Global history study guide chapters summary




Global history study guide chapters summary


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Global history study guide chapters summary

 Global history Review guide
I. Methodology of Global History and Geography (maps, history terms, social science occupations)
II. Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion (4000 BC- 500 AD) (Range: 3-7)
Early People &  the Neolithic Revolution, Religions & Philosophies, Ancient Empires
III. Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter (500 – 1200)   (Range: 3-7)   
Golden Age Empires: African Trading Kingdoms,  Gupta empire, Tang Dynasty, Byzantine Empire
Islamic Empires / Spread of Islam
IV. Global Interactions (1200 – 1650) (Range: 4-8)
Medieval Europe (feudalism, Black Death), Feudal Japan, Mongol Empire, European Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration (Commercial Revolution, Columbian Exchange, Triangle Trade, Colonization)
V.  The First Global Age (1450 – 1770) ( Range: 6-13)
Ottoman Empire, Ming Dynasty (exploration (Zheng He Vs Isolation), Global Absolutism
VI. Age of Revolutions (1750 – 1914) (Range: 8-16)    
Scientific Revolution, European Enlightenment, French Revolution, Latin American Independence      Global Nationalism, Industrial Revolution, Meiji Restoration, Imperialism
VII. A Half Century of Crisis and Achievement (1900 – 1945)  (Range: 5-8)
World War One, Russian Revolution, Between World Wars, World War Two
VIII. The 20th Century Since 1945  (Range: 5-15)
Cold War, Chinese Communist Revolution, Colonial Independence / Collapse of Imperialism
Conflict in the Middle East, Apartheid in South Africa, Collapse of Communism, Political Unrest in Latin America, Post-Cold War “Hot Spots”
IX. Global Connections and Interactions ( Range: 2-14)
Global Interdependence, Modern Issues: Economic Trends, Modernization vs. Traditions, Urbanization
United Nations' Role. Global Migration, Science & Technology, The Environment, Population, Terrorism
Human & Women's Rights

 II. Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion (4000 BC- 500 AD) (Range: 3-7)
Neolithic Revolution and early civilizations: Concepts/Terms
 Neolithic Revolution, nomad, domestication, artifacts, archaeologists, civilization, Fertile Crescent, River  valley Civilizations(Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus, Huang He) dynasty  traditional economy, cultural diffusion, empire, specialization, Hammurabi’s Code, social class structure
  • The political, economic, geographic and social changes brought about as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.
  • The  major characteristics of civilization
  • The influence of geographic factors on the development of early civilizations.

  Religions and Belief systems: Concepts/Terms
Monotheism, Judaism: Torah,  Christianity: Ten Commandments, Hinduism: Karma, Caste, Reincarnation, Dharma, Confucianism: Five-relationships, Taoism, Islam: Hirja, Mecca, Koran, Five Pillars, Animism, Shinto
People Siddhartha Guatama, Confucius, Muhammad,  

  1. The origins, beliefs, practices, and impact of the beliefs systems.

Classical Civilizations: Greece, Rome and Han Concepts/Terms
City-state, democracy, direct democracy, aristocracy, monarchy, oligarchy, Athens, Sparta, Hellenistic, republic, Twelve Tables, Pax Romana, golden age, dictator, Christianity, eastern and western Roman Empires, Silk Road, roads---People---Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Augustus, Constantine, Jesus Christ

  1. Geographic effect.
  2. Achievements and contributions, Government structure.
  3. How are decisions made under differently political systems?
  4. What impact did Greece and Rome have on late political systems?

III. Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter (500 – 1200)   (Range: 3-7) Golden Age Empires: 
African Trading Kingdoms: Concepts/Terms
savanna, Timbuktu, Animism, , migration: Bantu, gold-salt-slave trade, trans-Saharan trade, caravan, nomad, Islam, Ghana, Songhai, Mali, Axum
People: Mansa Musa, Ibn Battuta –Events: Bantu migrations

  1. How humans have adapted to geography of Africa
  2.  The effects of maritime and trans-Saharan trade
  3.  The causes and effects of human migration
  4. The cultural achievements of African kingdoms

 Gupta Empire: Concepts/Terms:

Subcontinent monsoons, caste system, Silk Route, 
People: Asoka (Ashoka

  1. The effects of geography  (monsoons/Himalayas)
  2. The contributions & achievements in Indian science and mathematics (legacy concept)

Tang and Sung Dynasties: Concepts/Terms
Isolationism, ethnocentrism, dynastic cycle, Mandate of Heaven, feudalism,  terrace farming (step farming), filial piety, bureaucracy, Great Wall, Silk Route
Golden Age

