, the results of which led to Demian. One famous work includes characters like Plinio Designori and Thomas van der (*) Trave, the predecessor of the major character, while another has Kamaswami and Govinda. Along with Hermine and Maria, another work is about Harry Haller, while the first work is about Father Jacobus and Joseph Knecht. FTP, name this author of Steppenwolf, The Glass Bead Game, and Siddhartha
ANSWER: Hermann Hesse 

3. Askr and Embla were born from it, four deer run across it, representing the winds, and the Roaring Kettle, which serves as the source of rivers, lies beneath it.  Also known as Laerad, Heidrun and Eikthyrmir eat from it, and Lif and Leifthrasir will use it as shelter.  Urdarbrunnr is used to sustain it while it holds together three levels that contain the Nine Worlds, (*) and the Aesir hold court here.  Nidhogg gnaws at the base of it, and it will eventually be destroyed by Surt.  The source of the mead served in Valhalla, Odin hung upside down for nine nights from it to receive runes.  The golden bird Vidofnir is perched on a hawk at its top, and Ratatösk runs up and down it delivering messages.  FTP, name this giant ash, the world tree in Norse mythology.
ANSWER: Yggdrasil (accept Laerad or Mimameidr, prompt on Tree of Life, World Tree, or similar)  

4. Paintings from this movement include Funeral of the Anarchist Galli by Carlo Carra and The City Rises. It his movement was temporarily endorsed by Fascists, and its manifesto was written by Filippo Marinetti, who expressed a hatred for political and artistic traditions from the past and love for speed, technology, and violence. Paintings in this style sometimes portrayed people in progressive stages of motion, and used Cubist methods of division of space. One painting in this style shows a street lamp emitting light in the shape of V’s. (*) Dog on a Leash shows a scurrying dog whose legs are blurred into circles by motion, and Unique Forms of Continuity in Space shows the dynamism of a walking man. FTP, name this movement whose artists include Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, and Gino Severini.
ANSWER: Futurism 

5.  As ambassador to Russia, he met and befriended Prince Gorchakov, who would later become one of his greatest adversaries, when the Prince would denounce him as having denied Russia’s victory by the modification of the Treaty of San Stefano.  The League of Three Emperors thus fell apart during that same month-long meeting he led to decide upon the Eastern Question (*) as the host and mediator of the Congress of Berlin.  Seven years later, he organized another conference in Berlin to decide the fate of African colonization, which precipitated the Scramble for Africa.  FTP, name this German Chancellor to Emperor Wilhelm I, who famously proclaimed the great questions of the day will be decided by “iron and blood.” 
ANSWER: Otto von Bismarck  

6. One of his works is about an old man with "white hair descending/in a frothy cataract" who gives a speech to conscripts about the horrors they were praying to inflict on their enemy entitled The War Prayer, while he explains his problems learning "The Awful German language" in an epilogue to one of his more famous works. He wrote a work about Joan of Arc dictating memoirs to Sieur Louis and a collaboration with Charles Dudley Warner which gave its name to (*) The Gilded Age. More famous works are The Tramp Abroad and some that follow a boy who meets Injun Joe in a cemetary and another vagrant son of a drunk who runs away on a raft with the slave Jim. FTP name this author of the books about St. Petersburg, Missouri, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
ANSWER: Mark Twain or Samuel Langhorne Clemens

7. This nation won the first match in World Cup history, beating Belgium 3-0, and finished 3rd in that 1930 World Cup, still their best finish to date. Their World Cup appearance in 1990 was the first in 40 years, but in 1950, Joe Gaetjans scored the goal that helped them defeat England 1-0 in the "Miracle on Grass". They finished in last place in the 1998 World Cup, losing to Germany, Yugoslavia, and Iran under coach Steve (*) Sampson 4 years after hosting the tournament, and in 2006, failed to make it past the Group of Death against the Czech Republic, Italy, and Ghana, leading to the departure of coach Bruce Arena. FTP name this country whose soccer team is captained by Carlos Bocanegra and includes players such as DaMarcus Beasley, Landon Donovan, and Freddy Adu.
ANSWER: the United States of America (accept anything reasonable)

8. Classical physics can be defined as the limit of quantum mechanics as this quantity tends to zero. It was originally proposed in reference to black-body radiation, where E, the quantized energy of the photons of radiation, equals this quantity times nu, the frequency. A related constant which is useful when calculating with angular frequency instead of constant frequency is called (*) Dirac's constant, and is simply this constant divided by 2 pi. It is denoted by the letter “h” and has a value of approximately 6.626 times 10-34 Joule-seconds. FTP, name this physical constant named after a German physicist, which describes the sizes of quanta.
ANSWER: Planck constant or Planck's constant (prompt on “h” early, do not accept “h-bar”)

9. One character in this work opens a store for “the most miserable of the miserable”, then proceeds to sing his “Morning Hymn”, and the “Instead-Of Song” is between him and his wife. The House of Prostitution in Turnbridge is the setting for “The Ballad of Sexual Dependency”, and a barmaid sings a song about herself, “Pirate-Jenny”. At the end, the main character is presented Castle Marmarel, but we are first told about his banditry before seeing the opening of that store by Jonathan Jeremiah Peachum. The “Jealousy Duet” is sung between Lucy and (*) Polly, while the first song of Act I is the most famous, a ballad covered by Lyle Lovett and Louis Armstrong, among others, about the main character, Mack the Knife. FTP, name this opera based on John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera, a collaboration between Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht.
ANSWER: The Threepenny Opera or Die Dreigroschenoper

10. In 1995, this land mass was struck by an earthquake that destroyed the town of Neftegorsk. Its highest point is Mount Lopatin, and it is separated from the mainland by the Tatar Strait. In 1875 the country that controls it today traded it for a nearby archipelago and ran a penal colony on it before losing its southern half thirty years later. During that time, the island was known as Karafuto, and was handed over according to the Treaty of (*) Portsmouth. Cities on it include Alexandrovsk and Yuzhno, which is the capital of the province formed by this namesake island and the nearby archipelago, part of which is still claimed by Japan, the Kuril Islands. The Sea of Okhotsk lies east of, FTP, what island, the largest in Russia?
ANSWER: Ostrov Sakhalin (accept Karafuto before mentioned)

