Making of the west chapter summaries



Making of the west chapter summaries


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Making of the west chapter summaries



Making of the West: Chapter 12, pages 473-521


Struggles over Beliefs

  • Anabaptists: People that wanted to form a holy community spate from the rest of society.  (Found in the Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin section) They believed only adults had the free will to accept God as adults and had to be re-baptized as such. Wanted to withdraw from society. Refused to swear allegiance/bear arms. Persecution failed so Zwingli ordered the death sentence in Zurich. Spread to Southern Germany in 1529, was condemned by the Holy Roman Empire in the same year. In 1534, one group seized control of Munster. Claimed a community of Saints.
  • Protestants: Followers of Martin Luther who separated from the Catholic Church in hope of restoring Christian beliefs.
  • Munster was declared a holy city by Anabaptist radicals and lay under siege by Catholics (1534). Struggles over beliefs culminated in the thirty years war.
  • Thirty Years War: (1618-1648) Effected central Europe. Struggle between Catholics and Protestants. Ended when politics won over religion.
  • During the war central Europe was devastated. This was just the first upheavals that shaped the era. Major economic downturn lead to famines and disease in the 1600-1650’s. New discovers of the world and new scientific developments reshaped western attitudes toward religion and state powers because Europe wanted to avoid more wars.


The Protestant Reformation

  • Since the mid 15th century many Catholic clerics found the church corrupt so they tried to speak but found their efforts in vain until Martin Luther. By the time he died, half of Europe renounced the Roman Catholic Church leaving all of Europe in turmoil.
  • Martin Luther: German Friar (1483-1546) who spoke out against Catholic methods of abusing religious folk. Pursued a life of scholarship. Chose a life as a monk and was appalled by the church. Had a break through experience. Was finally outraged in 1516 by the use of indulgences to pay for St. Peter’s Basilica and the cost of the arch bishop’s campaign fund. Wrote the 95 theses. Wrote three treaties calling the papacy the anti-Christ. Named ordinary people the priesthood and said self relationship with God leads to salvation. Labeled “The Luther Affair” by the church. Church tired to silence him, his extent was huge. Was protected by Fredric the wise who was one of seven German princes.


Popular Piety and Christian Humanism

  • Indulgences:  Catholic Church sold these. They were meant to alleviate purgatory after death. Basically cheating people out of money.
  • Catholic Church abuses powers demanding monetary and sexual favors from believers. Scholars wanted social reform.
  • Desiderius Eramus: (c. 1466-1536) Dutch scholar that demanded Catholic reform. Christian Humanist. He believed in Christian piety. He translated the New Testament, and wrote books on table manners.
  • Thomas Moore: (1478-1535) English lawyer that demanded Catholic reform. He was a Christian Humanist that believed in Christian piety. Wrote a book called Utopia, about a perfect world.
  • Schism is dividing Europe. People are sick of the violence.


Martin Luther and the German Nation

  • 95 Thesis:  Luther’s proposition that questioned indulgence pedaling and purchase of church offices. Released halt-up anger into the open and tore down the holy Roman Catholic Empire.
  • Urban Movement turned into countryside war. Peasants, merchants and artisans were with Luther because they resented the church tax they paid and all the land the church owned.
  • Peasant’s War: Uprising in 1525 split the reform movement. Mixed religions and social protest. Luther did not support this after they didn’t listen to him and he then encouraged them to kill the peasants. Luther believed that one and all rulers were ordered by god.
  • Martin Luther came along and saw that the church was corrupt. He wrote the 95 thesis and that sparked huge debate. The Peasant’s war broke out in Germany, was crushed by the princes. Charles V finally named the Roman Catholic Faith the only real religion of Rome and Martin Luther’s followers became known as Protestants.


Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin

  • What Luther was to Germany was what Zwingli is to Switzerland.
  • Huldrych Zwingli: (1484-1564) Son of a Swiss village leader and established a reform headquarter in Zurich. Started as an ordinary army Champlain. Differed from Luther as reformer because he believed that communion only represented the blood and body while Catholics believed that it changed substances under a priest. He did not tolerate any other religious sects in Zurich.
  • John Calvin: (1509-1564) Made Geneva the center for reform campaigns in Western Europe. Calvin believed that the Roman Catholic Religion could be reformed from the inside out but eventually believed that a new religious sect is the only answer. After fleeing France, Calvin fled to Geneva and helped organize reform in the city.  An intense conflict between the reformers and the traditional elites of the city formed, but the Calvinists triumphed in 1541. He wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion first published in 1536 which said that if you could not earn your salvation with good works, then no Christian could be sure of salvation. Developed predestination.
  • When Munster was under siege, many Anabaptists died in the battle.
  • Affair of Placards: On October 18th, 1534, Parisians found the doors of Catholic Churches posted with boards denouncing the Catholic masses. Hundreds of Protestants were arrested and were executed, many others, including Calvin fled France.
  • Predestination: Calvin’s idea that God has foreordained very person to salvation or damnation.
  • In Geneva, Calvin’s doctrines demanded rigorous discipline. Geneva acted as a single theocratic community in which dissent was not tolerated. Geneva became the center of Reformation, sending out pastors and exporting Calvin’s books.


Reshaping Society through Religion

  • Protestant reformers shared a desire to unite Christian worship and social behavior; wanted to create a pious god-fearing and orderly Christian society. When Martin Luther translated the Bible into German he sparked a trend in which others began translating the bible into their own native languages. In contrast, England’s church hierarchy reacted swiftly when William Tyndale translated the Bible into English. Tyndale tried to smuggle copied into England and was burned as a heretic. Most Protestants didn’t have a vernacular bible so they were left to set up church-schools for children 6-12. Protestants also changed marriage in the way that two adults needed to register with the church in order to be a legitimate couple. Parental consent was also necessary for a couple to get married, giving parents immense power in regulating marriages. Wives were expected to be obedient and loving, but had the option of divorce. This came at a price because women could no longer join the covenant and seek religion outside the family. Some women spoke against their given roles.


Catholic Renewal and Missionary Zeal

  • Catholic Reform: This was the Catholic Church’s rebuttal to the Protestant reformation. Pope Paul III (c. 1534-1549) gathered a council to codify church doctrines and undertake aggressive missionary efforts.
  • Council of Trent: Council of church officials that met at Trent (city that was on the border of the Holy Roman Empire and Italy). Met intermittently between 1545 and 1563, and shaped Catholicism for the next 400 years.
  • Because of these two Catholic movements, all hope of reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants faded.
  • Jesuits (Society of Jesus): Society founded by Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), a former military officer. He eventually attracted young men to his side and in 1540; their small group was recognized by the pope. This group grew hugely and attracted the elite Catholics of Europe. Note: this was for men only.
  • Company of Saint Ursula: Group of women who devoted their lives to the education of girls. Was recognized by the pope in 1544. Known as the “Ursulines”.
  • These groups eventually restored confidence in the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church sent missionaries all over the world in hopes of reaffirming Catholic faith in Europe. The Catholics were highly successful at converting huge amounts of people around the world. For a while there was little racial discrimination in the Catholic Church, but eventually in the Americas and Africa, not person of color could be in the priesthood.


State Power and Religious Conflict, 1500-1618

  • The Ottoman Empire to the east could not deflect attention from increasing tensions in Europe. Calvinism and Lutheranism flourished creating deadly political conflicts between Protestants and Catholics.


Wars among Habsburgs, Valois and Ottomans

  • Spain and France fought each other for dominance over Europe. French claims over Italian territories sparked conflicts with Christian Monarchs and Ottoman Sultans. In 1525, Charles V’s troops crushed the French army at Pavia, Italy and captured the French king Francis I. Charles held Francis as a guest until he renounced France’s claims to Italy. Charles V sacked Rome in 1527 to punish the pope for siding with the French. Charles V had to counter Ottomans as well in Vienna. Francis created an alliance with the Turks offering them Toulon in France for 8 months. This brief alliance represented a new political strategy that considered religion as but one factor in power politics. In 1559, the French king signed a peace treaty but by then the conflict had drained the treasuries of all monarchs involved. All armies had increases in size and firepower got more costly. Charles V looked toward private bankers for funds. Both Francis and Charles died with huge debts that they owed toward private bankers.


