European history study guide summaries



European history study guide summaries


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European history study guide summaries

European History Term and Theme Review Guide

1300s (14th Century) Crises in Late Medieval Europe
100 Years War:
Long Bow
Joan of Arc
Creation of the English Parliament
Increased power for French (Valois) and English (Tudor) Royal families
Trouble in the Church
The Great Schism
The Babylonian Captivity
The Conciliar Movement
Despair of Black Plague negatively affects church support
Black Plague
Massive depopulation
Redistribution of wealth
Need for literate class to deal with wills, etc.

1400s (15th Century) The Renaissance, Middle Class and the Rise of Modern European Monarchies
Printing Press invented
New literate class
New middle class
People beginning to read
Interest in printing the bible in the vernacular
Vernacular literature is born
Western Europe sees the birth of middle class, disposable income, early literacy and new interest in learning
Eastern Europe represses peasants and creates serfdom, blocking middle class development for centuries

                  Southern Renaissance
Leonardo DaVinci: Mona Lisa, Last Supper Virgin of the Rocks
Botticelli: Birth of Venus
Valla: On the False Donation of Constantine
Sculpture and Architecture:
Brunelleschi: The Dome of Florence
Ghiberti: The Baptistery Bronze Doors
                  Northern Renaissance:
Jan Van Eyck: The Arnolfini Wedding

Renaissance Themes:
Humanism: Learning, Greco-Roman scholarship, Great belief in human potential
Individualism: celebration of individual achievements and individuals themselves. Town boasting.
Secular Spirit: paying attention to non-Christian themes in art in literature.
Birth of the middle class, disposable income, vernacular literature, scientific learning, etc.

                  Increased Power of European Royal Houses
Valois family
Use of non-aristocratic Royal Council
Concordat of Bologna
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Gabelle and Tailles
Improved road system from 100 Years War
Use of canon to control ambitious rival nobles
Kept rival Lords separated during Hundred Years War = no developing Parliament
Increased Power of European Royal Houses Continued
Tudor family
Use of non-aristocratic Royal Council
Star Chamber
Justices of the Peace
Encouraged trade to increase Royal tax base
Stayed out of foreign war to maintain full treasury

Spain        Ferdinand and Isabella: Branch of the Habsburg family
“Catholic King and Queen of Spain”
The Inquisition
Allowed to keep Catholic Church income in Spain
The Reconquista
Enormous New World Colonial land
Enormous silver and gold income from New World

1500s (16th Century) Renaissance, The Reformation, Counter Reformation and Age of Religious Wars

                  Southern Renaissance Continued
Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel
Raphael: School of Athens
Titian: Flaying of Marsyas
Machiavelli: The Prince
Castiglione: The Book of the Courtier

Northern Renaissance continued
Hans Holbein: The Ambassadors
Breugel: The Wedding Feast, Village Massacre
Thomas More: Utopia
Erasmus of Rotterdam: In Praise of Folly, On the Education of a Christian Prince
Rabelais: Gargantua and Pantagruel
William Shakespeare: Hamlet “What a piece of work is man.”

The Wars of Religion
                                                      Habsburg Valois and the Peace of Augsburg and Cateau-Cambresis
The Revolt of the Netherlands, Notre Dame of Antwerp and the Iconoclasts
The French Civil Wars/3 Henrys:
Politiques, Huguenots, St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and the Edict of Nantes
                  Protestant Reformers
Martin Luther: 95 Theses, “Faith alone shall save ye.” Protested indulgences and John Tetzel
John Calvin: Predestination, Genevan Consistory, The Institutes of Christian Religion
                                                      Zwingli: Zurich Switzerland
Knox: Presbyterian in Scotland
Anabaptists: Believed in Separation of Church and State
Henry VIII Tudor in England: Act of Supremacy, Sold off monastery lands
Queen Elizabeth: Act of Settlement, “Windows into men’s souls.”
Some general common beliefs:
All true “callings” are equal in God’s eyes
Faith alone is the key to salvation
De-centralization of church power
The source of truth is the bible alone
3 or even no “sacraments”
Revelation of God’s word through reading vernacular bible translations
The Church is the body of believers, not the building and officials
The Catholic Counter Reformation
                                                      Council of Trent
Jesuits and Ursaline Nuns
Tridentine Decrees
Index of Prohibited Books
Papal Inquisition
7 Sacraments
Bible and Tradition are the source of religious authority
Faith and Good Works lead to salvation
Pope is the Head of the Church
Uneducated Priests
Simony, Pluralism, Absenteeism
No more sale of indulgences
No more secret marriages

                                                      Baroque Art
Caravaggio:                                   The Calling of St. Matthew
Paul on the Road to Damascus
Artemisia Gentilieschi                   Judith Slaying Holofernes
Vermeer:                     Girl With a Pearl Earring
Rubens                                          Daniel in the Lions’ Den
Rubens                                          Hercules
Rembrandt                   Dr. Tulp
Rembrandt                   Night Watch
Bernini                                          The Ecstasy of St. Theresa (sculpture)
Charpentier                                    Te Deums(music)                         
Bach                                              Tocatta and Fugues(music)
also:                                               Marais and Couperin(music)
1600s (17th Century) The Ages of Absolutism and Advancement

                                    The Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia
Bohemian, Danish, Swedish and French Phases (International)
Catholic League and Protestant Union
Battle of White Mountain
Defenestration of Prague
Peace of Westphalia:
German Princes can choose: Lutheran, Calvin and Catholic
End of Austrian control of German States.
France gains diplomatic control of German States/rise of Bourbons

The Scientific Revolution
Copernicus: Posed Heliocentric theory
Galileo: Acceleration of mass on earth, Heliocentric Theory and imperfect lunar surface.
Kepler: Laws of Planetary Motion/Acceleration of mass in outer space
Sir Isaac Newton: unified the theories of Kepler and Galileo. Wrote Principia
Bacon: Empirical experimentation for practical purposes/research and development
Descartes: Basic, not immediately practical first principles/Cartesian dualism

Constitutionalism in England
Stuart Monarchs
James I: The Trew Law of Free Monarchy
Charles I: Arch-Bishop Laud, Book of Common Prayer, Dismissed Parliament, Executed
Charles II: CABAL, Test Act, Triennial Act
James II: Violated Test Act by appointing Catholic officers, judges, etc
                                                      English Civil War:
Roundheads (Puritans/Parliament) versus Cavaliers (English nobles)
Cromwell: Head of Parliament, Tore up constitution/dismissed Parliament, Navigation Acts
Glorious Revolution
Louis 14th revokes Edict of Nantes in France (frightens English Protestants to Catholic plots)
James II Stuart produces and heir is forced to flee England
William and Mary become King and Queen
English Bill of Rights is signed

Absolute Monarchies
Louis 13th Bourbon (1610-1643)
Intendant and Generalites
`                                                     Demolished Huguenot strongholds (La Rochelle)
Standardized French language (increased control)
Political Testament
Supported Habsburg rivals in 30 Years War/increased French control in Germany
Raison d’Etat “Where the interests of the state are concerned, God absolves actions
which, if privately committed, would be a crime.”

Louis 14th Bourbon (ruled 1643-1715)
The Fronde
Advisors: Mazarin and Colbert
nobles lived tax free but relinquished a role in government
“L’Etat, C’est Moi” -I am the State
Used Baroque art/architecture and French Classical art to impress, overawe subjects
Classical Art                Poussin:The Rape of the Sabine Women, The Holy Family on the Steps
Spy networks
Revoked Edict of Nantes
Created 200,000 soldier modern army loyal to the French state and not various nobles
Waged war almost his entire reign. versus Flanders, Holland, Strasbourg, Lorraine and Spain
War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1713 
Charles “the Impotent” Habsburg dies without an heir
English, Dutch, Austrians and Prussians unite against Louis XIV and beat him
Peace of Utrecht: Ends the War of the Spanish Succession
England gains French colonial land in North America
England gains the Asiento (Atlantic slave trade)
England gains Gibraltar
The crown of Spain goes to another branch of the Bourbon family-not Louis XIV

                  Peter the Great (ruled 1689-1725)
Began career in the same year as the English Glorious Revolution
Toured Western Europe with 250 young nobles to help modernize Russia
Forced Boyars to westernize their style of dress and to shave off their old fashioned beards
Beat the Ottoman Turks in 1696
The Great Northern War against Sweden 1700-1721
Reformed military
Every Boyar is an officer for life
Every peasant family supplies one son for life
5 Years compulsory education for officer/nobles
Modern ranking promotion system in the military
Created schools and universities to create better officers
Brought in Westerners and Western ideas
Built the Baroque city of St. Petersburg

                  The Great Elector of Prussia (ruled 1640-1688)  (Hohenzollern)
Inherited and unified Brandenburg, Prussia and the Rhineland
                                    Worked out a deal with Junkers: pay taxes = keep total control of serfs
                                    Forced Junkers to accept permanent taxation to pay for personal army
Increased and modernized military and used soldiers as tax collectors and civil servants
Played on Junker fears of constant invasion and despair over crop destruction by outsiders
Tartars from the Crimea, 30 Years War battles, Swedish and Polish Armies
The Revolution in Shipping and Trade
Anglo Dutch Shipping Wars
English Navigation Acts
New World Colonies
New Inventions:

The Agricultural Revolution in Holland and England
Cottage Industry, Proto-Industrialization, The Putting-Out System
Enclosure Acts and Selective Breeding
Townsend and Turnips
Tull and the Seed Drill
Open Field System versus Rotation of Crops: (turnips, clover = more nitrogen)

1700s (18th Century) Enlightenment, Absolutism, Liberalism and the Age of Reason

Philosophes and Salons
Voltaire: “God is a clockmaker” Lived with and advised Frederick the Great of Prussia
Rousseau: “The Social Contract,” “The General Will,” All men born pure, corrupted by society
Locke: Tabula Rosa, Natural Rights, Two Treatises on Government
Fontenelle: Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds, easy to read science literature for the Publique.
Hobbs: The Leviathan, “Life is nasty, brutish and short.” All one can hope for is a strong leader.
Montesquieu: The Persian Letters, Checks and Balances, Paris Parlement
Diderot: The Encyclopedia, received money from Catherine the Great to fund publication
Madison: Wrote the United States Constitution
Madame Geoffrin: Saloniere
Madame de Chatellet: translated Newton’s Principia
Liberty and Equality (of opportunity not condition)
Limit the power of the monarchy and government
End special privileges, guild monopolies, special rights
End formal aristocratic classes
Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire Capitalism
Written law codes rather than arbitrary power

17th Century Absolutism
Frederick “The Soldier’s King” of Prussia (Hohenzollern)
Grandson of the Great Elector of Prussia
Responsible for turning Prussia into a true Absolutist state
Infused strict military values into the whole society
Created German “cult of militarism”
Pleased Junkers by making them his military officers
Created huge civilian/military bureaucracy with upward mobility for talented men
“To keep quiet is the first civic duty.”

Frederick the Great of Prussia (Hohenzollern-ruled 1740-1786)
Son of Frederick the Soldiers King
Saw himself as an “Enlightened” monarch
Called himself “only the first servant of the state” rather than absolute monarch
Waged two successful wars against Maria Theresa of Austria to conquer Austrian Silesia
War of the Austrian Succession
7 Years War
Provided religious toleration and welcomed Calvinists but continued the oppression of Jews
Allowed freedom to publish innovative Enlightenment ideas
Simplified laws and disallowed torture
Had the Philosophe Voltaire live in his court to advise him on political matters
                                                      Maria Theresa Habsburg of Austria (Habsburg-ruled 1740-1780
Fought hard but lost two wars to Frederick the Great over Silesia
Passed reforms to limit the power of the Papacy in Austrian church and politics
Reformed the internal bureaucracy and tax systems
Partially reduced the power that Austrian lords held over their serfs
Joseph II Habsburg of Austria
Son of Maria Theresa
Aggressively tried to play the role of Enlightened Monarch
Passed legislation tolerating Jews
Freed the Serfs in 1781 but after he died, his brother reversed his programs

Catherine the Great of Russia (Romanov)
Territorial Expansion (very successful, waged wars, increased land)
Westernize Russia: brought in Western architects, musicians, etc.
Domestic Reform: Planned but never finished a new law code, outlawed torture,
allowed some religious toleration
Corresponded with Voltaire (called him “champion of the human race.”)
Had her lover General Orlov murder her husband
                                                                        Ruthlessly crushed the serf rebellion of Pugachev
   Extended serfdom to maintain security and support of Boyars
           Played the public role of an Enlightened monarch as was applauded by philosophes

French Revolution of 1789-1801

1789 Estates General meets at Versailles to discuss Economic disasters in France. Each estate brings “Cahiers” or written recommendations.

Economic Trouble
Massive debt caused by 7 Years War and support for the American Revolutionary War
Most nobles live tax free, luxurious lives
Urban people are starving as well as many peasants
Anciene Regime (old political order) is unable to act effectively
Estates Generale
1st Estate: Clergy
2nd Estate: Nobility
3rd Estate: Everyone else, Bourgeoisie, workers, farmers
Tennis Court Oath
3rd Estate is locked out of the meeting by King Louis XVI
3rd Estate Bourgeoisie is joined by members of the other estates in revolt across the street.
1st Estate Abby Sieyes
2nd Estate La Fayette
National Assembly is created
Attack on the Bastille
Urban workers attack the Paris prison and seize weapons and the city of Paris
Attack on Versailles
Urban women march to Versailles , kill guards and aristocrats while dragging the King and Queen back to Paris
The Great Fear (Farmers and Peasants-not urban workers)
Farmers across the countryside attack their lords, kill with abandon and seize the land for themselves

                  The National Assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Based on John Locke, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Rousseau and the US Bill of Rights
“Every man is presumed innocent until proven guilty”
“Liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression”
“It is an expression of the General Will (Rousseau)”
Abolished the nobility as a legal order
Increased women’s rights to divorce, property and financial support from fathers
However it believed that keeping women out of politics would guard national purity
Reorganized the political districts in France
Reorganized the system of weights and measures
Granted religious freedom to Jews and Protestants
Abolished Catholic monasteries and seized Catholic Church land
Forced Catholic clergy to take a loyalty to the revolutionary government
Anti-Catholic actions lost some support by the rural French farmers

Olympe de Gouges: “Declaration of the Rights of Women”
Edmund Burke: Reflections on the Revolution in France: condemned the revolution
Mary Wollstonecraft: “A Vindication of the rights of Man” “A Vindication of the Rights of Women”
She strongly supported the revolution

1791 King and Queen attempt to flee to Austria and are captured at Varennes
Declaration of Pillnitz
Austria and Prussia declared their willingness to intervene in French affairs created paranoia among those dedicated to revolutionary change
The Legislative Assembly is formed
The original, more moderate revolutionaries step down in a show of patriotism.
Radical Jacobins (young revolutionary Bourgeois lawyers) take over and rename the government “Legislative Assembly”
Jacobin factions:
Mountain: Robespierre and Danton and Marat
Gironde: more moderate

1792 September Massacres and the creation of the National Convention
Paranoid revolutionaries (mainly urban workers, sans-culottes types) attack prisons and kill indiscriminately
King and Queen flee to the Legislative Assembly and abdicate monarchy
Legislative Assembly declares themselves the new French Republic and call themselves The National Convention

1793-1794 The Second Revolution, Total War and the Reign of Terror

The National Convention begins its rule over the French Republic
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed
Robespierre and the Jacobin Mountain uses urban worker Sans-Culottes to dominate rival Jacobins in the Gironde
Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror
Total War
Robespierre mobilized the highly patriotic French people in a war against Austria, Prussia, Russia and England
Built an 800,000 man army over night
France victorious against all nations by 1794
Upwardly mobile officer corps to encourage aggressive valor
Used a command economy to maximize production for war effort
Price controls on essential goods
Told producers what to produce
Used massive propaganda campaign:
Liberty, Equality, Fraternite
Stressed Enlightenment ideals and classical Liberalism
Jacques Louis David painted powerful revolutionary art
Changed the names of the months to replaced references to classical religion (July became Thermidor)
Outlawed language of class replacing the formal “Vous” with the familiar “tu”
Encouraged people to refer to each other as “Citroyen” (Citizen)
Pain d’Egalite (equality bread)
Liberty caps (red Santa hats)
Women were encouraged to take up leadership roles in the revolution, no vote, but women gained public power
Declared ALL criticism of the government as unpatriotic and treasonous
Jacques Hebert and the Angry Men. Extreme urban revolutionaries especially angry at class distinctions
Severely limited free speech and shut down printing presses critical of the revolution
Used spies to watch his enemies
Used the Guillotine to terrify and punish (National Razor)


Completely outlawed the Catholic Church (compare to Communism/Marxism of the 20th Century)
Created a new religion
Combination of Enlightenment idealism
Created a holiday for the Divine Creator
Robespierre’s end
After success in war, he continues radical controls at home
Begins to attack his own supporters
Arrests and executes Danton
Arrests and executes many Angry Men
Thermidorean Reaction:
Moderates in National Convention strike back and execute Robespierre
Committee of Public Safety is disbanded
The Directory is created

1795-1799 The Directory’s Regime
Moderate Bourgeois Revolutionaries
5 man team
Removes economic controls
Widespread excessive lifestyle in the cities. Parties, orgies, decadence, etc.
Sans-Culottes are suppressed
Continued war to deal with economic problems and unemployment
In 1797 the Directory disbanded the National Convention and ruled dictatorially
1799 Napoleon stages a Coup d’Etat and seizes government  

When all is said and done, here are some important innovations of the French Revolution era

The early government first legislated freedom of religion for Jews and Protestants and then took over the Catholic Church, making priests elected. During the second phase of the revolution, the Catholic Church was outlawed. This is foreshadowing of Marxism and its ban on all religion. Ultimately Robespierre attempted to fill the void left by the removal Catholicism and created the “Festival of the Supreme Being” as well as the beginnings of a Deist religion.

