A new industrial age the expansion of industry natural resources study guide




A new industrial age the expansion of industry natural resources study guide


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A new industrial age the expansion of industry natural resources study guide


A New Industrial Age

The Expansion of Industry
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization
-By the 1920s, the US had become the leading industrial power in the world.
3 Factors That Led to the Industrial Boom:

  1. A wealth of natural resources.
  2. Government support for business.

3.  A growing urban population that provided both cheap labor and markets for new products.
*Edwin L. Drake- 1859 successfully used a steam engine that removed oil from beneath the earth's surface.
-At first, oil was transformed into kerosene as well as gasoline. (which is a byproduct of the refining system) At first the Gasoline was thrown away.
Bessemer Steel Process
-Besides oil, coal and iron were found in abundant deposits.
-Removing the carbon from iron produces a lighter, more flexible, and rust resistant metal-steel.
*Bessemer Process-1850 developed by Henry Bessemer and William Kelly, it was an effective technique for transforming iron into steel by injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities.
New Use for Steel
-RR became the biggest consumers of steel.
-The Brooklyn Bridge was built in 1883.
*William Le Baron Jenny- designed the first skyscraper with a steel frame. (The Home Insurance Building in Chicago)
Inventions Promote Change
The Power of Electricity
*Thomas Alva Edison- 1876 established the world's first research lab in New Jersey.  There he perfected the incandescent light bulb, which was patented in 1880.  He later invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.
-The harnessing of electricity completely changed the nature of business in America.
Inventions Change Lifestyles
*Christopher Sholes- 1867 invented the typewriter.
*Alexander Graham Bell and *Thomas Watson- 1876 invented the telephone, which opened the way for a worldwide communications network.
-Both the typewriter and the telephone created new jobs for women.
-In 1870 women made up 5% of the workforce -- by 1910 they counted for nearly 40% of the clerical workforce.

The Age of the Railroads

-The growth and consolidation of railroads benefited the nation, but also led to corruption and required government regulation.
Railroads Spanned Time and Space
*Transcontinental Railroad- in May 1869 the central Pacific and the Union Pacific met in Utah to nail the Golden Spike that marked the nation's first cross-country railroad.
Railroad Time
-In 1869 *Professor C. F. Dowd proposed that the earth's surface be divided up into 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day.
-Under this plan, the US would contain four zones: Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific.
-The railroad companies endorsed Dowd’s plan in November 1883.
-However, the U.S. Congress did not officially adopt the railroad time as the standard time for the nation until 1918.
Opportunities and Opportunists
*George M. Pullman- 1880 was an industrialist whose company produced Stanford railroad cars and elegant sleeping cars.
-He provided his workers almost all of their basic needs such as houses and apartment buildings, doctors’ offices, shops, and an athletic field.
-Pullman tightly controlled the town hoping to ensure a stable workforce.
*Credit Mobilier- 1864 stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad formed this construction company.  The Union Pacific stockholders then gave this company a contract to lay track at two to three times the actual cost -- and pocketed profits.
-They donated shares of stock to about 20 representatives in Congress in 1867.
-This led to a congressional investigation of the company spurred by reports in the New York Sun and eventually found that the officers of the Union Pacific had taken up to $23 million in stocks, bonds, and cash.
-The reputation of the Republican Party was tarnished.
The Grange and the Railroads
-Farmers were especially affected by the corruption in the railroads.
-The Grangers began demanding governmental control over the railroad industry.
*Granger Laws- were laws that protected their interests.
*Munn V. Illinois- a 1877 case, in which the Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws -- the states won the right to regulate the railroads for the benefit of the farmers and consumers.

-The Grangers’ triumph was short lived.  In 1886 the Supreme Court ruled that a state could not set rates on interstate commerce.
-In response to public outrage, Congress passed the *Interstate Commerce Act in 1887.
-It established the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities and establish a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to help.  The ICC had difficulty regulating railroad rates because of a long legal process and resistance from the railroads.
-Not until 1906, under President Theodore Roosevelt, did the ICC gain the power it needed to be effective.

-Panic and Consolidation- caused by corporate abuses, mismanagement, overbuilding, and competition pushed many railroads to the brink of bankruptcy.
-This led to many railroads being taken over by financial companies such as J.P. Morgan & Co.  As the 20th century dawned, seven powerful companies held well over 2/3 of the nation's railroad tracks.


Big Business and Labor

Carnegie's Inventions

*Andrew Carnegie- a millionaire who made his riches in the steel industry.  By 1899, the Carnegie Steel Company manufactured more steel and all the factories in Great Britain.
-He attempted to control as much of the steel industry as he could.
*Vertical Integration- was a process in which he bought out his suppliers coal fields and iron mines, ore freighters, and railroad lines -- in order to control the raw materials and transportation systems. (A company buys out all of its suppliers).
-Carnegie also attempted to buy out competing steel producers.  In this process, known as *Horizontal Integration- companies producing similar products merge.