French Wars of Religion

  • During the 1540-1550’s huge amounts of French nobles converted to Calvinism. The French monarchs Francis and his son Henry II (died unexpectedly) tried to maintain the balance between Catholics and Calvinists.
  • Huguenots: What Calvinists were called in France.
  • Catherine de Medici:  (1519-1589) The wife of Henry II who acted as a regent for the young king of France. Showed little toleration for the Huguenots and tried but could not stop a civil war between the Catholics and Huguenots in 1562. She married he daughter Marguerite off to a Calvinist noble (Henry of Navarre). An assassination attempt on the life of her daughters husband’s Calvinist friend left Catherine terrified, so she ordered the execution of leading Huguenots.  In three days, three thousand Huguenots died in France and 10,000 in French provinces. The Pope ordered the Church bells to be rung in celebration.
  • Catholics and Huguenots saw the conflict as an international struggle for survival that required aid from outside countries. Henry III saw the Catholic League as a threat so he invited two prominent leaders to a meeting and had them killed. Henry de Navarre became king after Henry III was stabbed to death by a monk. Henry of Navarre became Henry IV. He put his Calvinism aside in the interest of the state and in 1593, he publicly embraced Catholicism and in 1598 he signed the peace treaty with Spain called the Edict of Nantes.
  • Edict of Nantes: Signed in 1598 by France and Spain. It granted Huguenots “lots” of religious toleration. This allowed Huguenots protection in the Catholic kingdom, gave them freedom of worship in specified towns, allowed them to maintain troops, fortresses and even courts. This ended the French Wars of Religion.
  • Politiques: Neutral Calvinists and Catholics living in France that urged Henry IV to focus on creating a durable state. They believed that religious disputes could only be solved by peace provided by a strong government.
  • Henry IV: Husband of Marguerite de Medici, daughter of Catherine de Medici. Formerly known as Henry of Navarre and was a stalwart Calvinist. He put his views of religion aside in favor of peace and religious tolerance in France. Signed the Edict of Nantes. After the signing, he still needed to reestablish monarchical authority. He did this by rallying subjects around him and holding court festivals for the fractious nobility.  He allowed officials to pass on their offices to heirs or sell them off. This allowed upper middle class merchants and lawyers to become a part of the new social elite called The Nobility of the Robe. This reduced the state debt and helped Henry IV build a strong monarchy. He was assassinated in 1610 after 19 unsuccessful attempts.


Challenges to Habsburg Power and the Rise of the Dutch Republic

  • Charles V kind of failed epically at resolving growing religious conflicts inside the empire. He secured papal support for a war against the Schmalkaldic League.
  • Schmalkaldic League: Powerful alliance of Lutheran priests and cities. Was defeated by Charles V in 1547 at Muhlberg.
  • The “Interim”: Charles V’s decree that restored the Catholic’s right to worship but allowed Lutherans to continue celebrating at their own services.
  • Huge resistance against this decree sprung up and Charles victory proved to be short lived. Many of his allies joined the other side. The princes started the war again in 1552 and chased Charles back to Italy as a bankrupt emperor.  When Charles was forced to negotiate, he agreed the Peace of Augsburg.
  • Peace of Augsburg: Signed in 1555 by Charles V, it recognized the Lutheran church in the empire, accepted the secularization of church lands but kept the remaining ecclesiastical territories for Catholics and most importantly allowed princes to be the sole determiner of which religion their land practiced. This excluded the Calvinist, Anabaptists and other dissenter groups. This peace statement held the fragile peace in Europe until 1618.
  • Charles V left the throne in 1555 and 1556 leaving most of title to his son Phillip II and to his brother Ferdinand, the predetermined emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Phillip II of Spain: (r. 15556-1598) Successor of Charles V as the king of Spain and all its other lands. He inherited all the colonies of Spain including the New World and parts of Africa. He took over Portugal in 1580 including all of its rich colonies in Africa and Asia. He used all the revenue to pay for his conquests against France, The Ottoman Turks and English Protestants. Being a devout Catholic, he wanted to unite Europe under Catholicism and crush the English Protestants.
  • Phillip united with Venice in 1571 to fight the Turks in a sea battle. He won, but between 1568 and 1570, the Moriscos (Muslim converts that secretly stayed Muslim) revolted in Southern Spain and rose up and killed priests and Christians. No Turks could come to the Moriscos’ aid, so Philip displaced them. This started a trend of the Muslim Expulsion from Spain which took place in 1609.
  • In 1566, Calvinists in the Netherlands attacked Catholic churches to which Phillip responded by sending troops to execute a thousand Calvinists over the next six years. When force arrived to help the Calvinists, Phillip pumped more troops into the situation which slaughtered 7000 in 7 days. This was known as the Spanish Fury. 10 Catholic provinces were appalled at Phillip and joined the Protestant provinces and expelled Phillip. These wayward provinces returned in 1579. Spanish troops never gained control in Northern Europe.
  • Spain would not recognize the Dutch Republic as independent until 1648, but it was already a thriving empire that sheltered a number of religious groups. The ruling family of Orange didn’t have a lot of power when compared to the regents of the 7 provinces. The Dutch republic was perfectly situated to become a thriving maritime economy, which they did and by 1660, their navy was larger than any other European power’s. The Dutch republic’s religious tolerance led it to become one of the most influential cultural centers in the 17th and 18th centuries.


