Honors Renaissance History study guide




Honors Renaissance History study guide


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Honors Renaissance History study guide

Chapter 15 & 16 Study Guide for Honors Renaissance History

  1. The term "Old Regime" has come to refer to what? The social, political, and economic relationships that had were prevalent in Europe before the French Revolution.
  2. The following were basic social characteristic of pre-revolutionary Europe: A peasantry subject to high taxes and feudal dues; an urban labor force usually organized into guilds; established churches intimately related to the state and the aristocracy; aristocratic elites possessing a wide variety of inherited legal privileges.
  3. Eighteenth-century Europeans enjoyed what right? community rights
  4. In 18th-century Europe, the nobility consisted of approximately what percent of the total population? 1-5%
  5. The following is true of the European aristocracy in the eighteenth century: Their numbers were expanding rapidly; they had the widest degree of social power; they had the largest degree of economic power; they were the single wealthiest sector of the population.
  6. Why is Austrian aristocracy remembered? They had the smallest, wealthiest, and best defined aristocracy.
  7. French nobles were technically responsible for payment of the vingtième, which resembles what modern-day tax? Income Tax
  8. All of the following were features of the Russian Charter of Nobility: Judicial protection of noble rights and property; considerable power over serfs; nobles could transmit noble status to a spouse or children; an exemption from personal taxes.
  9. French nobles were divided between nobles of the "sword" and nobles of what item of clothing? “Robe”
  10. The economic basis of eighteenth-century life was what? Land
  11. In pre-industrial Europe, the economy of a household that developed on farms, in artisans' workshops, and in small merchants' shops, and was known as the what? Family Economy
  12. The process in which children in their young teens would leave their nuclear family, learn a trade, and eventually marry and form their own independent household is known as what? Neolocalism
  13. The following statement is most applicable with regards to the European family structure in the 18th century: Eastern European grandparents had the opportunity to form closer relationships with their grandchildren than did Northwestern European grandparents
  14. The following is true of the family economy: All goods and income produced went to the household rather than to the individual family member; servants played a key role in the family economy; in Eastern Europe, the family economy functioned in the context of serfdom and landlord domination; depending on their ages and skills, everyone in the household worked.
  15. In pre-industrial Europe, the dominant concern of married women was what? producing enough farm goods to ensure an adequate food supply
  16. The following are true of children in the 18th century: Most infants were sent to a wet nurse for months or even years due to economic necessity; there was a close relationship between rising food prices and the increasing numbers of abandoned children; the birth of the child wasn’t always welcome; there was new interest in educating children.
  17. During the 18th century, bread prices did what? Slowly, but steadily rose
  18. The Dutch tried many different methods to increase the productivity and output of their land but they didn’t try what? Begin casting seeds rather than planting wheat by a drill, which was more successful
  19. Between 1700 and 1800, Europe's population rose from 100-120 million people to how many? Almost 190 million people
  20. Introduced from the New World, this new product allowed a more certain food supply in Europe and enabled more children to survive to adulthood and rear children of their own. What is this food product? The Potato
  21. In spite of European industrialization what still did not happen? Industrialization never overcame the economy of scarcity
  22. During the Industrial Revolution, consumption was not automatic so manufacturers did many things to sell their product, but they didn’t do what? appeal to contemporary Christians to sell products to cleanse their outward appearance during services
  23. The single largest free-trade area in Europe during the 18th century was who? Great Britain
  24. What industry pioneered the Industrial Revolution? Textiles
  25. Factory production of purely cotton fabric was made possible by the invention of what? Water frame
  26. By the early 19th century, the steam engine had become a prime mover for all of the following industries: Wagons, iron rails, ships, mining.