  1. The dynastic cycle and Mandate of Heaven
  2. Contributions & achievements of the Golden Age: Chinese technology, exploration and culture
  3. Importance of land and sea routes (Silk Route)

Byzantine Empire: Concepts/Terms
Hagia Sophia, Cyrillic alphabet, Constantinople, Justinian Code
 People: Justinian, Events: Outbreak of the Plague, Fall of Byzantine Empire, 

  1. Byzantine influence on Russia
  2. The preservation of Greco-Roman culture

Islamic Empires / Spread of Islam: Concepts/Terms
 Caliph, religious toleration, golden age, and contributions: art, Literature, learning, science. math and medicine, Crusades, Silk Road
People: Ibn Battuta

  • The basic beliefs, practices, and cultural effects (art, architecture, gender issues) of Islam.
  • The preservation of Greco-Roman culture.
  • The conquest of the Byzantine empire by the Ottoman empire.
  • Middle-man for trade East to West- cultural diffusion (crusades) leads to European Renaissance.
  • What contributions did Islamic culture make to global history?

IV. Global Interactions (1200 – 1650) (Range: 4-8)
Feudal Japan: Concepts/Terms
Code of Bushido, Samurai, Shogun, daimyo, Tokugawa Era, Shinto

  1. Compare to European feudalism and Japanese feudalism.

Medieval Europe:  Concepts/Terms
Feudalism, rigid social class structure, serf, vassal, lord, nobles, self-sufficiency, manor, three field system, chivalry, fief, clergy, Gothic architecture crusade,  guild, urbanization, Inquisition
 People: Pope Urban II, Saladin, Isabella and Ferdinand, Joan of Arc, King John
 Events: Reconquista, Crusades, Plague Outbreak, Hundred Years’ War, Germanic Invasions, Inquisition
1.   The structure, effect, and decline of the Feudal System on Europe

  1. The causes and long-term effects of the Crusades

Mongol Empire:
 Concepts/Terms:  Golden Horde, Yuan Dynasty, Pax Mongolia, Silk Road, Bubonic Plague
People: Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, Marco Polo

  1. The extent, rule, and contributions of the Mongol Empire
  2. Trade & culture is spread from China à Europe
  3. The effect of Mongol Influence on Russia

European Renaissance: Concepts/Terms
Renaissance,  humanism,  
People: de Medici, Michelangelo, da Vinci, Machiavelli, Gutenburg, Shakespeare, Elizabeth I
 Events: Spread of the Renaissance from Italy to Northern Europe, introduction of the printing press

  1. The conditions that gave rise to the Renaissance in Italy (economic, social, political)
  2. The cultural breakthroughs and achievements of Renaissance artists and writers

Reformation: Concepts/Terms
Reformation, protestant, indulgence, 95 Theses, excommunication, , Church of England/Anglican,
 People: Martin Luther, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, John Calvin 
Events: Reformation, Counter-Reformation/Catholic Reformation, Council of Trent,

  1. The religious movements to reform the Catholic church
  2. Spread of Luther’s ideas via printing press

Age of Exploration / Colonization- Concepts/Terms
Mercantilism, mother country, navigational instruments (astrolabe/compass), Inca, Treaty of Tordesillas, Aztec, Maya, Mesoamerica, Conquistadors, social class structure in colonial Latin America including, Peninsulares, criollos, mestizos, mulattos, African slaves and Native-Americans, Encomienda System
Prince Henry the Navigator, Vasco da Gama, Montezuma II, Francisco Pizzaro, Hernando Cortes,     Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand and Isabella, , Bartholomeu Dias
Events: Commercial Revolution, Columbian Exchange, Triangle Trade, Colonization

  1. That before 1492, diverse societies with, complex civilizations existed in the Americas
  2. The political, economic and social motives for European exploration/colonization
  3. The technological advancements that made exploration possible
  4. Effects : Columbian Exchange- Colonization
  5. The variety of ways world monarchs held and exercised power

   V.  The First Global Age (1450 –1770) (Range: 6-13)
 Ming Dynasty-Concepts/Terms
Middle Kingdom, Isolation, Ethnocentric,
Events: exploration- People: Zheng He

  1. Effect of China isolation from foreign trade.

Ottoman Empire-Concepts/Terms

Constantinople, Islam, golden age,

  1. The preservation of Greco-Roman culture.

Global Absolutism-Concepts/Terms
Absolutism/ absolute rule, , monarch, divine right, Westernization, constitutional monarchy, Limited Monarchy, English Bill of Rights,
Events: English Civil War, Restoration, Glorious Revolution,
People: Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, Louis XIV of France, Suleiman I