The government abolished all feudal privileges, feudal duties and special guilds. The government created a temporary command economy and regulated prices as well as controlled production. Certain foods like bread were kept at a low price.

Ideology and propaganda
The government created new pro-Revolutionary ideologies, slogans terms and conventions such as:
Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood
Tu not Vous
Equality Bread
Cult of motherhood
Marseillaise song
Revolutionary motherhood
New calender based on secular names
L’Ami du Peuple and Marat

Politics and Society
Ending of feudal duties
Rural revolution and land redistribution
Execution of the king
Creation of a Republic
End of slavery
Extends universal manhood suffrage
Creates a merit based citizen army
total war
Women’s rights: to seek divorce, to own property, to receive child support

1800s (19th Century)

The Age of Napoleon I Bonaparte: 1801-1815
Overthrew the Directory by means of a military takeover (coup) made himself “First Consul.”
Crowned himself Emperor 1801
Liberty trees
Ended Feudal Duties
Napoleonic Code (progressive written laws instead of arbitrary power)
Bank of France
Crowns himself Emperor (although hetook crown from Pope’s hands)
Concordat of 1801 (reintegrated Catholic Church into French society and government)
Welcomed back aristocrats who had fled during the revolution
Fouquet: Spy networks
Reduced the power of women
Abby Sieyes: Confidence from below, authority from above”

                                Goya: The Third of May (Painting) anti-Napoleon protest painting in Spain
Battle of Trafalgar lost of British navy and any hopes of conquering England
Battle of Austerlitz: Destroyed joined Austrian, Prussia and Russian army/became emperor of Europe
Unsuccessful invasion of Russia-Napoleon lost most of his army and never really gained the upper hand
Exile to Elba
100 Days return
Lost at battle of Waterloo to Wellington (British) and was exiled to St. Helena

Congress of Vienna 1815
France:      Tallyrand  
England:    Castlereagh                 
Russia       Alexander I                
Austria      Metternich
Prussia      Hardenberg                
Concert of Europe and the idea of Balance of Power
Restoring boundaries of Europe to pre-French Revolution
Bourbon King back on the throne of France but with the new Constitutional Charter (Constitutional Monarchy)
Goal was to put back in the box the governmental experimentalism, liberalism, nationalism,
anti-monarchial spirit and revolution unleashed by Robespierre and the Jacobins during the French Revolution

Conservative Backlash in England after 1815
Corn Laws
6 Acts
Poor Laws
Combination acts
Battle of Peterloo

Conservative Backlash in Europe after 1815
Concert of Europe
Carlsbad Decrees
Holy Alliance
Charles X—Repeal of Constitutional Charter
Reform in England
                  Anti-Corn Law League
Chartist Movement—universal suffrage
Reform Bill of 1832—gets rid of rotten boroughs
Mines Act
10 Hours Act
Repeal of Corn Law
King controls House of Lords with threat of new peers
Delacroix: Massacre at Chios, Liberty Leading the People,
Beethoven: Ode to Joy
Hugo: Hunchback of Notre Dame
Gericault: Raft of the Medusa
Turner: The Fighting Temeraire
Wordsworth: Daffodils

Romantic Era Revolutions:

1830 Revolution in France Liberty Leading the People, 3 Glorious Days Charles X out. King Louis Philippe in. Results:
Voting rights are expanded and the Constitutional Charter is reinstated


Greek Revolution 1830s Massacre at Chios, Revolt from harsh Ottoman rule. Greeks receive support by European
powers contrary to their anti-nationalist policies. Results: Greek Victory and Liberation


Revolution of 1848 in Prussia: Frankfurt Assembly, Berlin Congress, Unification attempted but failed, “Crown from
the Gutter” speech, Workers combine with Bourgeoisie but demands get too radical. Austria and Russia put
pressure on Prussia not to unify and to restore traditional conservative monarchy. (Balance of Power, Concert of Europe)

Revolution of 1848 in France: Workshops and Louis Blanc, Bourbon king is removed and 2nd Republic is
founded. As always, workers go too far and Bourgeoisies calls in the military to squash them (June Days)
Ultimately Napoleon III is elected Emperor by universal manhood suffrage. Results: End of Bourbon monarchy,
universal manhood suffrage, new attention paid to urban workers.

Revolution of 1848 in Austria: Hungarian (Magyar) nationalists combine with urban workers and Bourgeoisie
students. Metternich flees, Habsburgs almost collapse, ultimately workers go too far and Russia sends in soldiers into Hungary. From then on, Hungarian King shares the power with Habsburg king.

General 19th Century Thinkers, Economists and Ideas of the 1800s

Friedrich List: Encouraged the Zollverein and more government support of building industrial industries
Thomas Malthus: Economic Liberalism “Population growth will always outstrip the food supply.”
David Ricardo: Economic Liberalism Iron Law of Wages He believed that wages would always drop to subsistence level because
of over population and competition for jobs.
Malthus and Ricardo were often used by industrialists to explain their callous treatment of employees
Jeremy Bentham: Liberalism, believed in the “greatest good for the greatest numbers.” Reminiscent of Rousseau’s General Will.
It also would justify ignoring the rights of a minority group provided there was an overall benefit for the masses.
Edwin Chadwick:
Follower of Bentham
Worked tirelessly to study and clean up the pollution of urban London
Worked on improving the “poor laws” of 1830s England into more humane statutes
Louis Pasteur: Discovered bacteria and transformed medical practices. His scientific contributions led to a radical restructuring of
modern industrial cities
Hausmann: Worked for Napoleon III/Transformed Paris into a modern, well planned city that was attractive to the wealthy: parks,
sewers, street cars, museums, etc.
Karl Marx: Believed history was a constant class struggle. He encouraged urban workers of the world (Proletariat) to unite across
national boundaries for revolution and overthrow the Bourgeoisie. Communist Manifesto. His theories formed the foundation of modern Communism. Labor is the only source of worth/wealth
Hegel-History is a constant unfolding series of struggles: Thesis versus Anti-Thesis which form a Synthesis (new thesis).
Louis Blanc: Believed in a “right to work” and government sponsored workshops, Revolution of 1848 in Paris and June Days

French Utopian Socialists
Less extreme than Marx
Tended to invent ideal communities rather than advocate violent revolution
Charles Fourier
Invented self-sufficient communities of 1,620 people
Believed that marriage was prostitution and that it should be outlawed
Ultimate several Utopian communities were formed following his general guidelines
Henri Saint-Simon:
Key to progress is economy planned by scientists, engineers and industrialists
Believed that the courts, priests, lawyers and aristocracy were all parasites.
The “doers” should plan and operate the country
Pierre Joseph Proudhon:
What is Property? Property is theft.
Profit is merely property stolen from the worker who made it
The worker is the source of all wealth-all else are parasites
Evolutionary Socialism (compromise Socialism)
Believed that over time, through peaceful labor organization and strikes, that the industrial economies of the World would increasingly be controlled by the workers. NOT in favor of violent revolution

Freud: Believed that humans were born along the lines of Locke’s Tabula Rosa (the soul is born a pure, clean slate) but that
societies repression leads to psychological damage and anti-social behavior. He called our deepest, animal desires the
Id” and suggested that society, the church, parents, etc. form the Super Ego and repress our desires. He mainly focused
on repressed sexuality and like many writers of the later 1800s, her wrote theories on behaviors related to child behavior and sex. He also believed that women are by nature weaker and less stable than men. His theories, though substantially less followed today, formed the foundation for modern psycho-analysis
Comte: All human institutions go through the: Theological, Metaphysical and Scientific (Positivist)
Lyell: Described the Evolution of World geography
Lamarck: believed that children inherited the affects of their parents’ lives

Charles Darwin: Studied animals and species reproduction to develop the two biological theories of:
                                    Natural Selection: All species change in small amounts over time because of reproduction and changing environments
                                    Evolution: Not as well received as Natural Selection, this theory suggested that human beings grew out of constant tiny
changes to a series of lower primates.
Herbert Spencer: Believed that societal, like biological processes, is always in Evolution. For the health of the community, as for
the health of species, it is important to not mess with natural systems. Many factory owners, bankers, etc. used his theories to justify cruel or thoughtless care for the working class. Coined the phrase: “Survival of the Fittest.”
Social Darwinism: All social processes, such as culture, language, governments, races, militaries, businesses, even labor unions,
etc. are all engaged in a life or death battle for survival. It is natural and desirable to compete to the fullest level. This
theory justified military build-up, Imperialism, etc.
Socialism: The government, which represents all the people/workers/proletariat, owns and operates the major industries, means of
production and means of distribution. However, this does not necessarily mean there is no Capitalism or Democracy in a Socialist country. It is merely an economic policy. Both the Soviet Union and Great Britain used Socialism, but they had very different governments.
Communism: This is often called an “extreme form of Socialism” because not only does the Government control all the major
economic industries in the name of the people (socialism), it also controls everything else: social, intellectual, political, spiritual etc. Communism, the theories of which were formalized by Karl Marx, tends in the 20th Century to develop into a Totalitarian form of government. Communism believes in no classes whatsoever (except a small ruling intellectual elite) and no church. Thus, in the 1930s, Communism developed some very extreme and disturbing policies. Without the conservative authoritarian elements (super-ego) such as the church and landed aristocracy, the moral relativism and Depression era frustration allowed the Soviet Union and Stalin to spiral out of control into a totalitarian nightmare of genocide and purges. Communism only developed its true Totalitarian identity in the 20th century because of the technology, industry and transportation necessary for “Big Brother” control.
Fascism: This form of Totalitarian government only forms in the 20th century and although it strongly resembles aspects of
Bismarck’s Prussia (militarism, nationalistic urban workers, powerful central government, support for the landed aristocracy and conservative authoritarianism) it gains its unique character both from the total control of the government facilitated through modern technology, transportation and industry as well as from the new moral relativism and Depression of the day. Most fascist states incorporated religion, monarchy and aristocracy into the main power structure and consequently the societies tended not to spiral out of control in the age of Depression and Moral Absolutism.
George Eliot (woman): Middlemarch
Balzac: The Human Comedy
Zola: Germinal
Tolstoy: War and Peace
Flaubert: Madame Bovary

Industrial Revolution:
James Watt: Steam Engine. This was the most critical invention to the industrial revolution. It replaced the need for many power
in certain areas and opened up the need for man power in new areas.
George Stephenson: Steam powered train
Crystal Palace: Steel and glass exhibition hall in London to celebrate England’s Empire and Industrial growth
Manchester: Most prominent city in the Industrial Revolution. Social Injustice, filth, child labor, etc. are magnified in Manchester
England. It grew extremely rapidly from a minor village to an industrial city in the 1800s.
Raw Materials: Coal and Iron (cold air blown across molten iron produces steel-Bessemer Process
Steamships: Coal burning, metal steamships soon advanced into the massive military ships and merchant ships of the industrial
Revolution. These ships, which moved to oil by 1900, were a primary cause of success in Imperialism as well as the
success in trade during the Industrial Revolution.
Dickens: Writer of fiction and strong critic of the abuses of Social Darwinism, Poor laws, and Factory policies
Child labor: Many families sold their children off to work in the mines or factories in order to supplement meager family incomes.
Children were severely abused in the factories, often completing puberty during the years of repetitive backbreaking labor and developing crippled, distorted bodies. A number of children testified before Parliament when it was writing laws to help workers during the 1800s.
Luddites: Many traditional craftsmen, especially in the textile industry, resented being replaced by machines. They broke into
factories, and created much damage. Today a “Luddite’ is used to describe someone who hates computers.
Capital: This term refers specifically to money. Because the Industrial Revolution was new and needed a great deal of early
investment to build and purchase machines, warehouses, steam engines and railroads, only nations with responsive and stable banking systems were in a position to industrialize quickly. England and Belgium led the way but soon Germany caught up, led by the Fritz Harkort.
Labor: This term refers to any collective group of workers in a country or region. It is sometimes interchangeable with the word
“proletariat,” but tends to mean specifically those who perform work, in a factory or elsewhere.
The Working Class: This term does not really come into being until the advent of the Industrial Revolution. In previous
centuries, nations were mostly aristocrats and farmers. By the 1800s, vast populations were living in relatively huge cities
and the collective term for those in lower economic ranks were called “working class.” Even within this realm, however,
a very clear class structure developed. This was in keeping with the Social Darwinist trends of the day.
Nationalism and Unification
Mazzini: Early Italian unificationist and nationalist 1848 era
Cavour: worked for King Victor Emmanuel (sort of a Bismarck figure) and engineered the unification
Garibaldi: Italian peasant revolutionary, combined revolutionary forces with those of Cavour and the king.
Victor Emmanuel: New king of a unified Italy
Pre-existing tendencies
German Confederation
Attempted unification in 1848
Created Reichstag with  a lower house of universal manhood suffrage
Blood and Iron speech about the militaristic and expanding future of Germany
Worked to gain support of urban workers before Bourgeoisie could do
Served King Kaiser Wilhelm I and the Junkers
Believed German Nationalism could support conservative monarchial ends.
3 Wars of Nationalism
against Denmark over Schleswig Holstein
against Austria (7 Weeks War)
against France (Franco Prussian War)           
Napoleon III
At first elected President of France for four years in 1848
Had a popular Positive program
Greatly increased the power of the Catholic Church in public education in order to protect private
property from revolutionary movements or more progressive legislators
Severely limited universal manhood suffrage
Became an emperor
Seized power militarily and disbanded the elected Assembly in a Coup d’Etat
Restored universal manhood suffrage and was elected king of France
Encourage private investment banks
Encouraged building new railroads
Massive state-funded urban improvement program (Hausmann)
Strongly supported by urban workers
he supported credit unions
better worker housing
regulation of pawn shops
Supported Italian nationalism and its revolt against Austria
Eventually reinstated the Assembly and gave it increasing amounts of power
By 1870 he gave France a new, very liberal Parliamentary Constitution

Age of Imperialism 1870-1900
Primary European Countries
Cape to Cairo Railway
Battle of Omdurman
Boer War against Dutch
Cecil Rhodes
North Africa
Morrocco Crisis
The Great Trek
King Leopold
Came in late and had to settle for German East Africa
Was bitter at England and France for having most of Africa and felt entitled to more
Crises and Conferences
Moroccan Crisis and Algeciras Conference: Britain France and Germany (Kaiser Wilhelm II)
Fashoda Affair: potential war between France and Britain over the Sudan in Africa
Boer War between English and Dutch
Berlin Conference Major players divided up colonies to avoid war
This reflected Concert of Europe and Balance of Power ideals

Direct Rule: Colonizing nations such as France who had sufficiently large enough populations tended to fill the ranks of
Civil Service, Military, Courts, etc. with their own, white, French citizens
Indirect Rule: Britain lacked a sufficient population so they used (and occasionally educated) colonized people to fill the
ranks of their militaries, courts, civil service offices, etc. within a colony
The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling

Modernization of Russia
1860s Massive, government subsidized railroads
1892-1903 Witte
More railroads (trans-Siberian)
High protective tariffs to increase Russian industry
Use the West to Catch up with the West
Foreign capital (money) and technology
Built an enormous steel and coal industry

1900s (20th Century)

1905 Russian Revolution
Disastrous war with Japan
Bloody Sunday and Father Gapon
Massive labor strike
Czar allows creation of the Duma
Fundamental Laws
October Manifesto