England Goes Protestant (!)

  • Until 1527, England had been firmly Protestant.
  • Henry VIII: (r. 1509-1547) Henry wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon in favor of Anne Boleyn. The Catholic Church did not allow this so he changed England’s religion to The Church of England which was basically Anglican.  This happened with the Act of Supremacy of 1529. Henry had six wives throughout his lifetime, and beheaded most of them.
  • Elizabeth I: Anne’s daughter Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) restored Protestantism in the realm after her predecessor Mary Tudor had 300 Protestants executed. She dealt with Catholic uprisings in the North, two serious attempts on her life and the treat of Spanish invasion under Phillip. Elizabeth assumed the position of Pope (ish) in the Church of England. Puritans tried to encourage Elizabeth to change the Church of England into a more Purist friendly society. Phillip was married to Mary Tudor (before she died) and he encouraged her attempts at a Catholic reform in England. He proposed to Elizabeth, but she said no and supplied Dutch rebels with funds. Never married. Successor was James I.
  • Purists: Strict Calvinists that opposed all vestiges of Catholic ritual in the Church of England.
  • Mary Stuart aka Mary, Queen of Scots: Next in line to inherit the thrown after Elizabeth, was forced to abdicate the thrown of Scotland in favor of her son James who was raised as a Protestant and eventually became James I of England. Scottish Calvinists feared her connects to French Catholics. Mary spent 20 years under house arrest in England, formulating plots against Elizabeth. In 1587 a letter written by Mary to Phillip succeeding her rights to the English thrown to Phillip. Elizabeth overcame her reluctance to kill a fellow monarch and had her beheaded in 1587.
  • In response to the beheading of Mary, Phillip sent his armada to attack England. England defeated this fleet and doled a humiliating defeat to Spain. Protestants rejoiced and all of Spain went into a depression.
  • By the time Phillip died, Spain could not continue to pay for his battles against France, The Dutch and England.


The Thirty Years’ War and the Balance of Power 1618-1848

  • The Thirty Year’s War: (1618-1648) Last of the religious wars. Effectively removed further wars solely over religion. It left most rulers bankrupt. Out of the carnage would appear centralized and powerful states that made increasing demands of people.