11. Born into the Kutschera family in 1905, she was raised a socialist and atheist, and was cynical towards all religions until she met a Jesuit priest in college. In 1942, she started a music camp on a 660-acre farm in Stowe, Vermont, a location she thought resembled the hills of her native Austria. Unlike her portrayal in a movie, she was governess to only one child (*) of naval captain Georg von Trapp, a daughter who was bedridden with rheumatic fever. FTP, name this woman whose books about her family’s escape from the Nazis after the Anschluss were used as the basis for The Sound of Music.
ANSWER: Maria von Trapp

12. His first success was the role of Arlequin in Baptiste, but he first gained international renown with a production of his interpretation of Nikolay Gogol’s The Overcoat. He studied at the Sarah Bernhardt Theatre with Étienne Decroux. His movie roles include Professor Ping in Barbarella, and appearances in Paganini and Silent Movie. His most famous characterization was first presented in 1947, and was known as Bip. His album of greatest hits consists of one minute of clapping on each end, surrounding many minutes of (*) silence. This is because the art form for which he was most famous and helped popularize required no talking whatsoever. Retiring in 2005, two years before his September 2007 death, FTP, name this Frenchman, the foremost mime of the 20th century. 
ANSWER: Marcel Marceau or Marcel Mangel 

13. In act 2 of this play Lancelot Gobbo leaves his master and then meets his father, asking where Lancelot lives. Old Gobbo is then convinced that Lancelot is dead. Later, Jessica confides in Lancelot that she is ashamed to be her father's daughter, and then she elopes. The title character is friends with Gratiano, Salarino, and Solario, and he agrees to lend money to (*) Bassanio, who is believed to be his homosexual lover. Bassanio then goes to Belmont to court Portia, who disguises herself in the trial of Antonio to give the "quality of mercy" speech in FTP this William Shakespeare comedy about the Jewish money lender Shylock who sues the title character for "a pound of flesh."
ANSWER: The Merchant of Venice

14. He delivered the first Reith Lecture, which was converted into the book Authority and the Individual. In an essay of his he proposed the concept of a tiny “celestial teapot” that is floating between Mars and the Earth in an attempt to demonstrate that God is a fairy tale like Santa Claus. His most famous work on Religion was Why I am Not (*) A Christian, while criticisms of his most important work involve the axiom of infinity and his namesake paradox, which involves the set of all sets that are not members of themselves. Co-writer of an influential 3-volume work in logic with Alfred North Whitehead this is FTP what British winner of the 1950 Nobel Prize in Literature who helped write Principia Mathemtica.
ANSWER: Bertrand Russell 

15. When it was first proposed, it was the "fat" type of three types of earth that together replaced one of the four main elements, a theory put forth in the 1669 work Subterranean Physics by Johann Becher. Early in the 18th century, one of Becher's students expounded on the theory and gave this substance its more common name. According to that student, Georg Ernst Stahl, it was one of the products of corrosion along with calx, (*) known today as a metal's oxide. Its existence was defended until the beginning of the 19th century by some chemists, including Joseph Priestley, even after being discredited by Antoine Lavoisier. FTP, name this theoretical substance that was thought to explain why wood gets heavier after combustion.
ANSWER: phlogiston

16. The final tactical withdrawal from this battle was conducted under the direction of John Glover, whose Marbleheaders did not complete the operation by sunrise as planned, but were luckily saved by a heavy fog.  During the previous day, Israel Putnam’s force was engaged with Henry Clinton, but a force led by William Howe marched through the lightly-defended Jamaica Pass to turn Putnam’s flank, (*)forcing the Americans to fall back.  With over 2,000 casualties, compared to the British 400, Washington ordered a surprise night retreat across the East River to Manhattan.  FTP – Name this first Revolutionary Battle after the Declaration of Independence on an island in New York.
ANSWER: Battle of Long Island


17. His collaboration with other astronomers led to the creation of the Jalali Calendar, more accurate than the Gregorian and computed from the vernal equinox.  In mathematics, he developed a method to solve cubic equations by intersecting a conic section with a circle, as explained in his 1070 Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra, and his criticism of The Elements (*) may have contributed to the development of non-Euclidean geometry.  However, he was most notable for composing over a thousand quatrains, many of which were translated by Edward Fitzgerald in 5 editions.  FTP, name this Persian polymath poet whose most famous line from his Rubaiyat may be, “A jug of wine, a loaf of bread, and thou.” 
ANSWER: Omar Khayyam 

18. A sorite is formed of many of these strung together. There are 256 distinct types of this, because each of the propositions can be of type A, E, I, or O, and it can be in one of four figures. The major premise and the conclusion have the same (*) predicate, while the minor premise and the conclusion have the same subject. It was presented by Aristotle in Prior Analytics.  FTP, name this logical argument, an example of which is: all mortals die, and all men are mortals, therefore all men die. 
ANSWER: categorical syllogism (prompt on a response of any other type of syllogism until “256 distinct types” is read) 

19. This substance’s stress-strain behavior exhibits the Mullins effect and the Payne effect. Unlike other materials, it stores strain energy in thermal form as well as electrostatic form. In its natural form, it is a polymer of hydrocarbon monomers called isoprene. It can also be synthesized as a polymer of (*) isoprene or of various other monomers. It often undergoes vulcanization, a process in which it is heated and cured with sulfur. It occurs naturally in the sap of certain plants such as the Pará tree, figs, and euphorbias. FTP, name this elastic material used in most pencil erasers.
ANSWER: rubber (prompt on “latex”)

20. This Dynasty’s name was taken from a passage of the I Ching, meaning “Original Heaven”, and during its reign China saw the increased use of the vernacular written Chinese. Zhu Yuanzhang expelled the last of its ten emperors from the capital Dadu, and the dynasty also saw the first connection of the Grand Canal to Beijing. Though the founder captured Korea, (*) he was repulsed in his territorial ambitions with three failed invasions of Vietnam and two failed invasions of Japan.  FTP – name this dynasty Marco Polo visited, whose most famous leader was Kublai Khan.
Answer: Yuan Dynasty