1914-1918                   World War I
Imperialist Competition
Military Build-up
Ethnic Liberation Nationalist Movements
Serbs (Black Hand)
Unifying Nationalist Pride
Complex Alliance Systems
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
Three Emperors League
Assassination of Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand
3 Balkan Wars
Assassination of Jean Jaurez
Social Darwinism
Increasingly large and restless urban worker “proletariat” in Europe
Monarchial need to deflect dissatisfaction among urban worker groups
Rapidly increasing scientific and technological advances without equal political gains
Central Powers:        Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Allies:                         Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Italy, USA
Allies win
Wilson pushes for his 14 Points (mostly unsuccessful)
No victors
Freedom of the seas
No secret treaties
National self-determination and Decolonization
Creation of a League of Nations
Eastern Europe and Middle East are redrawn
Austrian Empire becomes smaller nationality based countries
Middle Eastern states become “Mandates” of Britain and France

Treaty of Versailles
German war guilt
German reparations
German loss of colonies
Germany forbidden future military or occupation of the Rhineland
Treaty never signed by the US
League of Nations
America refuses to join because of Article X
Never really has much clout without a substantial army
End of big Monarchies
Habsburgs: Franz Josef Habsburg dies and empire collapses
Romanovs and Boyars: killed or driven out by the Communists/Reds
Hohenzollerns: (Communist Revolution in Germany: Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebnicht: unsuccessful)
1917 Russian March Revolution:
Provisional Government led by Kerensky
Petrograd Soviet competes for power
King abdicates and Russia becomes a complete democratic republic with all civil liberties
1917 Russian October Revolution
Lenin returns from exile to join up with Trotsky and the Bolsheviks in the Petrograd Soviet
Lenin and Trotsky overthrow the Provisional Government and promise free elections
Displeased with election results, they dissolve the democratically elected government
Lenin and Trotsky change their name from Bolsheviks to Communists
Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Lenin and Trotsky (Reds) wage a civil war against the Whites (pro-Boyars and pro-Czar)
Lenin signs “a separate peace” with Germany in the Treaty of Brest Litovsk

The Policies of Lenin and Stalin
The Cheka
Five Year Plans focused on heavy industry

1920s General Concepts
The Lost Generation
Spanish Flu kills as many as World War I
Continuing legacy of crippled, wheezing, insane men across European
Peace Attempts
Kellog-Briand Pact
Spirit of Locarno
Weimar Republic
France invades Ruhr in 1923
Massive “wheelbarrow” inflation in 1923
Dawes plan and Young plan from America provide strong recovery
Moral Relativism
Existentialism: Sartre
Surrealism: Dali
Expressionism: Meidner
Cubism: Picasso
Dada: Man Ray and Du Champ
Bauhaus Architecture: Gropius
Einstein: Theory of Relativity
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Rise of 1920s Dictatorships
Stalin and the USSR

Mussolini and Italy
Black Shirts
March on Rome
Lateran agreement of 1929
“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”
                  The Depression
Starts in 1929 in USA
Undoes most of the improvement that Europe had done after WWI
Massive unemployment
Makes “demagogues” seem attractive to masses

                  Rise of Hitler
Nazi Party
Mein Kampf
1933 Enabling Act
Brown Shirts (SA)
Anschluss with Austria
Occupies the Rhineland
Rebuilds German military
Annexes the Sudetenland
Nuremberg Laws
Munich Conference with Chamberlain: “Peace for our time” and Appeasement
Hitler-Stalin Pact
Invasion of Poland

                  Rise of Franco in Spain/ Spanish Civil War
Conservative Authoritarian/Fascist
Received support from Mussolini and Hitler (Condor Legion)
Picasso’s Guernica
Overthrew democratically elected Communist Government and supported landed aristocracy and Catholic Church
World War II
                                    The Causes
World wide Depression leads to extreme politics including anti-Semitism and Nazism
Nazi rearmament, expansion and aggression forces war on Europe
Japanese armament, expansion and aggression forces war in the Pacific and Asia
The Dominant Morally relativistic totalitarian/conservative authoritarian nations
Axis:         Germany, Italy and Japan
Allies:       Britain, USA, USSR(Russia), France
Atlantic Charter: FDR and Churchill (1940s version of the 14 Points)
Casablanca: Unconditional surrender of Germany, wear down Germany with attacks on Civilian targets
Teheran: Britain and USA will open up a 2nd front in France and USSR will “liberate” Eastern Europe
Yalta: FDR and Churchill agree to let Stalin keep Eastern Europe, Stalin promises to attack Japan
Potsdam: Truman finds out USA has atom bombs and yells at Stalin to get out of Eastern Europe
Allies win and both Germany and Japan agree to unconditional surrender
Europe and Germany are divided:
Capitalist and Democratic USA supported Western Europe: (England, France, Italy, West Germany)
Communist and USSR controlled Eastern Europe: (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany)
Japan and Western Germany are rebuilt economically by the United States
Nuremberg Trials are held for war criminals who violated human rights (Nazi death camp leaders, etc.)
Decolonization and Neocolonialism
The Cold War (see below)

General Cold War Politics, Issues and Terms
Marshal Plan
Truman Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine
Eastern Bloc (Soviet Bloc)
Policy of Containment
Iron Curtain (speech)
Berlin sectors
The Berlin Wall
Cuban Missile Crisis
United Nations (post WWII version of the League of Nations)
NATO (post WWII version of Article X of the League of Nations)
Warsaw Pact (Soviet dominated)
CIA versus the KGB

Economic Recovery in Western Europe
1948 Organization of European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
1948 Council of Europe (many hoped it would become sort of a Washington DC for Europe)
1957 Treaty of Rome created European Economic Community EEC (Common Market)
6 Nations Coal and Steel Community
Marshall Plan
Germany: Erhard: “The only ration coupon is the Mark!”
France: Monnet and Shuman (pushed for both economic and political unification of Europe)
Italy: Gasperi

Economic and Political “Recovery” in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
1945-1953 Stalin
Exports Soviet style economics to the Soviet occupied Eastern European countries
“The war on fascism ends, the war on Capitalism begins!”
5 year plans in Eastern Europe
Collectivization of agriculture in Eastern Europe
Purges (kills) Jews
Heavy and military industry given top priority instead of desired consumer goods
1953-1964 Khrushchev and De-Stalinization
“Peaceful coexistence with Capitalism is possible.”
“Secret speech” Khrushchev condemns the dead Stalin’s cruelty and mismanagement
Began economic reforms and shifted from heavy industry and military goods to consumer goods
1956 both Poland and Hungary revolted, thinking that Khrushchev’s reforms meant he was weak
1956 Students and urban workers of Hungary crushed by Khrushchev
1958 Khrushchev ordered USA out of West Berlin
1961 Constructed Berlin Wall
1962 Lost face-off with Kennedy when he tried to station nuclear missiles in Cuba
1964 Khrushchev is overthrown by Brezhnev
1964-1982 Re-Stalinization
Brezhnev began talking about Stalin’s “good points.”
Crushed the 1968 Czech rebellion and “socialism with a human face”
Established “Brezhnev Doctrine”

Hotspots and High Points of the Cold War
Czechoslovakia 1948:
China goes communist 1949 Mao Zedong is the new leader of the People’s Republic of China
By 1950 Both the USSR and the USA have atom bombs
The Korean War (1950-1953)
North Korean Communists supported by USSR and Communist China
South Korean Capitalist Authoritarians supported by USA
Hungary 1956 and Nagy: Hungarians revolt expecting American support, none arrives
The Vietnam War
North Vietnamese Communist supported by USSR
South Vietnamese Capitalist Authoritarians supported by USA
Prague, Czechoslovakia 1968
“Prague Spring”
“Socialism with a human face”
Soviet invasion
Detente (relaxing tension between Communist and Capitalist powers)
1970 Willy Brandt and the 2 Germanys (Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic)
Poland and the treaty of Reconciliation
Wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier
Treaties with USSR, Poland and Czech
“Two German states within one country.”
1975 Helsinki Conference
Europe’s existing boundaries will not change
35 nations accepted provisions guaranteeing human rights

Poland and “Solidarity”
Lech Walesa and the Solidarnosc or Solidarity Party in Poland
After 1956 rebellions Poland kept its Catholic Church and privately owned agricultural land
Polish Cardinal Wojtyla is elected Pope John Paul II and unifies nation behind the “inalienable rights of man”
1980 Gdansk shipyard strikes and Gdansk Agreement
Right to form free trade unions
Right to strike
Freedom of Speech
Economic Reforms
Release of political prisoners
Mass was said daily
Gdansk Agreement
Brezhnev struck back citing the Brezhnev Doctrine and Solidarity was driven underground

Vatican II 1962-1964 (Catholic Church reform movement in the style of the Council of Trent of the 16th Century)
“ to renew ourselves and the flocks committed to us, so that there may radiate before all men the lovable features of Jesus Christ, who shines in our hearts that God's splendor may be revealed."
Priest faces the congregation
Mass is said in the Vernacular
More active communal participation in the Mass as the central act of Roman Catholic public worship
Ecumenical: Sought common ground in dealings with Orthodox and Protestant Christians and with those who are not Christians.
Deplored "all hatreds, persecutions, and displays of anti-Semitism leveled at any time or from any source against the Jews.”
Declaration upholding the universal right of religious freedom

Revolutions of 1989
Czechoslovakia:                            Velvet Revolution Vaclav Havel
Poland:                                          Walesa and Solidarity
Romania:                                       Ceausescu
Ronald Reagan                              Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
USSR Gorbachev/Yeltsin:            Glasnost and Perestroika
Hungary:                                       East Germans cross border to West Germany
Germany:                                      German Unification, “Third Way” economics                  



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European history study guide summaries

European Review Guide

Middle Ages

Black Death, bubonic plague
Hundred Years’ War
Joan of Arc
English Peasant Revolt, 1381
John Wyclif, Lollards
John Hus, Hussites
Babylonian Captivity
Great Schism

Byzantine Empire
Fall of Constantinople
Ottoman Empire
Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy
Geoffrey Chaucer, Canterbury Tales
Scholasticism, Thomas Aquinas
Conciliar movement

The Renaissance

Italian Renaissance
Jacob Burckhart
Republic of Florence
Medici family
Cosimo de’ Medici
Lorenzo de’ Medici (the Magnificent)
Duchy of Milan
Sforza family
Peace of Lodi, 1454
Republic of Venice
Papal States
Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Charles VIII
Girolamo Savonarola
Machiavelli, The Prince
Cesare Borgia
Sack of Rome, 1527
Charles V
civic humanism
Boccaccio, Decameron
Leonardo Bruni
Lorenzo Valla
Marsilio Ficino
Pico Della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man
Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the Courtier
Johann Gutenberg, printing press, moveable type
Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Artists
cinquecento, 1500s

Pope Alexander VI
Brunelleschi, Il Duomo
Lorenzo Ghiberti, “gates of paradise”
Donatello, David
Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam & Eve
Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus
“High Renaissance”
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa
Raphael, School of Athens
Michelangelo, David; ceiling of Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter’s basilica, Pieta
El Greco
Northern Renaissance
Christian humanism
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
Thomas More, Utopia
Jacques Lefevre d’Etables
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
Francois Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel
Michel de Montaigne, skepticism, essay form
William Shakespeare
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
Flemish style
Jan van Eyck
Peter Brueghel, the Elder
Albrecht Dürer
Hans Holbein the Younger
Fugger family
Christine de Pisan
Isabella d’Este
Artemesia Gentilleschi

    • To what extent were women impacted by the Renaissance?
    • Analyze the influence of humanism on Renaissance art. Select at least three artists and analyze at least one work for each artist.

New Monarchs, Exploration &  Society

New Monarchs
Valois line of French monarchs
Louis XI (“Spider King”)
Francis I
Concordat of Bologna, 1516
War of the Roses
Tudor Dynasty
Henry VII
star chamber
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spanish Inquisition
Tomás de Torquemada
Holy Roman Empire
Maximilian I
Charles V
Commercial Revolution
Middle class (bourgeoisie)
Hanseatic League
joint-stock companies
“Price Revolution”

“God, glory, gold”
Prince Henry the Navigator
Bartholomew Días
Vasco da Gama
Amerigo Vespucci
Christopher Columbus
Bartólome de las Casas
Treaty of Tordesillas
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
Ferdinand Magellan
Hernan Cortés
Francisco Pizarro
“Golden Age of Spain”
Encomienda system
“Old Imperialism”
Francis Xavier
Dutch East India Company
Columbian Exchange
“Long 16th-Century”
witch hunts

    • Who were the “New Monarchs”?  How did they go about centralizing power in their states? To what extent were they successful?
    • What were the causes and features of the Commercial Revolution? How did the Commercial Revolution impact European society politically, economically, and socially between1500-1700?
    • Analyze the role that knowledge, politics and technology played in European exploration between 1450 and 1700.
    • Compare and contrast the European “Old Imperialism” in Africa and Asia with the European domination of the New World between 1450 and 1700.
    • Analyze causes for the rise and decline of the Spanish Empire and features of Spain’s rule in the New World
    • Analyze the impact of the Columbian Exchange on European society.
    • Analyze factors that enabled Europeans to dominate world trade between 1500 & 1700.



The Reformation

sale of indulgences
clerical ignorance
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
Martin Luther
Johann Tetzel
95 Theses
Johann Eck
“priesthood of all believers”
Diet of Worms
Confessions of Augsburg
Philip Melanchthon
Charles V
German Peasants War, Twelve Articles
Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Tragedy at Münster
Mennonites, Quakers, & Unitarians
Ulrich Zwingli, Zurich
John Calvin
Institutes of the Christian Religion
“elect/visible saints”
Michael Servetus
Protestant work ethic
John Knox
Dutch Reformed Church

English Reformation
William Tyndale
Henry VIII
Anne Boleyn
Thomas Wolsey
Thomas Cranmer
Church of England (Anglican Church)
Act of Supremacy
Pilgrimage of Grace
Statute of the Six Articles
Edward VI
Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary”
Marian Exiles
Elizabeth I
Elizabethan Settlement
Thirty-Nine Articles
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
Katerina von Bora
Angela Merici, Ursuline order of Nuns
Teresa de Avila
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Pope Paul III
Council of Trent
Index of Prohibited Books
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Ignatius Loyola
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions
Baroque Art
Canopy over St. Peter’s Tomb
Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Caravaggio, tenebrism
Peter Paul Rubens

Essay Questions

    • Analyze the causes of the Protestant Reformation
    • Compare and contrast the doctrines and practices of Lutheranism and Calvinism with Catholic doctrines and practices.
    • To what extent did Renaissance humanism result in the Reformation?
    • Compare and contrast the English Reformation with Luther’s reformation in Germany.
    • Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation on European politics and society in the 16th century. Be sure to consider Germany, England, France and the Netherlands.
    • To what extent did the Catholic Church succeed in achieving its goals during the Counter Reformation?
    • Analyze how Baroque art and architecture reflect the ideals of the Catholic Reformation

Wars of Religion: 1559-1648

Habsburg-Valois Wars
Philip II
Battle of Lepanto
Dutch Revolt
William of Orange
United Provinces of the Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”)
Elizabeth I
Spanish Armada
French Civil Wars
Catherine de Medicis
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
War of the Three Henry’s
Henry IV
Edict of Nantes
Thirty Years’ War
Bohemian phase
Defenestration of Prague
Danish Phase

Albrecht von Wallenstein
Edict of Restitution
Swedish Phase
Gustavus Adolphus
French Phase
Cardinal Richelieu
Treaty of Westphalia
English Civil War
James I
Charles I
“divine right” of kings
Oliver Cromwell
New Model Army
Pride’s Purge
“Rump Parliament”
Levellers,  Diggers, Quakers
The Protectorate
Charles II

Essay Questions

  • Analyze the impact that religion played in the Dutch Revolt, the French Civil Wars, the Thirty Years’ War, and the English Civil War
  • Analyze the extent to which the religious policies of the following rulers were successful:
        • Philip II
        • Elizabeth I
        • Henry IV
        • James I & Charles I
        • Oliver Cromwell


  • To what degree did religion and politics play in the Thirty Years’ War?
  • Analyze the impact of the Thirty Years’ War on European politics.


  • To what extent did the wars of religion result in the decline of the Spanish Empire?
  • Analyze the causes of the English Civil War and the impact of Puritan rule on English politics and society.







Absolutism in Western Europe: c. 1589-1715

Jean Bodin
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
Bishop Bossuet
“divine right” of kings
First Estate
Second Estate
Third Estate
Henry IV
Bourbon dynasty
nobility of the sword
nobility of the robe
Duke of Sully
Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Intendant system
Peace of Alais
Louis XIV, “Sun King”
“L’ état, c’est moi”
Cardinal Mazarin
Versailles Palace
Edict of Fountainbleu

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
balance of power
War of the League of Augsburg
War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Philip II
“price revolution”
Spanish Armada
Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659
Versailles Palace
Winter Palace
Caravaggio, tenebrism
Peter Paul Rubens
Diego Velázquez
Artemisia Gentileschi
Dutch Style
Jan Vermeer
French Classicism
Nicolas Poussin
Jean Baptiste Racine
J.S. Bach

  • How did the political theories of Bodin and Bossuet play out in France during the 17th century?


