How did world war ii lead to the beginning of the cold war study guide




How did world war ii lead to the beginning of the cold war study guide


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How did world war ii lead to the beginning of the cold war study guide


10.01 - World War II and reasons for the United States’ entry into the war.

• What factors combined to draw the world and ultimately the U. S. into World War II?
• Was US involvement in the World War II inevitable?
• Were the reasons for the US’s entry into the World War II justifiable?

Concepts Which Led to Conflict

  • Isolationism - America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars
  • Totalitarianism – a type of government in which all social, political, economic, intellectual, and cultural activities are controlled by the rulers of a state
  • Militarism - belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it
  • Nationalism – a love and pride for one’s country
  • Appeasement - the policy of granting concessions to potential enemies in order maintain peace
  • Fascism - authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline

Political Leaders

  • Allies
    • Joseph Stalin – Russia (Communist)
    • Winston Churchill – Great Britain (Democracy)
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt – United States (Democracy)
  • Axis Powers
    • Emperor Hirohito – Japan (Militarism)
    • Benito Mussolini – Italy (Fascist)
    • Adolf Hitler – Germany (Fascist)

Political Events

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) - Made war illegal. This failed because there was no way to enforce the law.
  • Neutrality Acts (1935) - Passed by the United States prior to their entry into WWII, these acts forbade giving any type of aid to countries at war.
  • Quarantine Speech (1937) – a speech by FDR which called for an international “quarantine of aggressor nations” through economic pressure.
  • Munich Pact (1938) - It permitted immediate occupation by Germany of the Sudetenland, a region of Czechoslovakia
  • Non-Aggression Pact (1939) – an agreement between Germany and the USSR not to attack each other. It was supposed to last 10 years but lasted less than 2.
  • Four Freedoms (1941) – a speech by FDR that stated that people all over the world should have (1) freedom of speech (2) freedom of religion (3) freedom from want (4) freedom from fear.
  • Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)– This Act basically repealed the Neutrality Acts, allowing the united states to aid any country that they saw as essential to US security.
  • Pearl Harbor – In December of 1941, Japan attacked a US military base in Pearl Harbor, HI. This became the immediate cause of the US’s entry into WWII.


10.02 - Identify military, political, and diplomatic turning points of the war

To what extent did the military, political, and diplomatic turning points of World War II   
  determine the outcome and aftermath of the war?
How were America and the world different because of the events of World War II?
What changes to society resulted from the treatment of various groups of people

  • Propaganda – methods used to convince the public to support war efforts.
  • Blitzkrieg – German method of war which included surprise air and land attacks.


Ally Leaders

  • General George Patton – US general involved with the invasion of Italy.
  • Douglas MacArthur – Commanding general of the US military in the Pacific.
  • Chester Nimitz – US admiral who used the method of island hopping (US strategy of attacking some islands and leaving others as they made their way across the Pacific Ocean to Japan)


Major battles/Important Events in WWII

  • Battle of Britain (Aug. 1940) – German attack on Britain – mostly by air
  • Battle of Midway (June 1942) – After this Ally victory over Japan, the Japanese were unable to launch any more offensive actions in the Pacific.
  • Stalingrad (Sept. 1942) – Germans surrendered to the Allies in Russia and it became a major turning point of the war in the East.
  • D-Day (Operation Overlord) (June 1944) - The Allied troops began the liberation of Western Europe.
  • Battle of the Bulge (Dec. 1944)– A battle in between Germany and the Allies in which after much back and forth, with the help of the United States, the Allies defeat the Germans.
  • Iwo Jima (Nov. 1944) – Americans attacked Japan by air and by land.
  • Okinawa (April 1945) – 100,000 Japanese v. 180,000 Allies. After months of fighting 7,200 Japanese surrendered. Over 50,000 Americans died.
  • Casablanca, Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam – Conferences between the big world powers discussing the end of the war and how to secure lasting peace.
  • Manhattan Project – Led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, this was the project which developed the atomic bomb which was dropped twice on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • V-E Day, V-J Day – Victory in Europe and Victory in Japan Days. 
  • Genocide/Holocaust – The systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime
  • Nuremberg Trials – Trials of the Nazi commanders for the crimes on humanity of the Holocaust. 12 were sentenced to be hanged, showing that leaders must be held responsible for their actions.