Hunter College High School Tournament
January 19th, 2008
Round Eight


1. Answer these questions about Ambrose Bierce, FTPE:
[10] Originally published as The Cynic’s Word Book, this book contains many quotations from “that learned and ingenious cleric, Father Gassalasca Jape, S.J.”.
ANSWER: The Devil’s Dictionary
[10] Peyton Farquhar thinks that he has escaped getting hanged, only to feel a tug on his neck, in this short story, Bierce’s most famous.
ANSWER: An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
[10] Bierce was badly wounded at this 1864 battle. Also wounded was the father of the first commissioner of baseball, who named his son after it.
ANSWER: Battle of Kennesaw Mountain

2. Name these Romans who were not emperors, FTPE:
[10] This member of the First Triumvirate apparently thought you could win battles with wealth. He disastrously lost the Battle of Carrhae in an attempt to equal Caesar and Pompey, getting tons of people killed and losing the standards of the Roman army, which would not be recovered until the time of Augustus.
ANSWER: Marcus Licinius Crassus
[10] This member of the Second Triumvirate joined Marc Antony against the conspirators of Caesar’s murder, for which Antony awarded him the title of pontifex maximus. When the triumvirs divided the empire, this man received Spain and southern Gaul.
ANSWER: Marcus Aemilium Lepidus
[10] Ben Jonson wrote a play about this head of the Praetorian Guard who gained, and then fell out of, the favor of Tiberius. He was executed under suspicion of having killed Tiberius’ son.
ANSWER: Lucius Aelius Sejanus

3. FTPE, answer these questions related to cryptography:
[10] This electro-mechanical rotor machine was used during World War II by Nazi Germany to send encrypted messages. Captured codebooks allowed the Allies to decipher the messages, and intelligence obtained from these messages was codenamed ULTRA.
ANSWER: Enigma or Wermacht
[10] Based on the earlier Lucifer cipher, this algorithm was designed by IBM, however some believe the NSA tampered with the design to weaken it, creating a secret backdoor. In 1998 the Electronic Frontier Foundation built a machine called Deep Crack and was able to crack this algorithm's 56-bit key in only 56 hours.
ANSWER: Data Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Algorithm
[10] This is the technique of hiding a message so that only the sender and intended recipient know that there is a message hidden. In modern times it can be implemented to encode a digital image inside the least significant bits of another one, since the difference is impossible to detect with the human eye.
ANSWER: steganography (do not prompt on “stenography”)

4. Name these modes of radioactive decay FTPE:
[10] This mode of decay involves the emission of a highly excited proton. For example, when cobalt-60 decays into nickel-60, the nickel-60 has to undergo this decay twice in order to reach ground state.
ANSWER: gammadecay or emission
[10] A neutron turns into a proton when cobalt-60 decays into nickel-60 and releases an electron and a neutrino in this mode of decay.
ANSWER: beta minus decay or electron emission (prompt on beta decay)
[10] This kind of decay is the most harmful to the human body, and proved harmful to Alexander Litvinenko in 2006.
ANSWER: alpha decay

5. FTP, answer these questions about a religion:
[10] This religion, named after an ancient Iranian prophet who was depicted having a conversation with Ptolemy in Raphael's The School of Athens. It holds that asha, truth and order, is antithetical to druj, falsehood and chaos. Traditionally, the dead are placed atop Towers of Silence for vultures to dispose of, as fire and earth are considered too sacred for dead bodies to be placed in.
ANSWER: Zoroastrianism (prompt on “Mazdaism” or “Mazdayasna”)
[10] Zoroaster called this divinity the one uncreated Creator of all. The Persian army often went into battle with an empty chariot drawn by white horses which was dedicated to this deity.
ANSWER: Ahura Mazda
[10] Written in a namesake Eastern Old Iranian language, these texts are sacred to Zoroastrianism. It is similar to the Indian Rig Veda and is composed of sections including the Yasna, Visperad, and Vendidad.
ANSWER: Avesta

6. FTPE, answer these questions about the greatest of all hour-and-a-half-long ballads, Trapped in the Closet.
[10] The enlightened luminary and pedophile who wrote his so-called “hip-hopera”.
ANSWER: R. Kelly or Robert Kelly
[10] The main character of Trapped in the Closet, who gets caught in a tryst with Cathy, who is married to Rufus, who is in love with Chuck. Got all that? He shares his first name with R. Kelly’s middle name.
ANSWER: Sylvester
[10] The police officer, James, who is himself having an affair with Sylvester’s wife, Gwendolyn, is married to this obese woman, the only white character in the work. In an astounding display of rhyming skill, we learn that she is having an affair with a little person.
ANSWER: Bridget (who is in love with a midget . . . see what he did there?)

7. FTPE, name these works of composer Scott Joplin:
[10] This very popular rag shares its name with the flag of Canada. One of Joplin’s later works, The Gladiolus Rag, is a thinly veiled variant of it.
ANSWER: The Maple Leaf Rag
[10] This other rag saw a resurgence when it was used as the theme song for the Paul Newman/Robert Redford movie The Sting.
ANSWER: The Entertainer
[10] In this work, Joplin’s only opera, the title freed slave gets kidnapped by conjurers before being rescued by her lover, Remus.
ANSWER: Treemonisha

8. This hero died in a skirmish in the Pyrenees, and he blew his horn too late to be rescued. FTPE:
[10] Name this French hero of a famous chanson who was betrayed to the Muslims by Ganelon. His sword was Durendal.
ANSWER: Roland
[10] Roland was a knight of this Frankish king, who would have saved Roland. In real life he was crowned by Pope leo the 3rd in A.D. 800
ANSWER: Charlemagne
[10] This Italian author wrote the gigantic epic poem Orlando Furioso, expanding upon the myth of Roland so far that in it people fly to the moon in chariots, among other ridiculous things.
ANSWER: Ludovico Ariosto