  • Analyze the extent to which absolutism developed in France under Henry IV and Louis XIII.
  • Analyze the ways in which the absolutism of Louis XIV impacted the bureaucracy, the nobility, the peasantry, economics and religious issues in France.


  • To what extent did the balance of power remain intact in Europe between 1600 and 1715?
  • Analyze the role of mercantilism in France in the 17th century


  • Analyze how the baroque reflected the “Age of Absolutism.”



Constitutionalism in Western Europe: c. 1600-1725

House of Commons
Stuart dynasty
James I
“divine right” of kings
Charles I
Petition of Right, 1628
“ship money”
“Short Parliament”
“Long Parliament”
Archbishop Laud
English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell
New Model Army
Pride’s Purge
“Rump” Parliament

Charles II
Test Act, 1673
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
James II
“Glorious Revolution”
William and Mary
Bill of Rights
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
Toleration Act, 1689
Act of Settlement, 1701
Act of Union, 1707
Great Britain
Cabinet system
Prime Minister
Robert Walpole
United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic)
Dutch Reformed church
Dutch East India Co.
Gustavus Adolphus

  • Analyze the development of constitutionalism in England during the 17th century.


  • To what extent were the Puritans successful in achieving their goals in England between 1642 and 1660?
  • Analyze reasons for the failure of absolutism in England in the 17th century.


  • Analyze factors that led to the rise of the Dutch Republic and its commercial success in the 17th century.


Absolutism in Eastern Europe: c. 1600-1740

Holy Roman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Suleiman the Magnificent
Janissary Corps
liberum veto
Hapsburg Empire (Austrian Empire)
Austria proper
Leopold I
siege of Vienna, 1683
Charles VI
Pragmatic Sanction
Frederick William, the “Great Elector”
“king of Prussia”

Frederick William I
“Sparta of the North”
Ivan III (“the Great”)
“Third Rome”
Ivan IV (“the Terrible”)
“Time of Troubles”
Romanov dynasty
Michael Romanov
“Old Believers”
Peter the Great
Great Northern War
“Window on the West”
Table of Ranks
St. Petersburg
Winter Palace

  • Analyze the causes for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire and Poland-Lithuania in Europe during the 17th century.


  • Analyze the military, political and social factors for the rise of absolutism in Austria, Prussia and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Compare and contrast absolutism in eastern Europe with that of France in western Europe.



Scientific Revolution
Copernicus, heliocentric view
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
3 laws of planetary motion
laws of motion
Francis Bacon
inductive method
Rene Descartes
deductive reasoning
cogito ergo sum (“I think; therefore, I am”)
Cartesian dualism
scientific method
Isaac Newton
principle of universal gravitation
Principia, 1687
William Harvey
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Royal Society
John Locke, Two Treatises of Civil Gov’t
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
tabula rasa
“ecracsez l’infame” (destroy the damn thing) 
Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws
checks and balances
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract, 1762
general will
“noble savage”
Denis Diderot, The Encyclopedia
Marquis de Beccaria
François Quesnay
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations
salon movement
Madame de Geoffrin
Madame de Staël
Mary Wollstonecraft
Baron Paul d’Holbach
David Hume
Jean de Condorcet
Immanuel Kant
classical liberalism
German pietism
John Wesley
Enlightened Despotism
Frederick the Great
War of Austrian Succession
Seven Years’ War
“Diplomatic Revolution of 1756”
Treaty of Paris
“first servant of the state”
Catherine the Great
Pugachev Rebellion
Polish partitions
liberum veto
Maria Theresa
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
Joseph II

  • How did the Scientific Revolution impact European society (e.g. intellectually, religiously, economically)?
  • Analyze the extent to which the Enlightenment affected European society with regard to religion, education, and economics.
  • Analyze the impact of the Enlightenment on politics in the 18th century.
  • To what extent is the term “Enlightened Despot” appropriate when describing the reigns of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II?
  • Analyze how the balance of power was maintained in Europe between 1740 and 1786.


18th Century Economy and Society

Agricultural Revolution
open field system
Cornelius Vermuyden
Charles “Turnip” Townsend
crop rotation
Jethro Tull
seed drill
Robert Bakewell
Columbian exchange
Enclosure movement
Corn Laws
population explosion
cottage industry (“putting out” system)
flying shuttle
spinning jenny
water frame
spinning mule
Atlantic economy
Bank of England
Act of Union, 1707
Navigation Acts
Triangular Trade
Dutch Republic

Anglo-Dutch Wars
Slave trade
“Middle Passage”
South Sea Bubble
Mississippi Bubble
War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Seven years’ War
Treaty of Paris
American Revolution
“Spare the rod and spoil the child”
Edward Jenner
John Wesley
Jacques-Louis David
Classical Style (music)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Franz Joseph Haydn
Ludwig van Beethoven

  • Discuss the features of the Agricultural Revolution. How did the Agricultural Revolution affect European society in the 18th century?
  • Analyze the causes of the population explosion in the 18th century? What were some of the new social challenges posed by population growth?
  • Analyze the importance of proto-industrialization on the development of England’s economy in the 18th century.
  • Analyze the role that mercantilism played on the Atlantic economy during the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • What factors paved the way for the rise of the Dutch Republic as an economic power?
  • To what extent did the colonial wars of the 18th century impact the European balance of power?
  • To what extent did demographic and social trends of the 18th century impact the European family?


The French Revolution 1789-1799

Louix XV
Madame de Pomadour
René de Maupeou
Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
First Estate
Second Estate
Third Estate
Lettre de cachet
ancien regime (Old Regime)
Jacques Necker
Assembly of Notables
Estates General
cahiers de doléances
Abbé Sieyès, What is the Third Estate?
National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
storming of the Bastille
“Great Fear”
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Olympe de Gouges, The Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Madame de Stael
Women’s march to Versailles
Jean-Paul Marat
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790
“refactory clergy”
83 Departments
Flight to Varennes
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France
Thomas Paine, Rights of Man

Legislative Assembly
Declaration of Pillnitz
War of the First Coalition
Brunswick Manifesto
storming of the Tuleries
Paris Commune
Georges-Jacques Danton
September Massacres
“Age of Rousseau”
National Convention
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity
Committee of Public Safety
Maximilien Robespiere
Louis Saint-Just
Law of Maximum
lèvee en masse
Reign of Terror
Law of Suspects
Jacques Hébert, Hébertistes
Cult of the Supreme Being
“Temple of Reason”
Thermidorian Reaction
The Directory
Conspiracy of Equals
Coup d’Etat Brumaire
Consulate Era

  • Analyze the long-term and short-term causes of the French Revolution.
  • Analyze the impact of Enlightenment ideas on the French Revolution.
  • To what extent did the political, economic, social and religious goals of the National Assembly (1789-1791) become a permanent feature of the French Revolution by 1799?
  • To what extent did each of the following groups succeed in achieving their goals during the French Revolution (1789-1799)?
    • Monarchy                          e. Urban working class
    • Clergy                               f. Aristocracy
    • Bourgeoisie                       g.  Women
    • Peasantry                      
  • Compare and contrast the goals and actions of the leaders of the National Assembly (1789-91) with those of the National Convention (1792-1795)


French Rev & Napoleon (1789-1815)

“Age of Metternich”

“Age of Realpolitik”

“Age of Mass Politics”

  • Nat’l Assembly (1789-1791)
  • Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
  • Nat’l Convention (1792-1795)
  • Directory (1795-1799)
  • Consulate (1799-1804)
  • Empire (1804-1815)
  • Concert of Europe
  • Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
  • Reforms in Britain
  • Liberalism/ Nationalism vs. Conservatism
  • Romanticism
  • Second French Empire
  • Crimean War
  • Unification of Germany
  • Unification of Italy
  • Ausgleich: Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • French Third Republic
  • German Empire
  • Imperialism
  • Rise of socialist parties
  • Increased suffrage = mass politics

The Napoleonic Era: 1799-1815


Napoleon Bonaparte
Consulate Period
First Consul
Napoleonic Code
Careers Open to Talent
Concordat of 1801
Bank of France
Duke of Enghien
Treaty of Lunéville
Jacques-Louis David
Empire Period
Grand Empire
Battle of Trafalgar
Lord Horatio Nelson
Battle of Austerlitz
Arc de Triomphe
Treaty of Tilsit
Confederation of the Rhine
Continental System
Berlin Decree
Order in Council

Milan Decree
Peninsular War
Russian Campaign
Battle of Borodino
War of the Fourth Coalition
Battle of Leipzig
Quadruple Alliance
Charter of 1814
“First” Treaty of Paris, 1814
Congress of Vienna
Klemens von Metternich
Balance of Power
German Confederation (Bund)
Hundred Days
Battle of Waterloo
Duke of Wellington
Concert of Europe
“Holy Alliance”
Alexander I


  • To what extent was Napoleon an “Enlightened Despot”?  Contrast Napoleon’s rule with that of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II.


  • To what extent did Napoleon maintain the ideals of the French Revolution?
  • To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe by 1815?


  • To what extent did each of the following social groups succeed in achieving their goals during the Napoleonic Era?
    • Clergy
    • Aristocracy
    • Bourgeoisie
    • Urban working class
    • Peasantry
    • Women



The Industrial Revolution: 1780-1850

Commercial Revolution
cottage industry/“putting out system”
flying shuttle
spinning jenny
water frame
spinning mule
Agricultural Revolution
Bank of England
limited liability
Navigation Acts
Corn Laws
James Watt
steam engine
power loom
heavy industry
Henry Cort
puddling furnace
transportation revolution

Duke of Bridgewater, canals
John McAdam, hard-surfaced roads
Robert Fulton, steamboat
George Stephenson, Rocket
Crystal Palace
Crèdit Mobilier
“petite bourgeoisie”
Friedrich Engels
Combination Acts
Robert Owen
Saddler Commission
Factory Act of 1833
Mines Act of 1842
Irish Potato Famine

  • Analyze the role proto-industrialization played in setting the stage for the Industrial Revolution.


  • Compare and contrast the Industrial Revolution in England with the industrial countries on the continent.
  • Analyze ways in which the Industrial Revolution altered the social fabric of European society.


  • Analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the following groups:
    • Women
    • Children
    • Middle Class
    • Proletariat
    • Peasantry

Ideologies and Revolutions: 1815-1850
“The Age of Metternich”

Congress of Vienna
Klemens von Metternich
legitimacy, compensation, balance of power
German Confederation (Bund)
Concert of Europe
Quadruple Alliance
Congress System
Carlsbad Diet, 1819
Corn Laws, 1815
Peterloo Massacre, 1819
Decembrist Uprising, 1825
classical liberalism
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776
David Ricardo, “iron law of wages”
Jeremy Bentham, utilitarianism
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859)
Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Greek Revolution
“Eastern Question”
Treaty of Adrianople, 1829
Revolutions of 1830
July Revolution
Louis Philippe, “Bourgeoisie King”
Guiseppe Mazzini
Young Italy
Reform Bill of 1832
Factory Act of 1831
Mines Act, 1842
Anti-Corn Law League
Revolutions of 1848

February Revolution
Second French Republic
“June Days” Revolution
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Louis Kossuth
Prague Conference, Austroslavism
Frankfurt Parliament
Frederick William IV
“Humiliation of Olmutz”
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract
Immanuel Kant
sturm and drang
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
William Wordsworth
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Lord Byron
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Grimm’s Fairytales
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Victor Hugo
Caspar David Friedrich
Eugene Delacroix
Théodore Géricault
J.W.M. Turner
John Constable
British Houses of Parliament
Ludwig van Beethoven
Frédéric Chopin
Franz Liszt
Giuseppi Verdi
Richard Wagner
Peter Tchaikovsky
Gothic revival architecture
Henry de Saint-Simon
Louis Blanc
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Charles Fourier
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
The Communist Manifesto,  1848
dialectical materialism

  • To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe between 1815 and 1850?


  • To what extent did conservatism achieve its objectives in the years between 1815 and 1850?
  • To what extent did liberals and nationalists achieve their goals in Europe between 1815 and 1900?


  • Why was there no revolution in Britain in the period 1815-1848 while many revolutions occurred on the Continent?
  • Compare and contrast the ideals of the Romantic Era with those of the Enlightenment.


  • To what extent did Romanticism play a political and philosophical role in Europe between 1800 and 1850?


19th Century Society: Urbanization and Intellectual Movements (1800-1914)

Second Industrial Revolution
Public Health Movement
Edwin Chadwick
“sanitary idea”
Georges von Haussmann
fin de siècle
“Belle époque”
Louis Pasteur, germ theory
Joseph Lister
Dmitri Mendeleev
Michael Faraday, electromagnetism
August Comte
Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species
Thomas Huxley
Hebert Spencer, Social Darwinism
Sigmund Freud
Marie Curie
Ernest Rutherford
Max Planck
Albert Einstein
theory of relativity
Rerum Novarum

Honoré de Balzac
Gustave Flaubert
Thomas Hardy
Emile Zola
George Eliot
Leo Tolstoy
Henrik Ibsen
Gustav Courbet
Francois Millet, The Gleaners
Honore Daumier, Third-Class Carriage
Edgar Degas
Edouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe ;Olympia
Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette
Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night
Paul Gauguin
Paul Cézanne
Henri Matisse, les fauves 
Pablo Picasso, Les Madamoselle d’Avignon
Wassily Kandinsky

  • Compare and contrast the “first” and “second” industrial revolutions.


  • Analyze ways in which urbanization impacted European society in the 19th century.
  • How did the industrial revolution and urbanization impact Europe’s social structure.


  • Analyze the forces that caused the family to change in the 19th century.
  • How did scientific advances in the late-19th century challenge the ways Europeans viewed the world?


  • Analyze how Realism, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism reflected European society in the late-19th and early 20th centuries.


The Age of Realpolitik: 1848-1871

Crimean War
Florence Nightingale
Second French Republic
Second French Empire
Napoleon III
Falloux Law
“Liberal Empire”
Syllabus of Errors, 1864
King Victor Emmanuel
Count Cavour
“Il Risorgimento”
Plombiérès, 1859
Giuseppe Garibaldi, Red Shirts
“Humiliation of Olmutz”

kleindeutsch plan
Otto von Bismarck
“gap theory”
“blood and iron”
Prussian-Danish War, 1863
Austro-Prussian War, 1866
Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71
Ems Dispatch
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Ausgleich,  1867


  • Compare and contrast the role that nationalism played in Italy, Germany and Austria in the years between 1848 and 1871.
  • To what extent was Otto von Bismarck successful in achieving his political goals by 1871?


  • How was the balance of power in Europe changed in the period 1848-1871?


The Age of Mass Politics: 1871-1914

“Age of Mass Politics”
German Empire
Kaiser Wilhelm I
Otto von Bismarck
Catholic Center Party
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)
Wilhelm II
Third French Republic
Paris Commune
Adolphe Thiers
Chamber of Deputies
Jules Ferry
Boulanger Crisis
Dreyfus Affair
Emile Zola, “J’accuse!”
Jean Jaurès
Conservative Party
Benjamin Disraeli
Liberal Party
William Gladstone
Reform Bill of 1867,
Reform Act of 1884
Fabian Society
Kier Hardie
Independent Labor Party
Parliament Act of 1911
Millicent Garrett Fawcett

Emmeline Pankhurst
Representation of the People Act, 1918
“Irish Question”
Young Ireland
Irish Home Rule
Easter Rebellion
“Eastern Question”
“Sick Man of Europe”
Congress of Berlin, 1878
Socialist Revisionism
Eduard Bernstein
Mikhail Bakunin
Alexander II
Emancipation Act, 1861
Count Sergei Witte
Alexander III
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification”
Theodore Herzl, Zionism
Nicholas II
Russo-Japanese War
“Bloody Sunday”
Revolution of 1905
Gregorii Rasputin

  • What was the “age of mass politics?”  How were government policies in western and central Europe impacted by mass politics during the period 1871-1914?


  • To what extent did liberalism achieve gains in each of the following countries between 1871 and 1914?
  • England
  • France
  • Germany
  • Russia
  • To what extent were conservatives able to maintain power in the period 1871-1914?


  • Analyze the impact of socialism on European politics in the period 1871-1914.
  • Analyze the ways in which female suffrage movements sought to gain the franchise in England between 1890 and 1918.