  1. Causes and effects of the growth of power of monarchs.
  2. List the steps of Constitutional monarchy of England.

    VI. Age of Revolutions (1750 – 1914) (Range: 8-16)    
Scientific Revolution & European Enlightenment: Concepts/Terms
Scientific method, natural rights, social contract, separation of powers, Enlightened Despot
 People: Copernicus & Galileo, Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Catherine the Great

  1. The role and responsibilities of government
  2.  The positive and negative impact of technological and scientific ideas, and philosophical writings (ideology) on nations and people

French Revolution: Concepts/Terms
Old Regime, the Estates General, bourgeoisie, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Napoleonic Code, Balance of Power, National Assembly, Coup d’etat, 
 People: Louis XVI, Robespierre, Napoleon, Metternich,
 Events: Reign of Terror, Congress of Vienna,

  1. Causes and effects- French Revolution
  2. Reign of Terror- use of violence to control people
  3. Impact of Napoleon

Latin American Independence - Concepts/Terms
Nationalism, Independence movement,
People:  Bolivar, L’Ouverture, de San Martin, Hidalgo 

  1. Causes: American and French Revolution & Enlightenment

Global Nationalism -Concepts/Terms
Nationalism, Nation-state,  unification, realpolitik, Blood and Iron
 People: Bismark, Cavour, Garibaldi
 Meiji Restoration- Concepts / Terms
Matthew Perry, Treaty of Kanagwa, Meiji Restoration,
Events: Sino-Japanese & Russo-Japanese Wars, Industrialization, colonization

  1. What political, social and economic changes occurred in Japan in the late 1800s?
  2. How did Japan become a global power in the early 1900s?
  3. How did Japan use western ideas to modernize?

Industrial Revolution  Events: Concepts/Terms
Capitalism, laissez-faire, Marxism, socialism, market economy, competition, profit motive, urbanization, communism, interdependence, factory system, industrialization, factors of production, pre-conditions for industrialization, suffrage
 People: Labor unions, middle class, Adam Smith, Karl Marx , Frederich Engels

  1. What changes occurred during the Agrarian Revolution?
  2. Role of technology in the Industrial Revolution.
  3. Economic, political and social changes of the Industrial Revolution,
  4. Impact of the political and business reform acts.

Imperialism: Concepts/Terms
Imperialism (economic), racism, Social Darwinism, White Man’s Burden, ethnocentrism, missionary, spheres of influence, “sun never sets on the British empire,” unequal treaties
 People:, East India Company
 Events: Scramble for Africa, Berlin conference, Opium War & Boxer Rebellion, Boer War, building of the Suez Canal, Sepoy Mutiny, Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), Opening of Japan

VII. A Half Century of Crisis and Achievement (1900 – 1945)  (Range: 5-8)
 World War One- Concepts/Terms
Nationalism, militarism, alliances, Triple Entente, Triple Alliance, imperialism, Central Powers, Allied Powers,  “powder keg of Europe, stalemate, propaganda, war guilt, Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, Weimar Republic, trench warfare/modern, reparations, self-determination
 People: Archduke Ferdinand, Mustafa Kemal, Ataturak
 Events: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, signing of Brest-Litovsk
Russian Revolution: Concepts/Terms
“Land, peace and bread,” nationalization, command economy, purges, collectivization, five-year plans, totalitarianism, pogroms, Collective, New Economic Policy.
People: Marx, Lenin, Stalin, Czar Nicholas II
Events: Russo-Japanese War, Bloody Sunday (Revolution of 1905), March Revolution, November (Bolshevik) Revolution, Purges, Famine in the Ukraine

  • Change of the Bolshevik Revolution. (compare to French Revolution)

 Between World Wars: Great Depression and Rise of Totalitarianism: Concepts/Terms
Unequal distribution of wealth, inflation, unemployment, Weimar Republic, Treaty of Versailles, “war guilt”, totalitarianism, fascism, Nazism, propaganda, aggression, reparations, Appeasement, genocide.
 People: Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini
 Events: Stock Market Crash, Hitler’s rise to power, Stalin’s rise to power

  1. The characteristics of totalitarian/ Fascist leaders.
  2. Causes/Effects of the Great Depression
  3. Effects of the Treaty of Versailles

 World War Two-Concepts/Terms
Nationalism, militarism, imperialism, appeasement, Nuremburg Laws, Jewish Star Decree, ghettos, “Final Solution”, Anti-Semitism, genocide, United Nations, Axis and Allied powers, Atomic bomb
People: Hitler, Churchill, Hirohito
Events: Munich Conference/Pact, Holocaust, D-day, Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Nuremberg Trials/Crimes against humanity