Social Darwinism and Business
Principles of Social Darwinism- the philosphy grew out of the English naturalist Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution.
-Has process of "natural selection" stated that only the fittest would survive.
*Laissez Fair- (a French term meaning "allow to do”) This theory justified the efforts of millionaires and discouraged government interference and big business.
-Riches were a sign of God's favor, and therefore the poor must be lazy or inferior people who deserved their lot in life.
Fewer Control More
*John D. Rockefeller- established the Standard Oil Company.  He created trust to gain control of the oil industry in America.
-He would pay his employees low wages and sell this oil at lower prices than businesses could produce it for -- driving his competitors out of business.  Then, when he controlled the market, he hiked up prices.
-His company went from refining 3% of the nation's oil in 1870 to refining 90% a decade later.
-Critics began to refer to the tactics of industrialists such as Rockefeller as *Robber Barons.
-Although Rockefeller kept most of his assets, he still gave away over $500 million, establishing the Rockefeller Foundation, providing funds to found the University of Chicago, and creating a medical institute that helped find a cure or prevent yellow fever.

*Sherman Antitrust Act- 1890, made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries.  Finding it hard to enforce the act, the consolidation of businesses continued.
-As business boomed in the north, the south was still trying to recover from the Civil War.  However, growth industries in mining, and in the tobacco, furniture, and textile industries offered hope.
Labor Unions Emerge
Long Hours and Danger
-7 day work week -- 12 hour days -- no vacation or sick leave -- no unemployment compensation or reimbursements for injuries suffered on the job.
-Injuries were common.  Many caused by dangerous or faulty equipment.
-Wages: sweatshops- $.27 for 14 hour day.  In 1899 women earned $267 a year, while men earned $498 year.

Early Labor Organizations
*National Labor Union (NLU)- 1866, the refusal of some NLU local chapters to admit African Americans led to the *Colored National Labor Union (CNLU).
-In 1868 that NLU persuaded Congress to legalize the eight-hour workday for government workers.

Union Movements Diverge

-2 major types of unions made great gains under forceful leaders.
-Craft Unions- included skilled workers from one or more trades.
*Samuel Gompers- led the Cigar Makers International Union to join with other craft unions in 1886.
*The American Federation of Labor (AFL)- with Gompers as its president, it focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives and labor-management to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and work conditions.
-The AFL use strikes as a major tactic.
-Industrial Unionism- unions that included all laborers-skilled and unskilled, in a certain industry.
*Eugene V. Debs- formed the American Railway Union (ARU).
*Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)- the Wobblies, headed by William "Big Bill" Haywood, included minors, lumberers, and cannery and dockworkers.
-It was organized by a group of radical unionists and socialists in Chicago in 1905 and it welcomed African-Americans, unlike the ARU.
Strikes Turned Violent
-Industry and government respond forcefully to union activity, which they saw as a threat to the entire capitalist system.
*The Great Strike of 1877- railroad workers struck over a second pay cut.  Federal troops were sent in to end the strike.
*The Haymarket Affair- May 1886, 3,000 people gathered at Chicago's Haymarket Square to protest police brutality -- a striker had been killed and several had been wounded at a plant the day before.
-Then someone threw a bomb into a police line and the police fired back.  After this incident, the public began to turn against the labor movements.
*The Homestead Strike of 1892- over working conditions and a pay cut at the Carnegie Steel Company’s Homestead Plant in PA.
-The National Guard was called in to put it down.  After this, it would take 45 years for steelworkers to mobilize once again.
*Pullman Company Strike- during the panic of 1893, Pullman cut wages and laid people off but never cut the prices on employees housing.  After paying the rent, workers took home less than $6 a week.
-The strikes turned violent and federal troops were sent in.
-Debs was jailed and most of the strikers were fired and blacklisted from working at other railroad jobs.

*Mary Harris Jones- organized the United Mine Workers of America (UMW).  Nicknamed Mother Jones, she led 8 million children, many with hideous injuries, on a march to the home of President Teddy Roosevelt.  This helped pass some child labor laws.

*The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire- 1911, at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City.
-The company had locked all but one of the exit doors and the one that was unlocked was blocked by fire.  There was no sprinkler system and the single fire escape collapsed killing 146 women.
-Public outrage flared after this -- New York set up a task force to study factory-working conditions.
Management and Government Pressure Unions
-The more powerful the unions became, the more employers came to fear them.
-Many employers would make their employees sign *Yellow Dog Contracts- swearing they would not join a union.
-The industrial leaders, with the help of the courts, turned the Sherman Antitrust Act against labor.  All the company had to do was say that a strike, picket line, or boycott hurt the interstate trade, and the state or federal government would issue an injunction against the labor action.
-These legal limitations made it more and more difficult for unions to be effective.


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