The New Imperialism: 1880-1914

“Old Imperialism”
“New Imperialism”
Dr. David Livingston
H. M. Stanley
Social Darwinism, “survival of the fittest”
“White Man’s Burden”
Rudyard Kipling
“Scramble for Africa”
Belgian Congo
Leopold II
Egypt, protectorate
Berlin Conference, 1884-85
Battle of Omdurman
General Horatio H. Kitchener
Fashoda Incident
Cecil Rhodes
Cape Colony

Boer War
Kruger Telegram
Opium Wars
Treaty of Nanking
“spheres of influence”
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
British East India Company
Robert Clive
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-58
Indian National Congress
Boxer Rebellion
Russo-Japanese War
Karl Marx, Das Kapital
J. A. Hobson

  • Compare and contrast the “New Imperialism” of the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with the “Old Imperialism” of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


  • Analyze the causes of the “New Imperialism” between 1880 and 1914.  What justifications did Europeans use for their acquisition of colonies?
  • Analyze the methods that the European imperial powers used to acquire colonies in Africa and Asia between 1880 and 1914. Be able to discuss the following countries:
  • Belgium
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy


The Great War

Triple Alliance
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
“splendid isolation”
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Entente Cordial
Anglo-German arms race
Triple Entente
Kruger Telegram
Algeciras Conference
Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911
“sick man of Europe”
Young Turks
First Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis)
First Balkan War, 1912
Second Balkan War, 1913
“Third Balkan War”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Princip, “Black Hand”
Kaiser Wilhelm II
“blank check”
Central Powers
Allies (Triple Entente)
Western Front
Schlieffen Plan
Battle of the Marne, 1914
trench warfare
Battle of Verdun, 1916

Battle of the Somme, 1916 
Erich Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929
new weapons
Eastern Front
Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorf
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1917
Gallipoli campaign, 1915
T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
British naval blockade
unrestricted submarine warfare
Archangel expedition, 1918
“Total war”
Georges Clemenceau
Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy”)
Zimmerman Telegram
Balfour Note, 1917
Woodrow Wilson
Fourteen Points
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
Big Four
Versailles Treaty
Article 231
League of Nations
John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919
Easter Rebellion, 1916

  • Analyze major causes of World War I.


  • Analyze political, economic and military factors for the Allied victory in World War I.
  • Analyze ways in which World War I altered European society.


  • How was the balance of power in Europe changed as a result of World War I?


The Russian Revolution

Czar Alexander I
“Holy Alliance”
Decembrist Uprising
Nicholas I
Alexander II
Emancipation Act, 1861
Mikhail Bakunin
Alexander III
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification”
Theodore Herzl, zionism
Count S. Y. Witte
Nicholas II
Russo-Japanese War
Treaty of Portsmouth
“Bloody Sunday”
Revolution of 1905
October Manifesto
Peter Stolypin

Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
February Revolution
Provisional Government
Alexander Kerensky
Petrograd Soviet
Army Order No. 1
April Theses
Kornilov Affair
October Revolution
Red Army
Communist Party
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
Russian Civil War
“war communism”
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

1.  Why did liberalism not take root in Russia between 1815 and 1917 when it played a major role in western and central Europe?

2.  Analyze the major causes of the Russian Revolution.

3.  Why did the Bolsheviks, who were a small minority, ultimately succeed in acquiring and maintaining power?

The “Age of Anxiety”: 1914-1950

Friedrich Nietzsche
Henri Bergson
Georges Sorel, syndicalism
Sigmund Freud, “ID”
Paul Valèry
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Logical empiricism (logical positivism)
Oswald Spenger, Decline of the West
T. S. Eliot, “The Waste Land”
Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front
Franz Kafka
John-Paul Sartre
Albert Camus


“New Physics”
Max Planck
Albert Einstein, theory of relativity
Ernest Rutherford
Werner Heisenberg
Bauhaus movement, Walter Gropius
Pablo Picasso, Guernica
Wassily Kandinsky
Marcel Duchamp: The Fountain; L.H.O.O.Q.
Salvador Dali
Igor Stravinsky
Arnold Schönberg
George Orwell, 1984; Animal Farm
Ayn Rand
William Golding, Lord of the Flies

  • Analyze the ways in which World War I influenced European thought in the years between 1918 and 1939.
  • How is the “age of anxiety” reflected in philosophy, literature and art in the period 1914-1950?
  • How did science and psychology in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries challenge European assumptions of how the universe and society functioned?
  • Contrast art and entertainment during the first half of the twentieth century with art and entertainment in the last half of the nineteenth century.


  • Analyze the ways in which World War I influenced European thought in the years between 1918 and 1939.
  • How is the “age of anxiety” reflected in philosophy, literature and art in the period 1914-1950?
  • How did science and psychology in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries challenge European assumptions of how the universe and society functioned?
  • Contrast art and entertainment during the first half of the twentieth century with art and entertainment in the last half of the nineteenth century.


Democracies in the 1920s

Weimar Republic
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)
Treaty of Versailles
Article 231
John Maynard Keynes, Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919
“stab in the back”; “diktat”
Ruhr Crisis, 1923
Raymond Poincaré
Gustave Stresemann
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
Dawes Plan

Locarno Pact, “spirit of Locarno”
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
Representation of the People Act, 1928
General Strike, 1926
Labour Party
“Irish Question”
Sinn Fein
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Northern Ireland
Stock Market Crash, 1929
Great Depression
New Deal
Keynesian economics
Popular Front

  • What were weaknesses of the Weimar Republic? How did different political groups seek to remedy these weaknesses?


  • Evaluate the strength of the economy in the 1920s for each of the following countries:
  • Britain
  • Germany
  • France

4.  Analyze how the Great Depression differed in its impact on various countries during the 1930s?


Totalitarianism: c. 1920-1940

conservative authoritarianism
Vladimir Lenin
Marxist-Leninist philosophy
war communism
Kronstadt Rebellion
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Joseph Stalin
“socialism in one country”
Leon Trotsky
Five-Year Plans
Central Committee
General Secretary
“Great Terror”
show trials
“Old Bolsheviks”
Benito Mussolini, Il Duce
Fascist party

“Black Shirts”
March on Rome
corporate state
Lateran Pact
Weimar Republic
Aryan race
National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI)
S.A. (“Brown Shirts”)
Beer Hall Putsch
Mein Kampf, 1923
Great Depression
Third Reich
Reichstag fire
Joseph Goebbels
Leni Riefenstal, Triumph of the Will
“Night of Long Knives”
Heinrich Himmler
Hitler Youth
Nuremberg Laws
Holocaust, “Final Solution”

  • Compare and contrast conservative authoritarianism in Fascist Italy with totalitarianism in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.


  • To what extent did Lenin and Stalin adhere to the ideas of Karl Marx in governing the USSR between 1918 and 1940?
  • Compare and contrast totalitarianism in the USSR and Nazi Germany.


  • Compare and contrast totalitarianism in the 1920s and 1930s with absolutism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • To what extent did the rise of fascism in Italy and Germany constitute a social revolution in each of those two countries?


  • Analyze the extent to which women’s roles changed in the USSR, Italy and Germany in the years 1917 to 1940.

World War II

Treaty of Versailles
Article 231
League of Nations
Locarno Pact, 1925
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
Manchuria, 1931
Ethiopia, 1935
Spanish Civil War
Francisco Franco
Rome-Berlin Axis
Rhineland, 1936
Anschluss, 1938
Munich Conference
Neville Chamberlain
Polish Corridor, Danzig
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
invasion of Poland
fall of France
Vichy France

Charles de Gaulle
Tripartite Pact, 1940
Battle of Britain: RAF vs. Luftwaffe
“Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland”
Atlantic Charter
Pearl Harbor
Grand Alliance
Jewish ghettos
Wannsee Conference
“Final Solution”
El Alamein
Battle of the Bulge
Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Tehran Conference, 1943
Yalta Conference, 1945
Potsdam Conference, 1945

  • Analyze political, economic and diplomatic factors for the failure of peace after World War I.


  • Analyze military, economic and political reasons for Germany’s loss in WWII.
  • Analyzes the causes and results of WWII


The Cold War and Nationalism

Tehran Conference
Yalta Conference
Potsdam Conference
“Iron Curtain” speech
West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)
East Germany (German Democratic Republic)
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Berlin Airlift, 1948-49
Warsaw Pact
hydrogen bomb
“massive retaliation”
Eastern Bloc
Joseph Stalin
Josip Broz Tito
Nikita Khrushchev
20th Party Congress speech
Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago
Aleksandr Solzenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
Hungarian Uprising, 1956
“Peaceful Coexistence”
Austrian independence
Geneva Conference, 1955
“space race”
U-2 incident
Berlin Wall
Cuban Missile Crisis
Leonid Brezhnev
“Prague Spring”
“socialism with a human face”
Alexander Dubcek
Brezhnev Doctrine
Willy Brandt

Salt I
Helsinki Conference
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Pope John Paul II
Lech Walesa
Atlantic Alliance
Margaret Thatcher
Helmut Kohl
Ronald Reagan
Mikhail Gorbachev
INF Treaty, 1987
START Treaty, 1990
Revolutions of 1989
German reunification
Vaclav Havel, “Velvet Revolution”
Romania, Nicolai Ceaucescu
fall of Soviet Union
Boris Yeltsin
Vladimir Putin
India, Gandhi
Dien Bien Phu
British Commonwealth of Nations
Mao Mao
Slobodan Milosevic
ethnic cleansing
Dayton Agreements
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Basques, ETA
“guest workers”

  • Identify and analyze factors that were responsible for the onset of the Cold War.


  • Analyze the ways in which the Soviet Union was able to maintain control of the Eastern Bloc nations in the period between 1945 and 1988.
  • Identify and analyze reasons for the decline of communism and Soviet influence in eastern Europe between 1968 and 1989.


  • Identify and analyze long-term causes for the fall of the Soviet Union?
  • “Western liberalism won the Cold War.” Assess the validity of this statement.


  • Identify and analyze factors that led to the de-colonization of Europe’s empires in Africa and Asia.
  • Analyze the ways in which nationalism played a major role in European affairs between 1945 and 2001.


  • To what extent was nationalism the dominant force in eastern Europe between 1989 and 2001?

Economic Recovery and European Unity:

Bretton Woods Conference, 1944
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
World Bank
United Nations
Security Council
General Assembly
Christian Democrats
Charles de Gaulle
French Fourth Republic
Catholic Party
Clement Attlee
Labour Party
Conrad Adenaur
“economic miracle”
Keynesian economics
Jean Monnet
Ludwig Erhard
“welfare state”
mixed economy
Margaret Thatcher
“guest workers”
Council of Europe
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
Schuman Plan

 “the Six”
European Economic Community (EEC), “Common Market”
Treaty of Rome, 1957
French Fifth Republic
European Union (EU)
Maastricht Treaty, 1991
Euro dollar, euro
oil crisis
Francois Mitterand
“Big Science”
space race
Yuri Gagarin
“Brain Drain”, The American Challenge
French student revolt, 1968
women’s rights movement
Simone de Beauvoir
Second Vatican Council (Vatican II)

  • Analyze the factors that resulted in the “economic miracle.”
  • Account for the rise of the “welfare state” in Europe after World War II. What were some of the challenges to the “welfare” state in the late-twentieth century?
  • Analyze changes in European family patterns after World War II.
  • What factors led to the rise of the middle class after World War II?
  • To what extent had women’s movements achieved their objectives by the late-twentieth century?



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European history study guide summaries


Study Guide for Chapters 11 and 12

1. The Reformation broke out first in the cities of:
Switzerland and Germany.

2. Contributing factors to lay criticism of the church included all of the following,
the laity traveled widely, new postal systems and the printing press increased the information at the disposal of the laity, lay people gained greater control over the cultural life of their communities, and the laity in the cities were becoming increasingly knowledgeable about the world.

3. 13th- through 15th-century lay religious movements shared a common goal of:
 Religious simplicity in the imitation of Jesus.


4. Name four true statements of the ideology and practice of the Brothers of the Common Life?
They were centered at Zwolle and Deventer in the Netherlands; they fostered religious life outside of formal churches, they embraced a lay religious life of prayer and study without surrendering the world, they stressed individual piety and practical religion.

5. Which writer summarized the philosophy of the Brothers of the Common Life in what became the most popular religious book of the period, the Imitation of Christ?
Thomas a Kempis

6. Who was the son of a successful miner and later became a powerful force in religion?
Martin Luther

7.  The medieval church had always taught that salvation was what?
A joint venture

8.  Indulgence was:
A remission of the temporal penalty imposed on penitents by priests as a work of satisfaction for their confessed mortal sins.

9. These sparked the Reformation in Germany.
Luther's 95 theses

10.  In Luther's Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, he urged the German princes to
Force reforms on the Roman Catholic Church.

11.  The Freedom of a Christian, written by Martin Luther, summarized the new teaching of salvation
By faith alone

12. When German peasants revolted in 1524-1525, they didn’t win the support of
The pope, the merchant class, Martin Luther, or John Calvin

13. The Reformation in Zurich was led by
Ulrich Zwingli

14.  What was the primary theological point of contention between Luther and Zwingli?
The "presence" of Christ in the Eucharist

15.  Anabaptists are the 16th-century ancestors of which modern groups?

16.  Anabaptism desired what?
A rapid and thorough implementation of Apostolic Christianity.

17.  Lutheranism was introduced into Denmark by whom?
King Christian II

18.  What German city became a refuge for persecuted Protestants and the center of Lutheran resistance?

19.  The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice
That the ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land.

20.  The Reformation Parliament met for seven years and determined that:
Henry VIII would rule the church in England "as far as Christ allows."


21.  The Act of Succession made whose children the legitimate heirs to the throne?
Anne Boleyn

22.  The Book of Common Prayer, written by Thomas Cranmer, was imposed on all English churches by what law?
The Act of Uniformity

23.  Recognized by the pope in 1528, this group sought to return to the original ideals of Saint Francis and became popular among the ordinary people to whom they directed their ministry. Who are they?
The Capuchins

24.  This influential women's order was founded in 1535 for the religious education of girls from all social classes:
The Ursulines

25.  Ignatius of Loyola taught good Catholics to
Submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction.

26.  The Council of Trent's most important reforms concerned what?
Internal Church discipline

27. The characterization "magisterial reformers" refers to the role of reformers such as
 Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin

28.  The following are examples of the way the church calendar regulated daily life in the 15th century:
One third of the year was given over to religious observances or celebrations, regulation of the diet of a pious Christian, Saints' days played an important role in popular culture, and frequent periods of fasting.

29.  Protestants were more likely than Catholics to
Permit divorce

30.  The following statement characterizes Protestant views of the popular anti-woman and anti-marriage literature of the Middle Ages:
They completely disagreed with said sentiments

31.  The canonical, or church-sanctioned, age for marriage prior to the 16th century was what age for men?

32.  The following reasons did contribute to the wide usage of wet nursing among upper-class women:
Vanity and convenience; The use of wet nurses reflected social standing; The church forbade lactating women from indulging in intercourse; unhappiness with the contraceptive effect of nursing

33.  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra spent several years as
A slave

34.  Which of the following novels is Cervantes most well known for?
Don Quixote

35.  William Shakespeare was a member and principal writer of a famous company of actors known as what?
The King's Men

36.  The most successful politique was who?
Elizabeth I of England

37.  What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecution in France?
the capture of the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia

38.  Who were the three powerful families that sought the French monarchy after the death of king Henry II?
the Bourbons, the Montmorency-Chatillons, and the Guises

39.  Huguenots made up about__________ of the French population.

40.  What event starkly marked the beginning of the French wars of religion?
The duke of Guise surprising a Protestant congregation in Champagne and massacring many worshipers


41.  The following is true of the immediate aftermath of the Peace of Saint Germain-en-Laye?
The crown acknowledged the power of the Protestant nobility; The crown granted the Huguenots the right to fortify their cities; The Bourbon faction gained power; The crown granted the Huguenots religious freedoms within their territories

42.  King Henry IV stunned France, Spain, and the pope by publicly abandoning the Protestant faith and embracing what religion?

43.  The Edict of Nantes was criticized for creating a
State within a state

44.  Hostilities between Spain and England reached a climax in 1588 when
the Spanish Armada was sent to invade England

45.  The Austrian branch of Philip II's family retained possession of the imperial title and the western and eastern Habsburg lands until what year?

46.  The following statement most accurately describes the general state of the Spanish economy in the late 16th and early 17th centuries:
A growing demand and limited supply caused prices and inflation to rise

47.  The following adjective most accurately describes Phillip II:

48.  During the first half of his reign, Philip II focused on
the Mediterranean and the Turkish threat

49.  What did the Perpetual Edict of 1577 do?
provided for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within 20 days

50.  Despite his wishes, who was Edward VI's successor in England?
Mary Tudor

51.  Passed by Queen Elizabeth I, this was a revision of Thomas Cranmer's works that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England:
39 Articles

52.  The following did contribute to the outbreak of war between England and Spain:
England's famous seamen began to prey on Spanish shipping; Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I of England; England signed a treaty committing soldiers to the Netherlands; England signed a mutual defense pact with France

53.  The following event immediately triggered Pope Sixtus V to give public support to Spain?
the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

54.  What significant event weakened the Spanish dominance in Europe, from which Spain never fully recovered?
defeat of the Spanish Armada

55.  Following the weakening of Spain, which nation dominated Europe approximately in the early 17th century?

56.  Sixteenth-century Germany was ruled by separate entities and had their own:
tariffs, tolls, and money

57.  Bavaria was a major center of
Catholic power

58. The Thirty Years' War broke out first in

59.  Due to its central location, this nation had always been Europe's highway for merchants and traders going north, south, east and west. What nation is this?

