Industrialization Case Study Manchester




Industrialization Case Study Manchester


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Industrialization Case Study Manchester

Industrialization: Case Study Manchester – Section 2

  • The Industrial Revolution eventually led to a better quality of life for most people
  • It also caused immense human suffering as well  - it was a mixed blessing

Industrialization Changes Ways of Life
Growth of Industrial Cities

  • For centuries most Europeans had lived in rural areas
  • The growth of the factory system – manufacturing goods in a central location – brought waves of jobseekers to cities and towns
  • Most urban areas doubled in population
  • This period was known as Urbanization – city building and the movement of people to cities
  • Factories developed in clusters because entrepreneurs built them near sources of energy
  • Britains capital London was the country’s most important city
  • London became Europe’s largest city – population about 1 million by 1800
  • Large population provide a large labor pool and market for new industry
  • Other Industrial cities in England include: Manchester, Birmingham and Sheffield

Living Conditions

  • No plans, no sanitary codes and no building codes controlled the growth of England’s cities
  • Lacked adequate housing, education and police protection for all the new people in the cities
  • Garbage was everywhere à Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, whole families crowded in one bedroom
  • Sickness was widespread
  • Cholera spread throughout the slums of many industrial cities of Great Britain
  • Average life span for working class people – who worked in the factories was 17
  • Compared to 38 for rural areas

Working Conditions

  • Factory workers wanted to keep their machines running for as many hours a day as possible
  • The average worker spent 14 hours a day at the job – 6 days a week
  • Industry posed new dangers in work
  • Factories were seldom well lit or clean
  • Machines injured workers in many ways – boilers may explode burning workers, limbs might get caught in machines, pour air quality affected breathing and lungs
  • There were no federal government programs to provide for aid incase of injury
  • Coal mines were the most dangerous

Class tension

  • Not everyone in the cities lived miserably
  • Rich merchants and factory owners built nice homes in the suburbs
  • Most of the wealth from the Industrial Revolution went into the pockets of factory owners, shippers, and merchants
  • A new social class emerged during this time period Middle ClassA social class of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople and wealthy farmers
  • The new middle class transformed the social structure of Great Britain
  • Now some middle class people grew wealthier than the landowning aristocrats who had made up the upper class
  • Gradually a larger middle class – neither rich nor poor- emerged
    • This included an upper middle class of : Government Employees, doctors, lawyers, and managers of factories, mines and shops
    • A lower middle class: consisted of factory overseers and skilled workers such as tool makers, mechanical drafters and printers
    • 1800-1850 poor workers saw little improvement in their own living and working conditions
    • Machines replaced some workers
    • Luddites destroyed machines they thought were taking their job

Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution

  • Despite the problems that followed industrialization – the Industrial Revolution had a number of positive effects
    • It created jobs for workers
    • It contributed to the wealth of the nation
    • It fostered technological progress and invention
    • It greatly increased production of goods and raised the standard of living
    • It provided for hope of improvement on peoples lives
  • Other benefits
    • Healthier diets
    • Better housing
    • And cheaper, mass-produced clothing
    • Expanded educational opportunities as well because of the need for engineers
  • Middle class and upper class prospered immediately
  • For the workers it took longer but their lives eventually improved
  • Labor eventually won higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
  • Long term effects of the Industrial Revolution are still evident
    • Consumer goods are affordable and available
    • Living and working conditions are much improved over the 19th century
  • Industrialization can lead to the over use of natural resources and the abuse of environment


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Industrialization Case Study Manchester