9. Name these Gothic cathedrals FTPE: 
[10] This cathedral is located 80 km from Paris, and has one spire that is 28 feet taller and about 500 years newer than the other. 
ANSWER: Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres 
[10] Much damage was done to this cathedral during the French Revolution, but it was restored during the 19th century. It is still used as a Roman Catholic cathedral today and is the seat of the Archbiship of Paris. 
ANSWER: Notre Dame de Paris 
[10] This cathedral was the tallest structure in the world until the Washington Monument was created. It is also still used by the Roman Catholic Church and is dedicated to Saint Peter and the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
ANSWER: Cologne Cathedral 


10. He is famed for his studies of Javanese Culture. FTPE:
[10] Name this sociologist who wrote The Interpretation of Cultures.
ANSWER: Clifford Geertz
[10] Geertz wrote an essay entitled "Deep Play" which analyzes a competition on the island of Bali, which along with Java are islands in what nation?
ANSWER: Indonesia
[10] In the essay "Deep Play," the game he is studying is this, which can be summed up as angry chickens with knives clawing each other.
ANSWER: Cockfight

11. FTPE, How well do you know your German states?
[10] Bounded by the Oder River on one side and by the Elbe on the other, this German state encapsulates Berlin, which has a certain gate of the same name.
ANSWER: Brandenburg
[10] Its namesake section of the Alps contains the 9718-foot Mt. Zugspitze, and cities in this large state include Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Munich.
ANSWER: Bavaria
[10] Located on the Jutland peninsula, cities in this state include Flensburg and Lübeck, and is traversed by the Nord-Ostsee Kanal, also known as the Kiel Canal.
ANSWER: Schleswig-Holstein

12. Identify these about pop art FTPE:
[10] This man ran "The Factory" and made a film based on A Clockwork Orange entitled Vinyl along with silkscreen prints of Marilyn Monroe and Cambells Soup Cans.
ANSWER: Andy (Andrew) Warhol or Warhola
[10] This man used Benday dots to create things that look like blown up comics, such as in the painting Whaam!
ANSWER: Roy Lichtenstein
[10] This man is famous for painting 3 different sized American flags superimposed on each other in his 3 Flags.
ANSWER: Jasper Johns

13. Answer these loosely related questions about literary works, FTPE: 
[10] Notable Canadian John McCrae wrote this poem about World War I after witnessing the death of his friend. 
ANSWER: In Flanders Fields 
[10] Akira Kurosawa's movie Rashōmon takes its plot from this short story by Ryunosuke Akutagawa, although it is named after a different one.
ANSWER: In a Grove
[10] Within a Budding Grove was the title that translator C.K. Scott Moncrieff gave to the second section of this work, the best-known work of Marcel Proust. 
ANSWER: Remembrance of Things Past or In Search of Lost Time or À la recherche du temps perdu 

14. Luxembourg is next to go, and, who knows, maybe Monaco.  Answer the following about nuclear proliferation in countries excluded as nuclear states by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, FTPE:
[10] This nation's first nuclear bomb was tested in 1974, codenamed Operation Smiling Buddha.  Officially, it was a “peaceful nuclear explosion,” but its more recent 5 nuclear tests in the 1998 Operation Shakti were decidedly of military nature.
[10] It is thought that South Africa collaborated with Israel in nuclear weapons development, but in 1991 South Africa’s nuclear weapons program was dismantled by this State President, who went on to dismantle apartheid as well.
ANSWER: Frederik Willem de Klerk
[10] This nation finally reneged on its 1994 Agreed Framework with the US when it withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on January 10, 2003 and tested a bomb on October 9, 2006.  Its current dictator wears platform shoes.
ANSWER: Democratic Republic of North Korea


15. Identify these works which deal with Arthurian myth FTPE:
[10] This tetralogy by T.H. White begins with the novel The Sword And The Stone, and it’s title references the prophecy that Arthur will become king again sometime in the future. It was found to actually have a 5th book, The Book of Merlyn.
ANSWER: The Once And Future King
[10] This compilation of tales and translations by the violent criminal Sir Thomas Malory was written while he was imprisoned. It is divided into 21 books, and much of it’s narrative structure is credited to the printer Thomas Caxton.
ANSWER: Le Morte D’Arthur
[10] This Welsh compilation of tales was based on The White Book of Rhydderch and The Red Book of Hergest and one part deals with the conflict between Pryderi and math. It’s Three Romances focus on Owain, Peredur, Geraint, and Enid, and is cited as a source for Chretien’s Arthurian romances.
ANSWER: The Mabinogion

16. Answer the following about a weird structure in geometry FTPE:
[10] This is a surface that is connected continuously but still makes a 180- degree turn. It is named for a German mathematician.
ANSWER: Möbius strip
[10] This four dimensional object has neither an inside or an outside, and if cut in 2 it can produce 2 Möbius strips.
ANSWER: Klein bottle
[10] This is the study of geometric properties and spatial relations unaffected by changing size in the figures, or is also a word for the way in which parts of a whole are related.
ANSWER: Topology

17. Answer these questions about microscopes FTPE:
[10] Anton van Leeuwenhoek used this kind of microscope, which consisted of an optical lens with a short focal length and an eyepiece. In general, optical microscopes with multiple lenses are called these.
ANSWER: compound microscopes
[10] This kind of microscopy involves passing electrons through a material, analogous to optical microscopy.
ANSWER: transmission electron microscopy
[10] This kind of electron microscope examines the surfaces of materials, because the electrons are reflected.
ANSWER: scanning electron microscope

18. Name these British poets who wrote about World War I, FTPE: 
[10] Killed a week before the Armistice, he described soldiers “Bent double, like old beggars under sacks” in his most famous poem, Dulce et Decorum Est. 
ANSWER: Wilfred Owen 
[10] This poet gained fame with his collection of wartime sonnets, 1914. One of the poems in this collection, “The Soldier”, contains the lines “there’s some corner of a foreign field / That is for ever England.” 
ANSWER: Rupert Brooke 
[10] This friend and posthumous publisher of Wilfred Owen was himself an accomplished poet, and the only person in this bonus who survived the war. His works include The Old Huntsman and Counterattack
ANSWER: Siegfried Lorraine Sassoon