60.  The term "ecclesiastical reservation" refers to:
The attempt to freeze the territorial holdings of the Lutherans and the Catholics

61.  In the 1560s, Heidelberg was an intellectual center for what?
German Calvinism

62.  By 1609, Palatine Calvinists headed a Protestant defensive alliance against Spain with the assistance of these nations:
England, France, and the Netherlands

63.  Which analogy is most accurate?
Bavaria is to the Counter-Reformation as the Palatinate is to Protestantism

64.  The Thirty Years' War began as a revolt of Protestant nobility against:
an unpopular king

65.  One of the first actions Ferdinand took as king of Bohemia was to revoke the religious freedoms of whom?
Bohemian Protestants

66.  By 1600, the population of the Holy Roman Empire:
was about equally divided between Catholics and Protestants

67.  It was during this period of fighting that Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution and struck panic in the hearts of Protestants. What period is this?
Danish Period

68.  The battle at Breitenfeld in 1630 marked a turning point in the Thirty Years' War.  Who won that battle?
the Swedish

69.  This treaty brought the Swedish period of the war to an end. What is the name of this Treaty?
Peace of Prague


Absolutism in Western Europe: c. 1589-1715
I. Absolutism:
A. Derived from the traditional assumption of power (e.g.
heirs to the throne) and the belief in “divine right of

  •  Louis XIV of France was the quintessential absolute

B. Characteristics of western European absolutism
1. Sovereignty of a country was embodied in the person
of the ruler
2. Absolute monarchs were not subordinate to national
3. The nobility was effectively brought under control
a. This is in contrast to eastern European absolutism
where the nobility remained powerful
b. The nobility could still at times prevent absolute
monarchs from completely having their way
4. Bureaucracies in the 17th century were often
composed of career officials appointed by and solely
accountable to the king

  •  Often were rising members of the bourgeoisie or

the new nobility (“nobility of the robe” who
purchased their titles from the monarchy)
5. French and Spanish monarchies gained effective
control of the Roman Catholic Church in their
6. Maintained large standing armies

  •  Monarchs no longer relied on mercenary or noble

armies as had been the case in the 15th century
and earlier
7. Employed a secret police to weaken political
8. Foreshadowed totalitarianism in 20th century but
lacked financial, technological and military resources
of 20th century dictators (like Stalin & Hitler).
a. Absolute monarchs usually did not require total
mass participation in support of the monarch’s

  • This is in stark contrast to totalitarian

programs such as collectivization in Russia and
the Hitler Youth in Nazi Germany.
b. Those who did not overtly oppose the state were
usually left alone by the government

C. Philosophy of absolutism
1. Jean Bodin (1530-96)
a. Among the first to provide a theoretical basis for
absolutist states
b. Wrote during the chaos of the French Civil Wars of
the late 16th century
c. Believed that only absolutism could provide order
and force people to obey the government
2. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): Leviathan (1651)
a. Pessimistic view of human beings in a state of

  • “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short


  •  Anarchy results
  •  Central drive in every person is power

b. His ideas became most closely identified with
Voltaire in the 18th century: “Enlightened
c. Hobbes ideas were not very popular in the 17th

  • Hobbes did not favor “divine right” of kings, as

was favored by Louis XIV in France and James
I and Charles I in England

  •  Those with constitutional ideas saw Hobbes’

ideas as too authoritarian
3. Bishop Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)
a. Principle advocate of “divine right of kings” in
France during the reign of Louis XIV.
b. Believed “divine right” meant that the king was
placed on throne by God, and therefore owed his
authority to no man or group
II. The development of French Absolutism (c. 1589-1648)
A. France in the 17th century
1. In the feudal tradition, French society was divided
into three Estates made up of various classes.
a. First Estate: clergy; 1% of population
b. Second Estate: nobility; 3-4% of population
c. Third Estate: bourgeoisie (middle class),
artisans, urban workers, and peasants.
2. This hierarchy of social orders, based on rank and
privilege, was restored under the reign of Henry IV.
3. France was primarily agrarian: 90% of population
lived in the countryside.
4. Population of 17 million made France the largest
country in Europe (20% of Europe’s population).

  •  Accounted for France becoming the strongest

nation in Europe.
B. Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (r.1589-1610)
1. Laid the foundation for France becoming the
strongest European power in the 17th century.
a. Strengthened the social hierarchy by strengthening
government institutions: parlements, the treasury,
universities and the Catholic Church
b. First king to actively encourage French colonization
in the New World: stimulated the Atlantic trade
2. First king of the Bourbon dynasty
a. Came to power in 1589 as part of a political
compromise to end the French Civil Wars.
b. Converted from Calvinism to Catholicism in order
to gain recognition from Paris of his reign.
c. Issued Edict of Nantes in 1598 providing a degree
of religious toleration to the Huguenots (Calvinists)
3. Weakening of the nobility
a. The old “nobility of the sword” not allowed to
influence the royal council
b. Many of the “nobility of the robe”, new nobles
who purchased their titles from the monarchy,
became high officials in the government and
remained loyal to the king (e.g. Sully).
4. Duke of Sully (1560-1641): Finance minister
a. His reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy
b. Mercantilism: increased role of the state in the
economy in order to achieve a favorable balance
of trade with other countries

  • Granted monopolies in the production of

gunpowder and salt

  • Encouraged manufacturing of silk and


  • Only the government could operate the mines

c. Reduced royal debt
· Systematic bookkeeping and budgets
· In contrast, Spain was drowning in debt
d. Reformed the tax system to make it more
equitable and efficient.
e. Oversaw improved transportation
· Began nation-wide highway system
· Canals linked major rivers
· Began canal to link the Mediterranean Sea to
the Atlantic Ocean
5. Henry was assassinated in 1610 by a fanatical monk
who sought revenge for Henry’s granting religious
protections for the Huguenots.
a. Led to a severe crisis in power
b. Henry’s widow, Marie de’ Medici, ruled as regent
until their son came of age

C. Louis XIII (1610-43)
1. As a youth, his regency was beset by corruption &
a. Feudal nobles and princes increased their power
b. Certain nobles convinced him to assume power
and exile his mother
2. Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
a. Laid foundation for absolutism in France

  •  Like Henry IV, he was a politique (he placed

political issues ahead of religious principles)
b. Intendant System

  •  Used to weaken the nobility
  •  Replaced local officials with civil servants—

intendants—who reported directly to the king

  • · Intendants were largely middle-class or minor

nobles (“nobility of the robe”)

  • Each of the country’s 32 districts had an

intendant responsible for justice, police and

  • Gov’t became more efficient and centrally

c. Built upon Sully’s economic achievements in
further developing mercantilism
d. Increased taxation to fund the military
e. Tax policies were not as successfully as Sully’s

  • Resorted to old system of selling offices
  • Tax farmers ruthlessly exploited the peasantry

f. Richelieu subdued the Huguenots

  • Peace of Alais (1629): Huguenots lost their

fortified cities & Protestant armies

  • Calvinist aristocratic influenced reduced
  • Huguenots still allowed to practice Calvinism

3. Thirty Years’ War
a. Richelieu and Louis XIII sought to weaken the
Hapsburg Empire (a traditional French policy
dating back to Francis I in the early 16th century)

  • Reversed Maria de’ Medici’s pro-Spanish policy
  • Declared war against Spain in 1635

b. France supported Gustavus Adolphus with money
during the “Swedish Phase” of the war
c. Later, France entered the “International Phase” of
the war and ultimately forced the Treaty of
Westphalia on the Hapsburgs
IV. Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) – the “Sun King”
A. Quintessential absolute ruler in European history
1. Personified the idea that sovereignty of the state
resides in the ruler
a. “L’ état, c’est moi” (“I am the state”)
b. He became known as the “Sun King” since he
was at the center of French power (just as the sun
is the center of our solar system).
2. Strong believer in “divine right” of kings
(advocated by Bishop Bossuet)
3. He had the longest reign in European history (72

  •  Inherited the throne when he was 5 years old

from his father Louis XIII (Henry IV was his
4. France became the undisputed major power in
Europe during his reign
a. French population was the largest in Europe (17
million); accounted for 20% of Europe’s

  • Meant that a massive standing army could be

created and maintained
b. French culture dominated Europe

  •  The French language became the international

language in Europe for over two centuries and
the language of the well-educated (as Latin
had been during the Middle Ages)

  • France became the epicenter of literature and

the arts until the 20th century
B. The Fronde (mid-late 1640s)
1. Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) controlled France
while Louis XIV was a child
2. Some nobles revolted against Mazarin when Louis
was between the ages of 5 and 11.
3. Competition among various noble factions enabled
Mazarin to defeat the nobles.
4. Louis never forgot the humiliation he faced at the
hands of the nobles early on and was determined to
control the nobility
C. Government organization
1. Louis recruited his chief ministers from the middle
class in order to keep the aristocracy out of
2. Continued the intendant system begun by Richelieu
3. Checked the power of French institutions that might
resist his control
a. Parlements were fearful of resisting him after the
failure of the Fronde
b. Officials who criticized the government could be
c. Louis never called the Estates General into session
4. Control over the peasantry (which accounted for
about 95% of the population)
a. Some peasants kept as little as 20% of their cash
crops after paying their landlord, government
taxes and tithes to the Church
b. Corvée: forced labor that required peasants to
work for a month out of the year on roads and
other public projects
c. Idle peasants could be conscripted into the army
or forced into workhouses
d. Rebellious peasants could be executed or used as
galley slaves on ships
D. Versailles Palace
1. Under Louis XIV, the Palace at Versailles became the
grandest and most impressive palace in all of Europe
a. The awe-inspiring scale of the palace reinforced
his image as the most powerful absolute ruler in
b. The palace had originally been a hunting lodge for
his father, Louis XIII.
c. The Baroque architecture was largely work of
Marquis Louvois; the gardens were designed by
d. The façade was about 1/3 of a mile long; 1,400
fountains adorned the grounds
e. The royal court grew from about 600 people
(when the king had lived in Paris) to about 10,000
people at Versailles
f. The cost of maintaining Versailles cost about 60%
of all royal revenues!
2. Versailles Palace became in effect a pleasure prison
for the French nobility
a. Louis gained absolute control over the nobility
b. Fearful of noble intrigue, Louis required nobles to
live at the palace for several months each year in
order to keep an eye on them
c. Nobles were entertained with numerous
recreational activities such as tournaments, hunts
and concerts

  • Elaborate theatrical performances included the

works of Racine and Moliere
E. Religious Policies
1. Louis considered himself the head of the Gallican
Church (French Catholic Church)

  • While he was very religious, he did not allow the

pope to exercise political power in the French
2. Edict of Fountainbleau (1685)—revoked Edict of
a. Huguenots lost their right to practice Calvinism
b. About 200,000 Huguenots fled France for England,
Holland and the English colonies in North America
3. Louis supported the Jesuits in cracking down on
Jansenists (Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas)
F. Mercantilism
1. State control over a country’s economy in order to
achieve a favorable balance of trade with other

  • Bullionism: a nation’s policy of accumulating as

much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible
while preventing its outward flow to other
2. French mercantilism reached its height under Louis’
finance minister, Jean Baptiste Colbert (1661-
3. Colbert’s goal was economic self-sufficiency for
a. Oversaw the construction of roads & canals
b. Granted gov’t-supported monopolies in certain
c. Cracked down on guilds
d. Reduced local tolls (internal tariffs) that inhibited
e. Organized French trading companies for
international trade (East India Co., West India co.
4. By 1683, France was Europe’s leading industrial
a. Excelled in such industries as textiles, mirrors,
lace-making and foundries for steel manufacturing
and firearms.
b. Colbert’s most important accomplishment:
developing the merchant marine
5. Weaknesses of mercantilism and the French economy
a. Poor peasant conditions (esp. taxation) resulted in
large emigration out of France
b. Louis opted for creating a massive army instead of
a formidable navy

  • Result: France later lost naval wars with

c. War in later years of Louis’ reign nullified Colbert’s

  • Louis was at war for 2/3 of his reign

V. Wars of Louis XIV
A. Overview
1. Wars were initially successful but eventually became
economically ruinous to France
2. France developed the professional modern army
3. Perhaps the first time in modern European history
that one country was able to dominate politics
4. A balance of power system emerged
a. No one country would be allowed to dominate the
continent since a coalition of other countries would
rally against a threatening power.
b. Dutch stadtholder William of Orange (later King
William III of England) was the most important
figure in thwarting Louis’ expansionism
B. War of Devolution (First Dutch War), 1667-68
1. Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium)
without declaring war.
2. Louis received 12 fortified towns on the border of the
Spanish Netherlands but gave up the Franche-Comté
C. Second Dutch War (1672-78)
1. Louis invaded the southern Netherlands as revenge
for Dutch opposition in the previous war.
2. Peace of Nijmegan (1678-79)
a. Represented the furthest limit to the expansion of
Louis XIV.
b. France took Franche-Comté from Spain, gained
some Flemish towns and took Alsace

D. War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97)
1. In response to another invasion of the Spanish
Netherlands by Louis XIV in 1683, the League of
Augsburg formed in 1686: HRE, Spain, Sweden,
Bavaria, Saxony, Dutch Republic

  • Demonstrated emergence of balance of power

2. William of Orange (now king of England) brought
England in against France.

  • Began a period of Anglo-French military rivalry

that lasted until Napoleon’s defeat in 1815.
o (Study Device: This could be viewed as a
“second Hundred Years’ War”: 1689-1815)
3. War ended with the status quo prior to the war

  • France remained in control of Alsace and the city

`                               of Strasbourg (in Lorraine).
E. War of Spanish Succession (1701-13)
1. Cause: The will of Charles II (Hapsburg king) gave all
Spanish territories to the grandson of Louis XIV
European powers feared that Louis would
consolidate the thrones of France and Spain, thus
creating a monster power that would upset the
balance of power
2. Grand Alliance emerged in opposition to France:
England, Dutch Republic, HRE, Brandenburg,
Portugal, Savoy
3. Battle of Blenheim (1704)
a. A turning point in the war that began a series of
military defeats for France
b. England’s army, led by the Duke of Marlborough
(John Churchill—ancestor of the 20th century
leader Winston Churchill) and military forces of
Savoy (representing the HRE) were victorious
4. Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
a. Most important treaty between the Treaty of
Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Paris (1763)

  • Maintained the balance of power in Europe
  • Ended the expansionism of Louis XIV

b. Spanish possessions were partitioned

  • Britain was the biggest winner

o Gained the asiento (slave trade) from Spain
and the right to send one English ship to
trade in Spain’s New World empire
o Gained the Spanish territories of Gibraltar
and Minorca.

  • Belgium (Spanish Netherlands) given to Austria
  • Netherlands gain some land as a buffer against

future French aggressionc. Though Louis’ grandson was enthroned in Spain, the unification of the Spanish and Bourbon dynasties was prohibited.
d. Kings were recognized as such in Sardinia (Savoy)
and Prussia (Brandenburg)
F. Costs of Louis XIV’s wars:
1. Destroyed the French economy
2. 20% of the French subjects died
3. Huge debt would be placed on the shoulders of the
Third Estate

  • French gov’t was bankrupt

4. Financial and social tensions would sow the seeds of
the French Revolution later in the century.
VI. The Spanish Empire in the 17th Century
A. “The Golden Age of Spain” in the 16th century
1. The reign of Ferdinand and Isabella began the process
of centralizing power (“New Monarchs”).
2. The foundation for absolutism in Spain was laid by
Charles V (1519-1556) and Phillip II
3. Spain’s power reached its zenith under Philip II
a. Madrid (in Castile) became the capital of Spain
b. Built the Escorial Palace to demonstrate his
c. A command economy developed in Madrid
d. Numerous rituals of court etiquette reinforced the
king’s power
4. The Spanish Inquisition continued to persecute those
seen as heretics (especially Jews and Moors)
B. Decline of the Spanish economy in the 17th century
1. The Spanish economy was hurt by the loss of the
middle class Moors and Jews

  • Population of Spain shrank from 7.5 million in

1550 to 5.5 million in 1660.
2. Spanish trade with its colonies fell 60% between
1610 and 1660

  • Largely due to English and Dutch competition.