  • Causes of World War II.
  • The positive and negative impact of technological and scientific ideas, and philosophical writings (ideology) on nations and people
  • Human Rights violation: Holocaust

 VIII. The 20th Century Since 1945  (Range: 5-15)
Cold War: Concepts/Terms
Cold War, Superpowers, satellite nations, non-aligned nations, Policy of containment, domino theory, brinkmanship, détente, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO/ Warsaw Pact, Iron Curtain, Berlin Wall, Sputnik, arms race, ICBMs, space race, A-bomb, U-2, economic recovery of Japan and West Germany, formation of the United Nations
People: Churchill, Stalin, Khruschev, Brezhnev, Walesa, Castro
Events: Berlin Crisis (blockade and airlift), Berlin Wall, Cuban Revolution, Cuban Missile Crisis, Hungarian/ Revolt, Czechoslovakian uprising, Korean War, Vietnam War, Afghanistan
1.     What was the impact of the Cold War?
2.    The nature of competition between the communist and non-communist countries during the 20th      Century
3.    How the Cold War spurred and inhibited progress in the areas of culture, science and technology?

  • Different ways countries attempt to deal with each other.
  • What role did the UN play in Korea?

Chinese Communist Revolution: Concepts/Terms
Nationalists/ Communist, Long March, Taiwan, Reasons for the communist victory, Five year plans: Great Leap Forward, communes, famine, Cultural Revolution, Red Guards, Little Red Book, Deng’s introduction of limited capitalism and how it lead to demand for democratic reform, plan for four modernizations, China’s human rights abuses
People: Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek), Mao Zedong, Deng Xiapoing, Sun Yet-Sen (Sun Yixiang)
Events: Tiananmen Square Massacre, Return of Hong Kong


Conflict in the Middle East: Concepts/Terms
Zionism, Balfour Declaration, UN partition of Palestine and creation of Israel, Arab-Israeli wars, the role of terrorism in the Middle East, PLO, Iranian Revolution, Islamic fundamentalism Nationalism, weapons of mass destruction, OPEC, Infatada/Islamic Fundamentalism
 People: Yassir Arafat, Ayatollah Khomeini, Saddam Hussein, Osama bin Laden
 Events: Suez Crisis, Camp David Accords, Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq war, Persian Gulf War

  • The desire of groups of people to rule themselves
  • The different roles groups have played in attempts to bring peace to Arab-Israeli conflicts.
  • The successes and failures of countries to maintain stability after independence

Colonial Independence / Collapse of Imperialism, Concepts/Terms
Decolonization in India, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa, methods used to affect change: violent revolution vs. passive resistance, Communism in North Korea, Vietnam, and Cambodia, problems that happen after decolonization, partition of India, Rwanda (Hutu-Tutsi), Vietnam/Cambodia (Khmer Rouge), apartheid, economic sanctions, boycott

People: Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah, Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Ho Chi Minh, Pol Pot, Mandela, deKlerk, Tutu

Events:  Salt March, Apartheid in South Africa, Collapse of Communism, Political Unrest in Latin America, Post-Cold War “Hot Spots”

  • The desire of groups of people to rule themselves
  • The different methods individuals have used to affect change (terrorism, OPEC, etc.)
  • The reaction some people have had against Western ideas (fundamentalist movements)


Collapse of Communism: Concepts/Terms
Glasnost, Perestroika, Democratization, privatization, ethnic conflict, ethnic cleansing
 People: Lech Walesa, Mikhail Gorbechev, Boris Yeltsin, Slobadan Milosevic
 Events: Fall of the Berlin Wall, German Reunification, Breakup of Yugoslavia, War in Bosnia and Kosovo

  1. The causes and effects for the failure of communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe
  2. What problems does Russia face in moving towards capitalism and democracy
  3. To what ev

IX. Global Connections and Interactions ( Range: 2-14) Concepts/Terms

The Global economy, The European Union(EU), International Monetary Fund(IMF), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) Green Revolution, terrorism, peacekeeping, urbanization, AIDS, desertification, acid rain, deforestation, nuclear proliferation, destruction of the rainforests, overpopulation
 Events:  Chernobyl, Operation Desert Storm (oil fires of Kuwait), September 11th, Operation Iraqi Freedom, the war on terrorism 
The role technology plays in conflict amongst nations

  1.  The effect that the lack of technological advancement has on underdeveloped nations
  2. The effect the global market has had on nations development and foreign policy


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