19. FTPE, name these treaties signed by America in the 18th century. 
[10] A future Supreme Court justice negotiated this 1794 treaty with Great Britain designed by Alexander Hamilton to resolve some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. 
ANSWER: Jay’s Treaty or the Treaty of London of 1794 
[10] The border between the US and Florida was established in this 1795 treaty with Spain. 
ANSWER: Pinckney’s Treaty or the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid 
[10] This 1795 treaty was signed in its namesake Ohio fort between the US and various tribes after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 
ANSWER: Treaty of Greenville 

20. Name these parts of the eye, FTPE:
[10] This center of the retina contains only cones and no rods, thus making it the area with the sharpest sight and best color vision.
ANSWER: fovea
[10] Coming from the Greek for "hard", this is also known as the white of the eye.
ANSWER: sclera
[10] This gel fills the space between the lens and the retina, allowing light to pass through unencumbered, and gives the eyeball its shape.
ANSWER: vitreous humor




Note to moderators: The reason that this round is devoid of the formatting found in other rounds is as follows: WordPerfect is of the devil.

01 In the background are two women occupied with a stortage trunk while a tan and white dog sleeps at the foot of the bed. The auburn-brown-haired woman at the forefront holds some flowers in her right hand lying on a bed fully nude, gazing at the viewer. For 10 points—name this 1538 painting by Titian.
ANSWER: Venus of Urbino [ur-BEE-noh]

01 BONUS Answer these questions about the planet Venus, 10 points each.
[10]       The atmosphere contains over 95% of this gas, which may help maintain the surface temperature at 460 degrees Celsius.
ANSWER: Carbon dioxide or CO2
[10]       Within 10%, how many earth-days does it take to complete one rotation of Venus?
ANSWER: 243 (accept 219 to 267)


02 It was a response to the closing of chapels being constructed in the towns of Broumov and Hrob, an act in violation of Austrian Emperor Rudolf II’s 1609 Letter of Majesty. Two imperial regents, William Slavata and Jaroslav Martinic, were convicted of violating the Letter, and received a decidedly non-capital punishment. For 10 points—name this famous Bohemian “Catholic toss” of May 23, 1618.
ANSWER: Defenestration of Prague

02 BONUS. Name these things related to Pope Paul III and the Counter Reformation, 10 points each.
[10]       Paul’s most notable action was the convocation of this 1545 council to deal with the theological ramifications of the Protestant Reformation.
ANSWER: Council of Trent
[10]       This list of censored works first appeared in 1542; books have been added to its rosters as recently as the 1990’s.
ANSWER: the Index of Forbidden Books


03 The “author’s apology” that starts the book asks the reader to “lay my book, thy head, and heart together.” In chronicling the journeys of its title character, including his battle against Apollyon, and his trial and imprisonment by Lord Hate-Good in Vanity Fair, its author creates the most famous allegorical tale in British literature. For 10 points—name this dreamlike John Bunyan book about a wayfarer named Christian.
ANSWER: The Pilgrim’s Progress from this World to that Which is to Come, Delivered in the Similitude of a Dream. [HN: Glare freely at anyone who gives the full answer.]
03 BONUS. Name these related writers, 10 points each.
[10]       This sixteenth-century English poet is noted for his verses consisting of short alliterative lines which repeat the same rhymes. His works include “The Tunning of Elinor Rumming” and “Jane Scroop (Her Lament for Phillip Sparrow).”
ANSWER: John Skelton
[10]       This poet, the central figure of Tom Stoppard’s The Invention of Love, is most famous for the volume A Shropshire Lad.
ANSWER: A(lfred) E(dward) Housman


04 Ian Charleston plays a Scot named Eric Liddell, while Harold Abrams is a Jewish student at Cambridge who struggles with anti-Semitism. Directed by Hugh Hudson—for 10 points—Vangelis won an Academy Award for scoring what film about two runners who compete in the 1924 Olympics?
ANSWER: Chariots of Fire

04 BONUS. Answer these questions about chariots, 10 points each.
[10]       In the Iliad, five chieftains drove two-horse chariots as the first event in the funeral games honoring what friend of Achilles?
ANSWER: Patroclus
[10]       Located between the Palantine and Aventine hills of Rome, what arena was the site of chariot races, gladiator games, and other contests?
ANSWER: Circus Maximus


05 The daughter of Kane Milohai [KAH-nay mee-LOH-hye], she was banished from her home because of her temper. Her siblings include the sea‑goddess Namaka, and her half‑sister Hi’iaka [hye-ee-AH-kah], goddess of the dance. Her major rivals include the pig‑god Kamapua’a, who, as a rain god, can extinguish her fires. For 10 points—name this Hawai’ian goddess of volcanoes.
ANSWER: Pele [PAY-lay]

05 BONUS. Name these other fire gods, 10 points each.
[10]       The Roman god of the forge, he lent his name to a hypothetical planet whose orbit was inside the orbit of Mercury.
ANSWER: Vulcan [do not prompt on “Hephaestus”]
[10]       At Ragnarok, this fire giant, who rules Muspellheim, will set Ygdrassil on fire.
06 William James used this phrase in 1890’s Principles of Psychology to describe the perceptions, thoughts, and  feelings of the waking mind. In a literary sense, it can be used to describe chapter 42 of his brother Henry’s Portrait  of a Lady. For 10 points—name this device, which introspectively relates the narrator’s continuous mental processes, used by William Faulkner in The Sound and the Fury.
ANSWER: stream of consciousness 
06 BONUS. Name these works which use stream of consciousness, 10 points each.
[10]       This 1925 novel has two main characters who never meet in person. WWI vet Septimus Warren Smith becomes known to Clarissa only when a doctor tells her of his suicide at a party.
ANSWER: Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf
[10]       This novel begins by describing the experiences of the author as baby, including when his father, who has a hair face, tells him about a story about bovine creature “coming down along the road.”
ANSWER: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man_