10.03 - Effects of the war on American economic, social, political, and cultural life.

How and why did World War II impact the economic, social, cultural, and political life of the U.S.?
How did the war bring about innovation and change on the home front?
How are civil liberties challenged during times of conflict?
Should civil liberties be denied during a time of war?

War Efforts at Home

  • Selective Services Act – Draft for young men to sign up to serve in the military in WWII. This was the first peacetime draft.
  • War Production Board – government agency that oversaw production of goods in WWII.
  • Rationing – Conserving food and goods to help war efforts.
  • War bonds – helped raise money for the government and the war. 
  • Rosie the Rivetermedia propaganda creation devised to encourage women to fill in for men while they were fighting World War II.
  • WACS – a division of the military in which women served.

Effects of WWII on American Society

  • G.I. Bill – provided money for college and loans to buy homes for people in the military.
  • Levittown – suburban neighborhoods. Homes were built quickly and for less money.
  • Baby boomers – the population greatly increased after WWII due to an increased economy and men returning home from war. The United States saw increased conformity during this time.

Restrictions on Civil Liberties

  • Civil liberties – freedoms that protect individuals from the government to a certain extent (examples: freedom of speech, religion, etc.)
  • Japanese Internment – During WWII in the US, Japanese were forced to live in prison-like camps because of US fear of spies and cooperation with the Japanese government.
  • Korematsu v. United States(1944) – Court case which said that internment camps were legal and furthermore they were needed for the security of the US.


10.04 - Changes in the direction of foreign policy related to the beginning of the Cold War.

How did the events of World War II help facilitate the onset of the Cold War and influence American foreign policy throughout most of the 20th century?
To what extent was America’s decision to drop the atomic bomb a viable option to end the war in the Pacific?
What impact did World War II have on the economic, social, cultural, and political life of the United States?

  • Containment – The United States’ policy to stop the spread of communism.
  • Iron Curtain – In 1946 Churchill made a speech in which he said the Soviet Union had created an iron curtain of communist domination and oppression.
  • Truman Doctrine (1947) – stated that the policy of the USA must be to contain communism through supporting people who are resisting communist oppression.
  • Marshall Plan (1947) – tried to strengthen European nations by giving them money to create strong democracies and economies so the nations would not support communism (Soviet Union).
  • Berlin Airlift (1948-1952)– Drops of goods by the US into Soviet-controlled East-Berlin after WWII.
  • Korean War (1950-1953)– Post WWII Korea was split along the 38th parallel. The north was communist and the south anti-communist. The north invaded the south and the U.S. immediately called for UN police action. Russia supported the north, allies the south. A three year war ensued, and in the end the line remained drawn.
  • Hydrogen Bomb (1953) – After receiving word that the USSR had created an atomic bomb, the US felt the need to build a bigger/better/more powerful bomb.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) – Eisenhower continued Truman’s policy of containment, adding the Middle East in the protection from the spread of communism.
  • U-2 Incident – (1960) A US spy plane was shot down over Russia, showing the strength and abilities of the USSR.
  • Bay of Pigs (1961) – The US made a failed attempt to overthrow the Cuban government by supporting Cuban rebels who were against communist leader, Fidel Castro.
  • Berlin Wall (1989) – After WWII the Soviets built a wall to split East and West Germany. It stopped people from fleeing from the east to the west. The wall symbolized the division of the Cold War.


10.05 - Organizations Established to Maintain Peace

How effective have organizations been in maintaining peace in the world?
How has the status of being a superpower affected the relations between the U.S. and other nations?
To what degree have peace-keeping organizations been successful in their purpose?

  • United Nations – The United States, Great Britain, and the USSR agreed to create the UN so that nations could settle their differences peacefully. They met at Casablanca, Tehran, Potsdam, and Yalta among other places.
    • The UN also created a security council where the major powers, who would be permanent members, could veto any measures brought before them.
  • O.A.S. – Organization of American States (North and South America) – promoted cooperation between democratic nations.
  • N.A.T.O. – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – group of US and European allies who agreed to a policy of collective security (attack on one = attack on all).
  • Warsaw Pact – The Soviet Union’s response to NATO – a military alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations.

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