Origins and Course of the War

  • The war had its origins in political, religious and ethnic divisions in the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Augsburg had no control over resolving conflicts. Tensions rose as Jesuits won over many Protestant cities and Calvinism made inroads into Catholic cities. Ferdinand of Bohemia tried to cut the Protestants power and this tension boiled over when two Catholic governors tried to shut down the Protestant meetings. On May 23, 1618, a crowd of Protestants dragged the two Catholic deputies to a window and threw them out. This represented a new cycle of conflict. Protestants dethroned Ferdinand and replaced him with the young Calvinist Fredrick V (r. 1616-1637). Mercenary armies began to form and 125,000 were operated under the Catholic emperor. They sacked much of Protestant Germany. The king of Denmark tried to stop them but he failed. Emboldened by his victory, Ferdinand issues The Edict of Restitution in 1629. This outlawed Calvinism in the empire and reclaimed Catholic Church properties. Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1611-1632) of Sweden saw Germany in trouble (he was Lutheran). He made Sweden the major power of this time. Gustavus had religious reasons to intervene in Germany, but he proved that power politics could triumph over religious interests. France offered to subsidize Gustavus. The hoped to win land from the Holy Roman Empire. Gustavus won in Southern Germany and the tides of the war changed. France wanted to crush Spain so they started an alliance with the Dutch. While Spain was being pummeled by both the Dutch Republic and France, a series of internal revolts shook the almost bankrupt crown.
  • Spain during the Thirty Years War: In 1640, the Catalonians revolted against the government. The Portuguese revolted in the same year and declared independence. In 1643, Spain was dealt their first major defeat at the hands of the French. While they were forced to concede independence to the Portuguese, they did suppress the Catalonians.
  • France was having internal issues as well. The king died leaving the five year old Louis XIV and his mother Anne of Austria to rule as regent. France’s political position was very unstable after the war. All sides were ready for peace.


The Effects of Constant Fighting

  • Peace negotiations dragged on since the 1640’s until 1648. The Swedish army sacked Prague effectively removing it as the center of cultural learning in Europe. Peasants fled to the countryside. One third of Germany perished to the plague and one third of the population of Bohemia perished. Governments could not pay the troops so the armies pillaged and sacked towns and cities to find food and money.


The Peace of Westphalia, 1648

  • This peace statement was signed for the first time by a congress that represented all sides of the conflict instead of only two or three at a time. France and Sweden gained most from this peace settlement. Even though France continued fighting with Spain until 1659, they replaced them as the prevailing power in Europe.
  • The Hapsburg lost the most. The Spanish Habsburg was forced to recognize Dutch independence and the Swiss confederation with the German Princes demanded autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire. Each German prince was allowed to determine the religion of his own lands. Austria turned to concentrate on restoring Catholicism to Bohemia and getting Hungary back from the Ottoman Turks. This peace determined the lines of religion all over Europe. In the North, there was Lutheranism, around the Rhine there was Calvinism and in the South, there was Catholicism.


  Growth of State Authority

  • Warfare increases the reach of States meaning that countries need more men and more money to support their conquests. Rulers raised taxes and depreciated the value of coinage causing inflation to soar. The state’s interest took priority over personal interest. To justify the growth of state authority, rulers cultivated their images saying they ruled by divine right. Court rituals were taken ridiculously seriously because they reflected the ruler.


  From Growth to Recession

  • Population grew after the Thirty Years War and inflation occurred when silver and gold flooded the market.


  Causes and Consequences of Economic Crisis

  • Historians argue the cause of the economic recession in the early 17th century. Economic crisis changed rural landscape because some farmers just left their land and let it go to waste while others converted it into vineyards or pastors. The only country left unscathed was the Dutch Republic because that had always been innovative with agriculture. England fared second best because it was out of the way of the war and it did not rely on New World gold and silver.
  • Most poor people only ate some bread or soup during the food shortages. England passed the Poor Law in 1597 that ordered communities to support their poor. Other governments also increased relief efforts.
  • Most peasants took to the road over rebelling. Tales of suffering accompanied these people. Disease struck the poor hardest because of malnutrition. Children had high death rates as well as women in child birth. Wealthier families had more children while poorer ones had less. The marrying age was pushed back to late twenties.


The Economic Balance of Power

  • The recession ended the dominance of the Greek Mediterranean states in favor of the northwestern countries with Atlantic Ocean access. England, the Dutch republic and France became the leading mercantile powers. Northern European countries took less time to recover from the plague than Southern countries.
  • Eastern European nobles reinforced serfdom, and while it provided a quick penny for landlords, it retarded the economy producing illiterate people.
  • The desire for colonies among the northern European states led them to capture colonies in the Caribbean and North America. The English, French and Dutch would eventually dominate commerce with these colonies. English pilgrims made Boston their new home and attracted wealthy people to North America. They were practically self governing. In 1640, England had about 50,000 people permanently living in the new world where as France had only 3,000 people in French- Canada. France focused on the Caribbean during this time rather than Canada.


A Clash of World Views

  • During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, art, political theory and science began to break the bonds with religion.