07 He had planned on being 20,000 pounds sterling richer, to support his social life, as a result of his dealings with Sir Henry Clinton. Instead, he was forced to flee because his plans were discovered after the capture of John André. For 10 points—name this man whose court-martial and slow promotions led him to try to surrender West Point to the British during the American Revolution.
ANSWER: Benedict Arnold

07 BONUS. Name these cities that played roles in Arnold’s military career, 10 points each.
[10]       In 1775, then-Colonel Arnold was second in command to General Richard Montgomery, who died trying to capture this city. The only fortified North American city north of Mexico, it is known as “the Gibralter of North America.”
ANSWER: Québec (City)
[10]       In 1780 Arnold raided this Connecticut town, present home of the US Coast Guard Academy.
ANSWER: New London

08 Once ruled by elected officials called portreeves, the Domesday Book held that there were 82 of them in England at the time. Those that lost their population but retained their original representation were known in the early 1800s as “rotten.” For 10 points—give this term, also referring to five political divisions coterminous with the counties of New York City.
ANSWER: boroughs

08 BONUS. Answer the following about local political divisions, 10 points each.
[10]       Louisiana isn’t the only state to use something other than county to divide local government. This state uses neither counties nor parishes, but instead uses boroughs.
ANSWER: Alaska
[10]       This is the name given to an electoral district in Canada.
ANSWER: riding_

09 It has a lower pressure than an ideal gas because of the slight attractive forces between molecules. Countering this decrease, however, is an increase in pressure caused by the assumption that molecules are not point particles, but rather hard spheres. For 10 points—what is this type of gas, which shares its name with a type of intermolecular force and the Dutch physicist who first proposed the equation of state that describes it?
ANSWER: van der Waals gas

09 BONUS. Name these terms related to intermolecular forces, 10 points each.
[10]       The bond strength between atoms of different elements can be expressed in terms of this quantity, symbolized mu, defined as the product of the magnitude of the partial charges times their separation.
ANSWER: electric dipole moment
[10] One reason for the relatively high boiling point of water is this type of intermolecular bond which requires the presence of the free pair of electrons on nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine atoms.
ANSWER: hydrogen bonding

10 Based on a model created by Davson and Danielli, it was first proposed in 1972 by Singer and Nicolson. Including two layers of phospholipids—for 10 points—name this model of the cell membrane which allows lipids and proteins to move across the surface of the membrane.
ANSWER: fluid-mosaic model [prompt on “phospholipid bilayer” or equivalents]

10 BONUS. The fluid-mosaic model can kinda be compared to jello with fruit stuck in it. Name these things you’ll find in the cell membrane, 10 points each.
[10]       The amount of this 27-carbon molecule determines the stiffness of the cell membrane.
ANSWER: cholesterol
[10]       Most animal cells contain ATP-generating pumps that operate by exchanging what two ions across the cell membrane?
ANSWER: potassium or K+ and sodium or Na+ 

Allow substitutions if any. THEN distribute handout with Category Quiz topics, as you read the categories:
American History: 54-40
American Literature: 4
Biological Sciences: 3.2
Entertainment & Sports: 1
Fine Arts: 48
Foreign Languages & Word Origins: 9
Mathematics: Billions & Billions (Not Really)
Religion, Mythology, & Philosophy: 114
World History: 500
World Literature: 1984

Special Note: In this theme CQ, only the Mathematics question involves calculations of any sort.
2001 National Scholastics Championship
Round 9. Category Quiz

1. The headwaters of the North and South Platte, Rio Grande and Arkansas can be found in this state, as can the highest Mountain in the Rockies, Mt. Elbert. Dinosaur National Monument, Sand Dunes National Monument and Mesa Verde National Park also find their home here.  FTP, name the state, home of the Continental Divide.
ANSWER: Colorado

2. According to Muslim tradition, Abraham and Ishmael built it at God’s command. It used to be a shrine to 360 deities until Muhammad toppled it, rededicating it to Allah. It is draped in a black cloth, with the Shahada woven into it in gold. Pilgrims make every attempt to touch the rock within. FTP, name this structure, around which pilgrims must circle seven times during the Hajj.
ANSWER: the Ka’baa

3. The son of a well‑to‑do Scots‑Irish pioneer family, he left his law practice after marrying his cousin, Floride Bonneau, in 1811. His political career began in 1808 with election to the state legislature, and in the US Congress, it was he who introduced the declaration of war against Britain in 1812.  FTP, identify this political leader, who served as congressman, senator, secretary of state and war, and vice‑president, a chief proponent of nullification.
ANSWER:  John C. Calhoun

4. On the bottom are those for air, water, food, and sleep.  The next level up deals with stability, consistency, and safety.  The next level is the desire to belong or love, then the ability to accomplish a skill and the recognition by others, finally the top level is self-actualization and a search to be more than himself or herself.  For ten points, name this organization of motivations that theoretically govern each individual as postulated by Abraham Maslow.
ANSWER: Hierarchy of Needs (prompt on “self-actualization”)

5. Inspired by the natural beauty of the frontier, especially the Catskill Mountains, this group of landscape painters included Asher Durand and Thomas Cole. For 10 points, identify this movement named for a New York river valley.
ANSWER: Hudson River Valley School

6. In most patients, this enterovirus causes minor cold and flu-like symptoms. In less than one-fifth of patients, however, it diffuses into the central nervous system, where it destroys nerve cells in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Once so feared that mother’s wouldn’t let their children go swimming, for 10 points, name this virus controlled by vaccines developed by Salk and Sabin.
ANSWER: poliomyelitis [accept infantile paralysis]

7. On May 11th of this year, a key Albanian party agreed to join an emergency coalition designed to isolate ethnic Albanian guerillas in this country.  This agreement would lead to its co-sponsor's government being dominated less by the two-thirds Slavic majority.  For ten points, identify this tiny Balkan nation with capital at Skopje.
ANSWER: Macedonia