      27. The Industrial Revolution came first to:  Great Britain
28.   Given what you know about the impact of the agricultural and industrial revolutions concerning the lives of women, the following statement is most applicable:
As the revolutions progressed, the role and importance of women already in the work force diminished
29.  The following is a clearly defined long-term result of the shift in female employment: Women's work became associated with the home rather than with places where men worked; the laboring life of most women was removed from the new technologies in farming, transportation, and manufacturing; domestic service became the single largest field of female employment; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, people assumed that women worked only to supplement a husband's income.
30.  In the years between 1600 and 1750, the cities that grew most vigorously were what? Capitals and Ports
31.  From the late Middle Ages through the end of the eighteenth century, medical manuals advised people to do what? Wash only the parts of their bodies that could be seen in public.
32.  In the 18th century artisan guilds were a lot of things, however they were not what? weak in central Europe

  1. The largest single group in eighteenth century cities was who? shop keepers, artisans and wage earners
  2. In the 18th century and thereafter, the Jewish population of Europe was concentrated in which countries? Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine.
  3. Until the late 18th century, European Jews who did not convert to Christianity had what happen to them? were discriminated against
  4. Since the Renaissance, European contact with the rest of the world has gone through four stages. Those stages are: 1. exploration, conquest, and settlement or commercial expansion; 2. colonial trade rivalry between Spain, France, and Great Britain; 3. the creation of formal empires in Africa and Asia and new areas of settlement; 4. decolonization
  5. The first phase of European contact with the rest of the world came to a close by when? the end of the seventeenth century
  6. The 19th century carving of new empires saw new European settlements in such regions as: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Algeria
  7. The following factors allowed European nations to exert influence and dominance over much of the world? technological supremacy related to naval power and gunpowder (Black powder)
  8. Despite Dutch and Danish possessions, these were the three main rivals during the era of colonization: Great Britain, France, and Spain
  9. Mercantilist thinkers assumed that: only modest levels of economic growth were possible.
  10. Under mercantilism, colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources for the industries of the home country and in turn, the home country was to: protect and administer the colonies.
  11. The heart of the 18th-century colonial rivalry in the Americas lay in the: West Indies
  12. A peninsulares refers to a person born were? In Spain
  13. If comparing Spain and England's colonial rule, one can equate the imperial reforms of Charles II to the: new colonial measures the British government undertook after 1763
  14. As a result of a scarcity of labor, these nations were the first to quickly turn to the importation of African slaves: Spain and Portugal
  15. The first slaves traded, dating to the early 16th century, in the transatlantic economy landed where? The West Indies and South America
  16. Black slaves had the fewest legal protections in what areas? Portuguese
  17. A vast increase in the number of Africans brought as slaves to the Americas occurred during the 18th century, with most arriving in: The Carribean and Brazil
  18. Colonial trade in the transatlantic world followed roughly a geographic: Triangle
  19. According to your text, which of the following were closely related? warfare in West Africa and the economic development of the American Atlantic seaboard
  20. When newly arrived Africans came to the Americas, what did not usually occur? They were grouped together by ethnicity
  21. What two areas were often the conflict of great powers and wars in the mid-18th century? the overseas empires and central and eastern Europe
  22. The War of Jenkins' Ear was fought by England to block incursions on British trade by whom? Spain
  23. Frederick II's invasion of Silesia offset the continental balance of power and: shattered the provisions of the Pragmatic Sanction
  24. Maria Theresa's great achievement was what? the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as a major political power
  25. The war over the Austrian succession and the British-Spanish commercial conflict might have remained separate disputes.  What united them was the: Role of France.
  26.  The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, resulted in which of the following: Prussia retained Silesia
  27. The French and Indian War formally erupted in the summer of what year? 1755
  28. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War, new political alliances formed in Europe and included an alliance between what two countries? France and Austria
  29. He boasted of having won America on the plains of Germany: William Pitt
  30. The Seven Years’ War was fought mostly in what country? North America
  31. From the British victory in the French and Indian War, Great Britain became not only a European power, but a world power until when? World War II (1940)
  32. At the conclusion of the French and Indian War, what two imperial problems did the British government face? the costs of maintaining their empire and the vast expanse of new territory in North America that they had to organize
  33. Much credit for Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War should go to whom? William Pitt the Elder
  34.  The primary purpose of the Stamp Act was to: raise badly needed revenue.
  35.  The Intolerable Acts did many things but they did not do what? Raise taxes on tea
  36. His pamphlet "Common Sense" galvanized public opinion in favor of separation from Great Britain: Thomas Paine
  37.  Benjamin Franklin gained assistance against Britain from what countries? Spain and France
  38. All of the following are true of the American Revolution: it did not grant political equality; it did not end slavery; it did not result in political rights for women; it didn’t give rise to a new set elites.


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