A Clash of Worldviews

  • Professional theatre made its debut in the 1570’s. Middle and Upper classes gathered in open air theatres to watch profound tragedies and bawdy farces. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) did not write openly about religious works but clearly reflected the political concerns of the age like the nature of power and the crisis of authority.
  • Painting and sculpting were still firmly secular. The papacy paid Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
  • Mannerism: Allows a painter of sculptor to distort the perspective to convey a message or theme.
  • Baroque: A new style of painting and sculpting that features exaggerated lighting, intense emotions and release from restraint that exemplifies artistic sensationalism. Some distained the style because it was a Catholic style. Note: a personal favorite of Lillars no matter how gaudy it is.
  • Music was often associated with particular religions. In protestant churches, the congregation was encouraged to sing along while Catholic Church hymns were in Latin and were sung by professional musicians.
  • Operas became popular because they were like a baroque play because they incorporated everything. Composers aimed to please the rulers.


The Natural Law of Politics

  • People started to search for secular explanations to government.
  • Michel de Montaigne: (1533-1592) Former French magistrate that left his office to write about the need for tolerance. He was a catholic but he insisted on equality and said that if you called something barbaric it was only because they are not from your own country.               
  • Jean Bodin: (1530-1596) Wrote The Six Books of the Republic in 1576 which told about the three different types of government aka monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. He laid the foundations for absolutism. He also implied that some typed of government could be chosen rather than god given as some rulers claimed.
  • Hugo Grotius: (1583-1645) Argued that natural laws would exist with or without god. Natural Laws were laws that give validity to governments and stand above and ruler or religious group. Was arrested by Protestant Dutch government and escaped with the help of his wife.
  • Torture was used to extract confessions from people. The Catholic Church used torture. People exempt from torture were children, pregnant women, old people, aristocrats, kings and professors.
  • Grotius argued against torture saying it was against natural rights which were life, body, freedom and honor. He influenced John Locke and American revolutionaries.


Origins of Scientific Revolution

  • Religion endorsed science in the beginning, but eventually when science started proving religion wrong, they got into a lover’s quarrel. The “New Science” began with the oldest of scientific study, astronomy. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) proved that the world was heliocentric aka the cosmos revolved around the sun. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) came up with three laws of planetary motion that proved not only heliocentrism existed, but also that the path of the planets were elliptical. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) figured out that the planets and the sun were no more perfect than earth in the way that the shadows on the moon were produced by hills and mountains like on earth. Galileo was put under house by the Catholic Church because the idea that we rotate around the sun challenged the church AND the bible. Galileo was only allowed to publish his work in the Dutch Republic.
  • Medicine advanced too. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) did the same for anatomy. 
  • The scientific method which was based on systematic experiments and rational deduction was developed by Sir Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes. Bacon attacked the ancient school of thought and hoped that the scientific method would lead to social progress.
  • Descartes didn’t attack tradition because he thought it could only lead to the stubbornness of churches and their refusal to accept new ideas. He also moved to the Dutch Republic to work in peace.


Magic and Witchcraft

  • Some of the leading scientific minds believed firmly in witchcraft. Magic and science were long linked together. Witch trials in Europe peaked in the 1560-1640’s. Witch craft was an outlet for society. Witches provided a scapegoat. They were thought to be the cause of famine, crop failure miscarriage and a variety of other social ailments. 80% of the people charged with witch craft were women.
  • Various pamphlets and witch hunting guides were released to the people by so called “experts”. Societies’ lowliest people were spinsters and widows and were often singled out as witches.
  • Science eventually countered witch trials by questioning the methods of how a witch could be proven a witch.



  • Religious conflicts shaped the lives of everyone living in this era. Witch craft trials reflected the traumas of the times of conflict and economic decline. Humanism forever perished when the Reformation broke out and the Thirty Years followed suit. Rulers agreed to not include religion on the war bill after the thirty years war.
  • The separation between state and religion grew but that did not eliminate all the skirmished between religious groups.
  • Northern Europe recovered more quickly from the thirty years war because they were more displaced from in.
  • A monumental shift in attitudes had begun because art, science and politics were changing. The breakthrough in arts and sciences broke the strangle hold religion had over its followers. The search for order in the aftermath of religious warfare would continue in decades to come.



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