8. His death was based on that of his creator’s daughter Leopione, while the character himself drew many traits from a real individual named Pierre Maurin. He is to escape his torment by fleeing to England, until he learns that Cosette has grown fond of Marius. He had been living in Montriel-sur-mer under the name of Madilaine—first as a factory foreman, then as mayor—after escaping from prison, where he was sentenced to nineteen years in jail for stealing a loaf of bread. For 10 points, name this man who is pursued by Inspector Javert in Les Miserables.
ANSWER: Jean Valjean [accept either name]

2001 National Scholastics Championship

Round 9. The Category Quiz: By the Numbers
American History: 54-40
Warning: two answers required. The 1846 Oregon Treaty settled a dispute between the US and Great Britain over the ownership of the Oregon territory. For 15 points—what other two nations had, in four separate treaties over 50 years, relinquished their claims to the land?
ANSWER: Spain and Russia

American Literature:
In Little Women, before marrying Prof. Bhaer, Jo is courted by a young man whom Alcott based in part on Ladislas, a Polish boy she met in Europe. For 15 points—name this young man, who sounds like he might be one of Jo’s sisters.ANSWER: “Laurie” or Theodore Lawrence [prompt on “Theodore”]

Biological Sciences: 3.2
While there are 64 codons, in the majority of organisms, they code for just 20 amino acids. Therefore, there are usually multiple codons for a single amino acid. For 15 points—what term is used to describe this feature of the genetic code?
ANSWER: degenerate or degeneracy

Entertainment & Sports: 1
Since the XFL announced in May 2001 that it was folding after one season—for 15 points—what San Francisco team has the dubious distinction of being the only team ever to lose the XFL’s Million Dollar Game?
ANSWER: San Francisco Demons

Fine Arts: 48
Bearing BWV numbers 846 to 893, it is in two parts, each containing 24 preludes and fugues, each in a different key. For 15 points—what collective title is given to this work by Johann Sebastian Bach, sometimes called The 48?
ANSWER: The Well-Tempered Clavier or Das Wohltemperierte Klavier

Foreign Languages & Word Origins: 9
This word is often mis-interpreted to mean near annihilation. For 15 points—what English word takes its name from a Roman military custom of executing a portion of captured enemy forces chosen by lot?
ANSWER: decimate [accept word forms; from the Latin decimare]

Mathematics: Billions & Billions (Not Really)
For 15 points—within 20%, what is the smallest number that is divisible by every integer between 1 and 10, inclusive? You have 30 seconds.
ANSWER: 2016 to 3024 [2520 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 7]

Religion, Mythology, & Philosophy: 114
For 15 points—what is the Arabic name given to the 114 chapters of the Qur’an?
ANSWER: surahs [SOO-ruh]

World History: 500
Solon had his eponymous 400-member Council of Solon. For 15 points—under which Greek ruler was the council expanded to 500 members, and renamed “the Five Hundred?”
ANSWER: Cleisthenes or Clisthenes of Athens

World Literature: 1984
In 1984, Winston Smith worked for an agency in Oceania that “concerned itself with news, entertainment, education, and the fine arts.” For 15 points—by what oxymoronic name was this agency known?
ANSWER: Ministry of Truth or Minitrue

Stretch Round

1. This man first came to North America in 1883 on an expedition to study the Eskimo culture on Baffin Island. In 1899, he was appointed professor of anthropology at Columbia. FOR TEN POINTSname this American anthropological pioneer, author of Race and Democratic Society and The Mind of Primitive Man, the teacher of Zora Neale Hurston, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead.
ANSWER: Franz Boas
BONUS 1. Answer the following concerning a chemistry concept, for ten points each.
This is a solution that resists a change in pH upon the addition of small amounts of acid or base.
ANSWER: buffer or buffered solution
This equation, often used when working with buffers, shows that when the concentration of the acid equals the  concentration of its conjugate base, the pH equals the pKa.
ANSWER: Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
The pH of a buffer can also be determined in the same way that it is determined for when a solution contains a weak  acid and its soluable salt, a solution which exhibits this effect of decreased dissociation of the acid.
ANSWER: common-ion effect

2. “We have come over a way that with tears has been watered,/We have come, treading our path through the blood of the slaughtered.” And “Let our rejoicing rise,/High as the listeningskies,/Let it resound loud as the rolling sea.” FOR TEN POINTS—these are lines from what poem by J. Rosamund Johnson, which his brother James Weldon set to music to compose what is now considered the unofficial Black anthem?
ANSWER: “Lift Every Voice and Sing”
BONUS 2. Note the following options: change in supply, change in quantity supplied, change in demand, and change in quantity demanded. Given an economic circumstance, identify the option which best describes the change for good X for 10 points each.
The price of a good which is a substitute for good X goes up.
ANSWER: change in demand
The price of the raw materials used to manufacture good X goes up.
ANSWER: change in supply
Consumer tastes regarding good X change.
ANSWER: change in demand

3. One of these is slowly forming under Yellowstone National Park. This term was first applied to a large pit in the Canary Islands, which was about five kilometers in diameter. It is  used to describe such natural features as Kilauea and Mauna Loa in Hawaii, and, when filled with water, can form a  lake such as Crater Lake. FOR TEN POINTS—name these broad, shallow craters, whose name is Spanish for "cauldron."
ANSWER: caldera
BONUS 3. Identify these South Pacific nations for 15 points each.
This island group was the first to see the new millennium. Formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, this nation’s capital is at Tawara.
ANSWER: Kiribati [“Kiribati” or “Kiribas”]
This nation is actually well off financially due to its rich phosphate deposits. Its capital is at Yaren.