3. The Spanish treasury was bankrupt and had to
repudiate its debts at various times between 1594
and 1680.
4. National taxes hit the peasantry particularly hard
a. Many peasants were driven from the countryside
and swelled the ranks of the poor in cities.
b. Food production decreased as a result
5. Inflation from the “price revolution” hurt domestic
industries that were unable to export goods.
6. A poor work ethic stunted economic growth
a. Upper classes eschewed work and continued a life
of luxury.
b. Many noble titles were purchased; provided tax
exemptions for the wealthy
c. Capitalism was not really prevalent (as it was in
the Netherlands and England)
C. Political and military decline
1. Symbolically, England’s defeat of the Spanish
Armada in 1588 is seen by some historians as the
beginning of the decline of the Spanish empire.

  • However, Spain had the most formidable military

until the mid-17th century.
2. Poor leadership by three successive kings in the 17th
century damaged Spain’s political power

  • Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II (one of worst

rulers in Hapsburg history)
3. Spain’s defeat in Thirty Years’ War was politically and
economically disastrous
a. Spain officially lost the Netherlands
b. 1640, Portugal reestablished its independence.
4. Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659): marked end of
Spain as a Great Power
a. War between Spain and France continued for 11
years after the end of the Thirty Years’ War
b. Spain lost parts of the Spanish Netherlands and
territory in northern Spain to France
5. By 1700, the Spanish navy had only 8 ships and most
of its army consisted of foreigners.
6. The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) resulted
in Spain losing most of its European possessions at
the Treaty of Utrecht
VII. The Baroque
A. Reflected the age of absolutism
1. Began in Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a
concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the
glory and power of the Catholic Church (see Unit 2.1)
a. Encouraged by the papacy and the Jesuits
b. Prominent in France, Flanders, Austria, southern
Germany and Poland
2. Spread later to Protestant countries such as the
Netherlands and northern Germany and England3. Characteristics
a. Sought to overwhelm the viewer: Emphasized
grandeur, emotion, movement, spaciousness and
unity surrounding a certain theme
b. Versailles Palace typifies baroque architecture:
huge frescoes unified around the emotional impact
of a single theme.
B. Architecture and sculpture
1. Baroque architecture reflected the image and power
of absolute monarchs and the Catholic Church
2. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1650) personified
baroque architecture and sculpture
a. Colonnade for the piazza in front of St. Peter’s
Basilica in Rome was his greatest architectural
b. He sculpted the incredible canopy over the high
altar of St. Peter’s Cathedral
c. His altarpiece sculpture, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa,
evokes tremendous emotion
d. His statue of David  shows movement
and emotion
e. Constructed several fountains throughout Rome
3. Versailles Palace built during the reign of Louis XIV
is the quintessential baroque structure
4. Hapsburg emperor Leopold I built Schönbrunn in
Austria in response to the Versailles Palace
5. Peter the Great in Russia built the Winter Palace in
St. Petersburg largely on the influence of Versailles
6. Frederick I in Prussia began building his palace in
Berlin in 1701
C. Baroque painting
1. Characteristics
a. Strong sense of emotion and movement
b. Stressed broad areas of light and shadow rather
than on linear arrangements of the High

  • Tenebrism (“dark manner”): extreme contrast

between dark to light
c. Color was an important element as it appealed to
the senses and more true to nature.
d. Not concerned with clarity of detail as with overall
dynamic effect.
e. Designed to give a spontaneous personal experience.
2. Carvaggio (1571-1610), Italian painter (Rome)
a. Perhaps 1st important painter of the Baroque era
b. Depicted highly emotional scenes
c. Sharp contrasts of light and dark to create drama.
d. Criticized by some for using ordinary people as
models for his depictions of Biblical scenes
3. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Flemish painter
a. Worked much for the Hapsburg court in Brussels
(the capital of the Spanish Netherlands)
b. Emphasized color and sensuality; animated figures
and melodramatic contrasts; monumental size.
c. Nearly half of his works dealt with Christian
d. Known for his sensual nudes as Roman goddesses,
water nymphs, and saints and angels.
4. Diego Velázquez (1599-1660)
a. Perhaps the greatest court painter of the era
b. Numerous portraits of the Spanish court and their
5. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1652)

  • Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic scenes

and her “Judith” paintings
D. The Dutch Style
1. Characteristics
a. Did not fit the Baroque style of trying to
overwhelm the viewer
b. Reflected the Dutch Republic’s wealth and
religious toleration of secular subjects
c. Reflected the urban and rural settings of Dutch life
during the “Golden Age of the Netherlands”
d. Many works were commissioned by merchants or
government organizations
2. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), painter
a. Perhaps the greatest of all Baroque artists
although he doesn’t fit neatly into any category.
b. Scenes covered an enormous range throughout
his career
c. Used extremes of light and dark in the Baroque
style: tenebrism
d. His works were far more intimate and
psychological than typical Baroque works
e. Painted with the restraint of the classicist style
3. Jan Vermeer (1632-1675)

  • Paintings specialized in simple domestic interior

scenes of ordinary people

  • Like Rembrandt, he was a master in the use of


4. Frans Hals (1580-1666)
Portraits of middle-class people and militia
E. French Classicism
1. Nicolas Poussin (1593-1665), painter
a. Paintings rationally organized to achieve harmony
and balance; even his landscapes are orderly.
b. Focused early on classical scenes from antiquity or
Biblical scenes.
c. Later focused on landscape painting
d. His style is not typical baroque
e. Painted temporarily in the court of Louis XIII.
2. Jean Racine (1639-1699), dramatist
a. His plays (along with Moliere’s) were often funded
by Louis XIV
b. Plays were written in the classical style (e.g.
adherence to the three unities)
c. Wrote some of the most intense emotional works
for the stage.
3. Jean-Baptiste Moliere (1622-1673), dramatist
a. His plays often focused on social struggles
b. Made fun of the aristocracy, upper bourgeoisie
and high church officials
F. Baroque Music
1. Characteristics
a. Belief that the text should dominate the music;
the lyrics and libretto were most important
b. Baroque composers developed the modern system
of major-minor tonalities.
c. Dissonance was used much more freely than
during the Renaissance
2. Claudio Monteverdi (1547-1643) developed the opera
and the modern orchestra

  • Orfeo (1607) is his masterpiece—the first opera

3. J. S. Bach (1685-1750)
a. Greatest of the baroque composers
b. Often wrote dense and polyphonic structures (in
contrast to the later balance and restraint of the
Classical Period—Mozart & Haydn)
c. Wrote in a variety of genres, both choral and
instrumental, for a variety of instruments

  • e.g. masses, organ works, concertos

d. Extremely prolific
4. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
a. Like Bach, wrote in a variety of genres
b. His masterpiece is the oratorio The Messiah


Study guide for Mid Term in AP European

  1. The Golden Book was a listing of the old merchant families of Venice.
  2. The Spanish counterpart to the English parliament was the Cortes.
  3. The term Great Schism refers to a period when two popes claimed to rule the church.
  4. The Medici family controlled the Italian state of Florence for decades.
  5. The word “vernacular” is used to describe the spoken language of an area
  6. The “Father of humanism” was Petrarch.
  7. An important feature of the Renaissance was an emphasis on the literature of Greece and Rome.
  8. In his book “Praise of Folly” Erasmus used satire to attack the evils of society
  9. The term “da Vinci of today” would best describe a person who seems to be a genius in many fields
  10. For ordinary women, the Renaissance had very little impact
  11. Martin Luther, in his teachings, emphasized justification by faith
  12. The specific incident that led Luther to post his Ninety-Five Theses was the “sale of indulgences”
  13. The doctrine of “consubstantiation” was held by Martin Luther
  14. In Spain, Charles V was confronted with the revolt of the Comuneros, a union of the Spanish cities
  15. The great banking house of Fugger “fell” largely as a consequence of Philip II’s suspension of payments on his debts.
  16. A strong effort to reestablish the Catholic faith in England occurred under Mary Tudor
  17. The Thirty-Nine Articles, designed to resolve religious questions in England, was opposed by the Puritans, Presbyterians, and Brownists
  18. The great religious leader in Scotland in the sixteenth century was John Knox
  19. Baruch Spinoza advanced the view that in matters of religion all persons must have absolute freedom of conscience
  20. The Thirty Years War began as a conflict between Protestants and Catholics
  21. Cardinal Richelieu, following a long siege of the city of La Rochelle, deprived the city of its political independence.
  22. The reform decrees of the Council of Trent is not considered a cause of the Protestant Reformation?
  23. John Knox was influential in the Reformation in Scotland
  24. The dissolution of the English monasteries resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth
  25. The authority of the Catholic Church was strengthened by the Council of Trent
  26. The country that prevented the spread of Protestantism within its borders and remained the supreme defender of Catholicism is Spain
  27. The Reformation in Germany resulted in political fragmentation
  28. During the Babylonian Captivity, the popes lived in great luxury at Avignon
  29. A significant factor in the ultimate failure of the Spanish_________ settlements in the New World to achieve unity in the modern era were the numerous geographical barriers.
  30. A strong effort to reestablish the Catholic faith in England occurred under __Mary Tudor _________.
  31. Baruch Spinoza_________________ advanced the view that in matters of religion all persons must have absolute freedom of conscience
  32. Cardinal Richelieu__________, following a long siege of the city of La Rochelle, deprived the city of its political independence
  33. Francis Bacon_______________________became known as the father of the experimental method.
  34. Henry VIII Tudor was succeeded on the throne by ___Edward VI_______________.
  35. In the Netherlands the unifying religious force came from Calvinism______________.
  36. Individuals of European descent who were born in the Spanish New World were called creoles__________________.
  37. James I agreed to a new translation of the Bible in his one concession to the Puritans________________________.
  38. Philip II of Spain_________________ also held as his possession, the Netherlands, Milan and Naples, and Mexico and Peru.
  39. Prince Henry the Navigator___________ began the Portuguese efforts to find an all-sea route to the Far East.
  40. Prince William of Orange______, “the Silent,” led the people of the Netherlands in their struggle for independence.

41.The ___politiques_________ maintained that a policy of religious toleration was the best for France.
42.The ___Thirty-Nine Articles____________, designed to resolve religious questions in England, was opposed by the Puritans, Presbyterians, and Brownists.
43.The __The Treaty of Tordesillas____________ in 1494 divided the newly discovered lands between Spain and Portugal.
44.The _quest___ for personal glory, a __desire__ to bring Christianity to the “heathens”, and a need to __control__ strategic areas motivated men to explore and expand overseas in the early modern era.

  1. The “Southwest Passage,” the way westward to the Spice Islands of Asia, was first discovered by Ferdinand Magellan____________.
  2. The Dutch_______________________________ of 1689, the first treaty the Chinese signed with a European nation, dealt with stabilization of the border with Russian Siberia.
  3. The first permanent settlement in North America was at Jamestown, Virginia_________________________________.
  4. The great empire of the Inca monarch Atahualpa fell to the adventurer Fransisco Pizarro__________________.
  5. The great religious leader in Scotland in the sixteenth century was __John Knox______________.
  6. The item which _Europeans_____________ had to trade with the rulers of India_______________ that had the greatest appeal was firearms and military expertise.
  7. The majority of victims of the European witch craze were women____________.
  8. The Peace of Westphalia______________________ of 1648 brought official recognition to Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire.
  9. The Portuguese lost most of their holdings in India and southeast Asia to the Dutch________________.
  10. The revolt in the Netherlands was largely inspired by economic, political, and religious tensions in the relations between the Netherlands_________________ and Spain_______________.
  11. The term mestizos________________________ refers to individuals of mixed Spanish-Indian blood.
  12. The Thirty Years War began as a conflict between _____Protestants and Catholics________.
  13. Today Columbus___________is a figure of some controversy because many consider him responsible for launching racism, exploitation, and ecological imperialism in the New World.
  14. Western expansion after 1400 differed from earlier expansion in it was the first___ time great oceans were crossed, it moved ___Westerners away from their concept of the “known world,” and it was slower and more concentrated______.
  15. Francis Drake claimed what is now the state of California for England under the name “New Albion”.
  16. France___ was dominant in the military, political, and cultural spheres, it has been called the “century of genius,” it saw Englandtorn by political and social unrest—all regarded le grand siecle—the seventeenth century.
  17. The meeting of the Estates General in 16_14 was significant because no such meeting was held again until 1789.
  18. While he served as the real power in France, Cardinal Richelieu’s___ paramount in goal was the establishment of the French throne as truly absolute.
  19. The Fronde__________ was essentially a power struggle between Mazarin and the privileged nobles of France.
  20. The political situation in ______England__________ after the Glorious Revolution can be described by this quote—“In the legislature, the people are a check upon the nobility, and the nobility a check upon the people…while the king is a check upon both….”
  21. A significant consequence of ____________Louis XIV’s_____ revocation of the Edict of Nantes was an economic and military weakening of France.
  22. The __Jansenists__________ were a conservative movement within the Catholic Church.
  23. The chief spokesman of mercantilism in France was ___Colbert__________.
  24. England became an even more bitter fore of France following the ascension to the English throne of Mary, James II’s daughter, and her husband, William III of Orange_________________________.
  25. England acquiring Quebec WAS one of the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht
  26. James I Stuart_______________________________ came into conflict with his Parliament over efforts to wed his son to a Spanish princess.
  27. In 1628 the English Parliament passed the Petition of Rights______ (“ the Stuart Magna Carta”) which put significant constitutional limitations on the Crown.
  28. The Solemn League and Covenant was a union organized to defend Scottish Presbyterians______________________________.
  29. Charles I Stuart was brought to trial by the _Rump Parliament___________.
  30. The Navigation Act___________________ of 1651, enacted under Oliver Cromwell, was designed to undermine the maritime trade of Holland.
  31. The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell might best be described as a military regime.
  32. In the course of the Puritan revolution, the concept of a form of communism was preached by the __Diggers___________________________.
  33. The “Glorious Revolution” brought to the throne of England William and Mary.
  34. The Bill of Rights___________ of 1689 affirmed the essential principle of parliamentary supremacy, frequent meetings of Parliament, and parliamentary control of the purse strings.
  35. The Act of Settlement of 1701 clearly indicated Parliament’s power to make a king.
  36. The battle of Boyne, fought between the supporters of the “Old Pretender” and the English, further embittered England’s relations with the Irish____.
  37. Holding that man’s life in a “state of nature” and “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short,” he advocated the all-powerful state Thomas Hobbes____.
  38. The Night Watch ______ and The Syndics________ of the Drapers Guild were two of the best known works of Rembrandt Van Rijn.
  39. Sir Christopher Wren_________________ was best known for his design of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
  40. The first important operas, creations of the baroque age, were written in Venice______________________.
  41. The policy of cameralism_____ present in some states was designed to create more efficient state planning budgets.
  42. The Mississippi Bubble_____________________ and South Sea Bubble_____________ showed that even large, government-related, investment companies could fail, seriously damaging private investors
  43. Robert Walpole_________________ was considered England’s first prime minister.
  44. The Treaty of Westphalia____________________ in 1648 showed the Holy Roman Emperor’s weakness in the German states.
  45. The goal of Emperor Charles VI’s_____________ Pragmatic Sanction was to guarantee the succession of his daughter, Maria Theresa.
  46. Russian society under Peter the Great_________________ saw state service for nobles.
  47. The basic issue behind the War of Jenkin’s Ear________________ was the trade and smuggling in Spain’s New World colonies
  48. Reason, natural law, and progress are all major key words for the eighteenth century.
  49. Denis Diderot________________________________ was the editor of the Encyclopedia.
  50. “Natural laws” exist which govern the economic sphere, the mercantilist concept of the accumulation of wealth is wrong, and true wealth is derived from agriculture are all concepts that would have been approved by Francois Quesnay and the Physiocrats.
  51. Adam Smith_______________ made the classical formation of laissez-faire economics.
  52. It was the belief of the Deists that God, as the creator of the universe, existed.
  53. Voltaire’s_______________________ dedication to the idea of religious toleration was seen in his involvement in the affair of Jean Calas.
  54. In Candide__________________________ Voltaire raised the issue of the existence of misfortune in “the best of all possible worlds
  55. Frederick II the Great__________________________ of Prussia sought to achieve expansion of Prussia’s agricultural and industrial production, extension of religious toleration to all but Jews, and improvement of the state’s legal system.
  56. Frederick the Great of Prussia___________________ wrote, “He [the prince] is only the first servant of the state, so obliged to act with fairness, wisdom, and unselfishness.”
  57. Maria Theresa____________________________________; called “Lady Prayerful” by some, she saw her country lose Silesia to Frederick the Great
  58. Catherine the Great__________________________sought to accomplish codify laws based on the ideas of the Enlightenment, reorganize local government, and rule as an Enlightened despot.
  59. Under Catherine the Great, Russia gained extensive and important territories at the expense of the Ottoman Turks___________________.
  60. In the period immediately following the Seven Years’ War__________ colonial settlers were prohibited from moving into the Ohio Valley, the policy of “salutary neglect” was gradually abandoned, and Parliament determined to raise greater revenues in the colonies.
  61. The victory won by the American rebels in Saratoga_____________ convinced the French to enter the Revolution on the colonial’s side.
  62. A bitter, satirical attack on the optimism of the philosophers was seen in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.
  63. William Hogarth’s___________________ engravings provided a graphic view of the evils and vices of London society.
  64. Thomas Gainsborough, Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Lawrence were neoclassicist artists of the Enlightenment.
  65. The most influential element in the French government under Louis XVI tended to be the nobles of the robe.
  66. The sans-culottes_______________________ were the urban working class.
  67. The Assembly of Notables was called in 1787 to deal with the problem of taxes.
  68. “What is the Third Estate?” was a question asked in an influential pamphlet written by Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes___________________.
  69. Those members of the Estates General who took the Tennis Court Oath swore to write a constitution.
  70. July 14, France’s “Independence Day,” commemorates the fall of the Bastille.
  71. The “Thermidorean Reaction” was inaugurated with the fall from power of Maximilien Roberpierre.
  72. The Thermidoreans’ Constitution______________ of 1795 favored the propertied classes.
  73. The Concordat of 1801, negotiated by Napoleon, brought about reconciliation between France and the papacy.
  74. The significance of Lord Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar was that it checked Napoleon’s plans to invade England.
  75. By the Treaty of Tilsit, Czar Alexander I became Napoleon’s ally.
  76. Prussia was the state most severely hurt by the Treaty of Tilsut.
  77. The basic goal behind the Continental System was the economic weakening of England.
  78. Napoleon’s decision to invade Russia in 1812 was the result of Napoleon’s desire to force Alexander I to abide by the Continental System.
  79. Banished to the island of Elba, Napoleon returned to France in March of 1815, only to be defeated once again at Waterloo.