4. Book 3 of this man’s famous work is the source for a famous diagram by Leonardo da Vinci: the ideal male figure.  His principles are also illustrated in such works as those of Donato Bramante.  FOR TEN POINTS—name this author of the 10-volume De Architectura.
Answer: Marcus Pollio Vitruvius
BONUS 4. Answer the following about a Chinese dynasty for 10 points each.
During this dynasty, which shares its name with China’s predominant ethnic group, many of the laws of the Qin [chin] were repealed. Its "western" and "eastern" periods are split by the CE 9-23 rule of the Hsin [sin].
The Han was founded by this peasant, the only member of the peasant class to found a historical dynasty.
ANSWER: Liu Pang [bang]
The founder and only ruler of the Hsin was this usurper.
ANSWER: Wang Mang

5. A journalist by trade, his works in that arena include “The Moronic Inferno and Other Visits To America.” Though he wrote short stories collected for “Einstein’s Monsters,” he like his father is most famous as a novelist. A satirist by nature in such early works as Dead Babies and his debut The Rachel Papers, he switched gears to depicting the Holocaust and its memory in Time’s Arrow. FOR TEN POINTS—name this British author, whose father Kingsley was one of the original Angry Young Men.
ANSWER: Martin Amis[Prompt on Amis]
BONUS 5. AUDIO Bonus (Playoffs): Identify the composers of the following concerti for ten points each.
[Cello Concerto, Adagio-Moderato]
ANSWER: Sir Edward Elgar
[Violin Concerto, Presto]
ANSWER: Samuel Barber
[Piano Concerto Number 1, Rondo: Allegro scherzando]
ANSWER: Ludwig van Beethoven

6. Few people would create, let alone use, handcuffs reinforced with padlocks and epoxy glue, but that didn't stop Timothy Byrne from attempting to use such restraints on this man, in New York City, on January 2. However, this intended victim probably treated it as another day at work, since he was celebrating Sunday mass as the Catholic Church's most powerful American representative. FOR TEN POINTS—name this Archbishop of New York, who was, on February 21, elevated to cardinal.
ANSWER: (His Eminence) Archbishop Edward M. Cardinal Egan
BONUS 6. Answer the following about Ottoman history:
a. Organized out of Christian youths who were forced to convert to Islam, this corps of Ottoman troops revolted against the empire several times and were finally destroyed by Mahmud II in the Auspicious Incident.
ANSWER: Janissaries
b. This series of treaties, begun in the 1500s, allowed Europeans to live in the Ottoman empire under their own laws.
ANSWER: Capitulations
c. Ottoman history from 1718 to 1730 is named for this commodity, which was popular in the ruling circles, introduced into the empire from Holland. In a similar, earlier Dutch craze, some bulbs cost as much as 2500 florins, the equivalent of 22 oxen.
ANSWER: tulip

7. Sextus Julius Frontinus wrote on their maintenance. One in Segovia, Spain dates from c. AD 100. The Pont du Gard in Nîmes, France continued to run for hundreds of years without maintenance. Another in Jerusalem bears the name of Pontius Pilate. Most of the eleven for the city of Rome itself entered through the Porta Maggiore. FOR TEN POINTS—identify these water‑bearing structures.
ANSWER: Aqueducts
BONUS 7. Answer the following related questions in computer science, for ten points each
The algorithms of Kruskal and Prim determine minimum spanning forms of these connected, acyclic, undirected graphs.
ANSWER: tree
Described recursively, this type of tree is comprised of three disjoint sets of nodes, a root node, and left and right subtrees.
ANSWER: binary tree
This term describes a tree in which every node is labeled with one of two colors, and every path from a node to a descendant leaf has the same number of nodes of a single color.
ANSWER: red-black tree

8. Criticisms of it include that utility may not be infinite, or that infinite utility can be only finitely appreciated.  Others claim that the decision matrix needs more than two columns or more than two rows, and that the matrix differs for different people. Found in the Pensées of its namesake philosopher, FOR TEN POINTS—name this pragmatic argument for believing in God, since you have everything to gain if He exists.
ANSWER: Pascal’s Wager
BONUS 8. Answer the following about the recent changes in the Japanese prime ministry for 10 points each.
a. Becoming PM last summer after the death of Keizo Obuchi, his popularity plummeted over a series of speaking gaffes and an infamous round of golf; he stepped down to allow new elections this spring.
b. This reformer became prime minister after Mori's resignation.
c. The election was effectively decided in the primary for leadership of this ruling Japanese party, to which both Mori and Koizumi belong.
ANSWER: Liberal Democratic Party or LDP
[HN: Koizumi looks a lot like Paul Reubens.]

9. It rises in the Valdai Hills 150 miles west of Moscow, and flows in a generally southerly direction through western Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine before emptying into the Black Sea.  The river's watershed includes the Volyn-Podilsk Upland, the Belarusian Ridge, the Valdai, the Central-Russia Upland, and the  Smolensk-Moscow Upland. FOR TEN POINTS—name this fourth-longest European river, connected to the Baltic Sea by the Bug Canal.
ANSWER: Dnieper River
BONUS 9. Given a work, name the psychologist for 10 points each.
Totem and Taboo
ANSWER: Sigmund Freud
The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology
ANSWER: Alfred Adler
On Death and Dying
ANSWER: Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

10. This man raised Pirithous with his wife Dia, but Zeus may have been the father. A descendant of Ares and king of the Lapiths in Thessaly, Zeus took pity on him when he was sentenced to exile after killing his father-in-law Deioneus, but he became so enamored of Hera that he impregnated an image of her Zeus had made, which bore him the monster from which the centaurs were descended. FOR TEN POINTS—name this famous ingrate, bound to a winged, flaming wheel in Tartarus for, among other things, being the first human to shed kindred blood.
BONUS 10. Answer the following about Muslim-Hindu separation on the Indian subcontinent, FTPE.
After the Indian National Congress refused to share power with the Muslim League following 1937 provincial elections, this leader of the League demanded the formation of a Muslim country, later to be called Pakistan, of which he became the first President.
ANSWER: Muhammad Ali Jinnah
b. Jinnah became leader of Pakistan on August 14th in this year, the year that India and Pakistan became independent states.
ANSWER: 1947
c. One early example of Hindu-Muslim tension came in 1905 when this British Viceroy of India divided Bengal into two provinces, creating a Hindu minority in east Bengal.
ANSWER: Lord Curzon


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