Chapter 15 & 16 Study Guide for Honors Renaissance History

  1. The term "Old Regime" has come to refer to what? The social, political, and economic relationships that had were prevalent in Europe before the French Revolution.
  2. The following were basic social characteristic of pre-revolutionary Europe: A peasantry subject to high taxes and feudal dues; an urban labor force usually organized into guilds; established churches intimately related to the state and the aristocracy; aristocratic elites possessing a wide variety of inherited legal privileges.
  3. Eighteenth-century Europeans enjoyed what right? community rights
  4. In 18th-century Europe, the nobility consisted of approximately what percent of the total population? 1-5%
  5. The following is true of the European aristocracy in the eighteenth century: Their numbers were expanding rapidly; they had the widest degree of social power; they had the largest degree of economic power; they were the single wealthiest sector of the population.
  6. Why is Austrian aristocracy remembered? They had the smallest, wealthiest, and best defined aristocracy.
  7. French nobles were technically responsible for payment of the vingtième, which resembles what modern-day tax? Income Tax
  8. All of the following were features of the Russian Charter of Nobility: Judicial protection of noble rights and property; considerable power over serfs; nobles could transmit noble status to a spouse or children; an exemption from personal taxes.
  9. French nobles were divided between nobles of the "sword" and nobles of what item of clothing? “Robe”
  10. The economic basis of eighteenth-century life was what? Land
  11. In pre-industrial Europe, the economy of a household that developed on farms, in artisans' workshops, and in small merchants' shops, and was known as the what? Family Economy
  12. The process in which children in their young teens would leave their nuclear family, learn a trade, and eventually marry and form their own independent household is known as what? Neolocalism
  13. The following statement is most applicable with regards to the European family structure in the 18th century: Eastern European grandparents had the opportunity to form closer relationships with their grandchildren than did Northwestern European grandparents
  14. The following is true of the family economy: All goods and income produced went to the household rather than to the individual family member; servants played a key role in the family economy; in Eastern Europe, the family economy functioned in the context of serfdom and landlord domination; depending on their ages and skills, everyone in the household worked.
  15. In pre-industrial Europe, the dominant concern of married women was what? producing enough farm goods to ensure an adequate food supply
  16. The following are true of children in the 18th century: Most infants were sent to a wet nurse for months or even years due to economic necessity; there was a close relationship between rising food prices and the increasing numbers of abandoned children; the birth of the child wasn’t always welcome; there was new interest in educating children.
  17. During the 18th century, bread prices did what? Slowly, but steadily rose
  18. The Dutch tried many different methods to increase the productivity and output of their land but they didn’t try what? Begin casting seeds rather than planting wheat by a drill, which was more successful
  19. Between 1700 and 1800, Europe's population rose from 100-120 million people to how many? Almost 190 million people
  20. Introduced from the New World, this new product allowed a more certain food supply in Europe and enabled more children to survive to adulthood and rear children of their own. What is this food product? The Potato
  21. In spite of European industrialization what still did not happen? Industrialization never overcame the economy of scarcity
  22. During the Industrial Revolution, consumption was not automatic so manufacturers did many things to sell their product, but they didn’t do what? appeal to contemporary Christians to sell products to cleanse their outward appearance during services
  23. The single largest free-trade area in Europe during the 18th century was who? Great Britain
  24. What industry pioneered the Industrial Revolution? Textiles
  25. Factory production of purely cotton fabric was made possible by the invention of what? Water frame
  26. By the early 19th century, the steam engine had become a prime mover for all of the following industries: Wagons, iron rails, ships, mining.

      27. The Industrial Revolution came first to:  Great Britain
28.   Given what you know about the impact of the agricultural and industrial revolutions concerning the lives of women, the following statement is most applicable:
As the revolutions progressed, the role and importance of women already in the work force diminished
29.  The following is a clearly defined long-term result of the shift in female employment: Women's work became associated with the home rather than with places where men worked; the laboring life of most women was removed from the new technologies in farming, transportation, and manufacturing; domestic service became the single largest field of female employment; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, people assumed that women worked only to supplement a husband's income.
30.  In the years between 1600 and 1750, the cities that grew most vigorously were what? Capitals and Ports
31.  From the late Middle Ages through the end of the eighteenth century, medical manuals advised people to do what? Wash only the parts of their bodies that could be seen in public.
32.  In the 18th century artisan guilds were a lot of things, however they were not what? weak in central Europe

  1. The largest single group in eighteenth century cities was who? shop keepers, artisans and wage earners
  2. In the 18th century and thereafter, the Jewish population of Europe was concentrated in which countries? Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine.
  3. Until the late 18th century, European Jews who did not convert to Christianity had what happen to them? were discriminated against
  4. Since the Renaissance, European contact with the rest of the world has gone through four stages. Those stages are: 1. exploration, conquest, and settlement or commercial expansion; 2. colonial trade rivalry between Spain, France, and Great Britain; 3. the creation of formal empires in Africa and Asia and new areas of settlement; 4. decolonization
  5. The first phase of European contact with the rest of the world came to a close by when? the end of the seventeenth century
  6. The 19th century carving of new empires saw new European settlements in such regions as: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Algeria
  7. The following factors allowed European nations to exert influence and dominance over much of the world? technological supremacy related to naval power and gunpowder (Black powder)
  8. Despite Dutch and Danish possessions, these were the three main rivals during the era of colonization: Great Britain, France, and Spain
  9. Mercantilist thinkers assumed that: only modest levels of economic growth were possible.
  10. Under mercantilism, colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources for the industries of the home country and in turn, the home country was to: protect and administer the colonies.
  11. The heart of the 18th-century colonial rivalry in the Americas lay in the: West Indies
  12. A peninsulares refers to a person born were? In Spain
  13. If comparing Spain and England's colonial rule, one can equate the imperial reforms of Charles II to the: new colonial measures the British government undertook after 1763
  14. As a result of a scarcity of labor, these nations were the first to quickly turn to the importation of African slaves: Spain and Portugal
  15. The first slaves traded, dating to the early 16th century, in the transatlantic economy landed where? The West Indies and South America
  16. Black slaves had the fewest legal protections in what areas? Portuguese
  17. A vast increase in the number of Africans brought as slaves to the Americas occurred during the 18th century, with most arriving in: The Carribean and Brazil
  18. Colonial trade in the transatlantic world followed roughly a geographic: Triangle
  19. According to your text, which of the following were closely related? warfare in West Africa and the economic development of the American Atlantic seaboard
  20. When newly arrived Africans came to the Americas, what did not usually occur? They were grouped together by ethnicity
  21. What two areas were often the conflict of great powers and wars in the mid-18th century? the overseas empires and central and eastern Europe
  22. The War of Jenkins' Ear was fought by England to block incursions on British trade by whom? Spain
  23. Frederick II's invasion of Silesia offset the continental balance of power and: shattered the provisions of the Pragmatic Sanction
  24. Maria Theresa's great achievement was what? the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as a major political power
  25. The war over the Austrian succession and the British-Spanish commercial conflict might have remained separate disputes.  What united them was the: Role of France.
  26.  The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, resulted in which of the following: Prussia retained Silesia
  27. The French and Indian War formally erupted in the summer of what year? 1755
  28. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War, new political alliances formed in Europe and included an alliance between what two countries? France and Austria
  29. He boasted of having won America on the plains of Germany: William Pitt
  30. The Seven Years’ War was fought mostly in what country? North America
  31. From the British victory in the French and Indian War, Great Britain became not only a European power, but a world power until when? World War II (1940)
  32. At the conclusion of the French and Indian War, what two imperial problems did the British government face? the costs of maintaining their empire and the vast expanse of new territory in North America that they had to organize
  33. Much credit for Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War should go to whom? William Pitt the Elder
  34.  The primary purpose of the Stamp Act was to: raise badly needed revenue.
  35.  The Intolerable Acts did many things but they did not do what? Raise taxes on tea
  36. His pamphlet "Common Sense" galvanized public opinion in favor of separation from Great Britain: Thomas Paine
  37.  Benjamin Franklin gained assistance against Britain from what countries? Spain and France
  38. All of the following are true of the American Revolution: it did not grant political equality; it did not end slavery; it did not result in political rights for women; it didn’t give rise to a new set elites.


Study Guide for Hnrs. Renaissance History Chapters 9 & 10

  1. The Black Death refers to ­­_________ that struck 14th Century Europe.

A virulent plague

  1. The Black Death was preceded by ________ that weakened the populace.

Years of Famine

  1. The Bubonic Plague affected­­_____________.

The entire population of Europe

  1. The Black Death found its way into Europe via______.

Asian trade routes

  1. Among the social and economic consequences of the bubonic plague was a___________.

Shrunken labor supply.

  1. Noble landowners suffered the greatest _________ as a result of the plague.

Decline in power

  1. The Statute of Laborers limited wages to_________.

Pre-plague levels

  1. ________ and _________ were the traditional “containers” of monarchy.

Landed nobility/ The Church

  1. The Hundred Years’ War did not_____________________.

End in a decisive English Victory

  1. At the outset of the Hundred Years’ War France had a ___________.

More People than England

  1. In the mid-14th Century, France had three times the population of England and ____________.

Had greater wealth

  1. The French peasant uprising of 1358 in known as _______.

The Jacquerie

  1. The primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years’ War was ___________.

Internal Disunity

  1. The use of the medieval weapon proved to give the English the tactical advantage in the war was __________.

The English Longbow

  1. The Treaty of Troyes in 1420 disinherited the legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed _________ as the successor to the French King, Charles VI.

Henry V

  1. Joan of Arc was executed on May 30, 1431, under the charge of ______.


  1. The burden of the Hundred Years’ War fell mostly on the______.


  1. The papal doctrine that contributed to the transformation of the papacy into a great secular power was_______.

Plenitude of Power

  1. Boniface VII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of monarchial authority with_____.

Philip the Fair

  1. ___________ applies to the Bull Ausculta fili.

The Church over the State

  1. The papal bull Unam Sanctum declared that temporal authority was “subject” to the __________.

Spiritual power of the Church

  1. Defender of Peace, written by Marsilius of Padua, depicted the pope as a subordinate________.

Member of Society

  1. The right of the French Church to elect its own clergy without papal interference was recognized by the ________.

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

  1. ______ was most successful at assailing the late medieval church in England.


  1. ______ _______ was a major intellectual spokesman for the rights of royalty.

John Wycliffe

  1. The _____ _ _____, founded in 1348, became the center for both Czech nationalism and a religious movement.

University of Prague

  1. The phrase Babylonian Captivity refers to how the papacy was held in _____ ____ at Avignon.

Political bondage

  1. The Great Schism was supported by______ __.

Charles V

  1. England’s allies in the Great Schism included_____ ________, ________, _____, _______.

The Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland.

  1. In 1409 the Council of Pisa deposed both the Roman and Avignon popes, and ____________.

Elected a new pope

  1. Between 1243 and 1480, Russia was ruled by ________.

The Mongols

  1. Under the rule of Prince Vladimir (r. 980-1015), ______ was the most important city in Russia.


  1. The broadest social division in 11th Century Russia was between_____ and ______.

Freemen/ Slaves

  1. The majority of the slave population in Russia was _________.

War prisoners

  1. Wealthy landowners in medieval Russia were known as


  1. __________ was the name for the segment of the Mongol Empire that included the steppe region of what is today southern Russia

The Golden Horde

  1. ________ was the official religion of the Mongols that occupied Russia.


  1. Which of the following statements best characterizes the Mongol treatment of Russian political and religious institutions? 

They left them largely intact

  1. Which of the following is most accurate?

Medieval Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Renaissance Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization. 

  1. Which of the following cities played a key role in the trade between Europe and the Near East?


  1. Endemic warfare between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor

Assisted the growth of the Italian City States

  1. Which of the following cities had uninterrupted trade with the Near East throughout the Middle Ages, maintaining a vibrant urban society?


  1. Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the cities that most evolved into_______.


  1. Which of the following is the correct list of the four major social groups that existed within Florence?

Nobles and merchants, new merchant class, middle class, and lower economic classes

  1. This occurred in 1378 as a result of the unbearable conditions for those at the bottom of society and the disruption caused by the Black Death.

Ciompi Revolt

  1. Cosimo De’Medici brought stability to this city after his rise to power in 1434. Florence
  2. The first humanists were ­­________.  Orators and poets
  3. Refer to the excerpt “The Renaissance Garden.” Based on this excerpt, which of the following is most accurate?  The garden was a pivotal center in the numerous aspects of Renaissance society.
  4. He was known as the “father of humanism”:  Francesco Petrarch
  5. Which of the following was the most important intellectual recovery made during the Italian Renaissance?  Greek studies
  6. How did Valla become a hero to Protestant reformers?  His defense of predestination against the advocates of free will.
  7. All of the following are true of Renaissance art?

Artwork reflect symmetry and proportion reflected a belief in the harmony of the universe, works were given rational, even mathematical order, art often blended classical and Christian influences, art emphatically embraced the natural world and human emotions

  1. All of the following were great masters of the High Renaissance Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Titan and 


  1. Who paint the school of Athens”?  Raphael
  2. His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa. Leonardo da Vinci
  3. The Treaty of Lodi did all of the following except:  include Venice despite the Papal States’ anger
  4. Ludovico of Milan’s fatal mistake was that he: appealed to the French for help and invited them to reenter Italy and revive their dynastic claim to Naples.
  5. The Habsburg-Valois Wars were wars fought between France and: Spain; Spain won all four major battles
  6. Which of the following is NOT true of Machiavelli? He did not believe that the Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means.
  7. A new alliance between monarchs and this group helped break to bonds of feudal society. Townspeople
  8. With the growing cost of warfare in the 15th and 16th centuries, monarchs needed new national sources of income and created them by taxing all of the following: trade, the federal lords, the peasants, and basic food and clothing
  9. King Louis XI did all of the following : create a national postal system, establish a lucrative silk industry, and conquer Burgundy
  10. Who protested the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon?  France and Portugal
  11. Ferdinand and Isabella were able to do all of the following;  secure their borders, Christianize the whole of Spain, venture aboard militarily, subdue their realms
  12. All of the following characterized northern humanists ,

They tended to come from more diverse social backgrounds; they took advantage of the power of the printing press, they were more willing to write for lay audiences than their Italian counterparts,  they were more devoted to religious reforms than their Italian counterparts

  1. Erasmus had a profound effect and influence upon this individual Martin Luther
  2. Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms in all of the following countries ; Germany France, the Netherlands England
  3. Over the second half of the 15th century, this nation delivered 150,000 slaves to Europe:  Portugal.
  4. Columbus expected his first landfall to be_______. Japan
  5. By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of: Central Mexico
  6. He was by far the most effective and outspoken critic of the Spanish conquerors: Bartolomé de Las Casas
  7. Which of the following are the three major components of the colonial economy of Latin America? Shipping, agriculture, and mining



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