Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia summary



Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia summary


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Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia summary

Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia pg. 408

Each group in Southwest Asia chose a different path to independence, inspired by the Indian Independence movement and the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Turkey Becomes a Republic – by the end of WWI, Turkey was all that remained of Ottoman Empire. In 1919 Greek forces invade Turkey and threaten to conquer them. Turkish Sultan was weak and corrupt, could not stop them.
1922, Mustafa Kemal led Turkish Nationalists and overthrew last Ottoman Sultan.
1923 Kemal becomes President of the New Republic of Turkey. (the 1st republic of Swest Asia)
Reforms by Kemal – Modernized Turkey, separated laws of Islam from political affairs; abolished religious courts and created a new legal system based on European Law, women gained freedom, right to vote and can now hold public office.  Launched govt programs to industrialize Turkey and spur economic growth.

Persia Becomes Iran

Before WWI both British and Russians established spheres of influence in Persia.
After WWI British see weakened Russia due to Bolshevik Rev and want to take their spheres.
This event triggered a Nationalist Movement and in 1925 last Shah is overthrown.
Pahlavi, Persia’s new leader sought to modernize, just like Kemal.
He est. public schools, built roads and railroads, promoted industrial growth, and extended women’s rights, Unlike Kemal, he kept all power in his hands. 1935 he changes name of his country from Persia to Iran.
Oil is discovered in early 1900’s, continues to be country’s most imp natural resource.

Saudi Arabia Retains Islamic Traditions.
While Turkey broke away from Islamic Traditions, Saudi Arabia held Islamic Law strictly.
In 1902 Ibn Saud begins campaign to unify Arabia.  Names it after his family; becomes Saudi Arabia in 1932.
Kept Islamic Law-alcoholic beverages were illegal, govt was based on custom, religion and family ties. Limited modernization, only those aspects that didn’t interfere with religion, such as some technology from telephones and radios.


Oil Resources Spur Economic Development
The need for Petroleum products by industrialized nations brought new oil explorations to Swest Asia.
During 1920’s and 30’s European and American Companies discovered huge oil deposits in Iran, Iraq, Arabia, and Kuwait. 
Foreign businesses invested huge sums of money to develop these oil fields.
Geologist later learned that lands around the Persian Gulf had nearly 2/3 of the world’s known oil supply.
These rich oil supplies led these countries to become strong exporters of this resource and at the same time that it brought wealth to their nation, it also led Western Nations to fight for control of this region.

Confrontations in the Middle East during 20th Century.

Rich oil supplies attracted both U.S and Soviet Union into the Middle East.

Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran.
Wealth from oil industry brought clash within Iran regarding traditional Islamic values and western materialism.
After WWII Iran’s Leader Shah Reza Pahlavi embraced Western Governments and wealthy western oil companies.
This caused resentment by Iranian Nationalists towards the new foreign alliances Pahlavi was forming.
Therefore, then Prime Minister Mossaddeq seized and nationalized a British owned oil company and in 1953 Forces Shah Pahlavi to flee
U.S. Intervenes- fearing that Mossadeq might turn to Russia for help, U.S. has him arrested and restores Shah Pahlavi to power.
U.S support of Iran leads to a westernization of Iran. By the end of the 1950’s Tehran (capital) had skyscrapers, foreign banks, modern factories.  Millions of Iranians however still lived in poverty.  The Shah’s secret police brutally punished anyone who opposed him.  Shah also tried to limit the role of the religious leaders in politics.
Ayatollahs – Iran’s conservative Muslim Leaders opposed the Shah’s new direction.  They wanted Iran to become a country that was based on strict Islamic Law and opposed any western intervention.
Ayatollah Khomeini was living in exile and sent tape recordings that led Iranian workers to go on strike and rebel against the current govt.  Phrases such as “Death to the Shah” and “Down with America” incited riots and revolts and thus forced the Shah to flee in 1979.
Khomeini then returns from exile, takes power and makes Iran a country governed through strict Islamic Law, he banned Western influences, and reinstated traditional Islamic values.
Anti-US Policies – Khomeini supports a group of young Islamic revolutionaries to seize the U.S embassy in Tehran. They took more than 60 American hostages and demanded that the US return the Shah to face trial.  Most of the US hostages remained prisoners for 444 days; they were released on January 20, 1981.
In order to unify Muslims, Khomeini encouraged the overthrowing of foreign domination in other Muslim areas and encouraged a return to strict Islamic rule.   This heightened tension between Iran and Iraq.  Iran was Shi’a while Iraq was Sunni led by Saddam Hussein.  This led to conflict that lasted 8 (1980-1988) years between Iran and Iraq.  U.S secretly sold weapons to Iran in an effort to get hostages released.
UN cease fire ended hostilities in 1988.

Cold War Tensions in Afghanistan
1950’s Soviet influences increases in Afghanistan.  In 1970’s a Muslim revolt tried to overthrow the Communist Regime.  This led to a Soviet invasion in 1979.

Soviets expected quick victory, but due to guerilla warfare Afghan rebels outmaneuvered the Soviet superpower. (Just like Vietcong in Vietnam did towards U.S)

Afghan rebel referred to as mujahideen fought with weapons provided by the U.S. (since U.S. feared Soviet control and thus interference in oil industry.) U.S. President Jimmy Carter warned Soviets that any attempt to gain control of the Persian Gulf would be “repelled by any means necessary, including military force.”   U.S. ends up placing a grain embargo on the Soviet Union as well as boycotting the 1980 Summer Olympic games held in Moscow.

After a 10 year occupation (same as U.S. in Vietnam) a new Soviet regime under Mikhail Gorbachev ordered his forces to withdraw.  The last Soviet troops withdrew in 1989.  By this point the Soviet Union was already falling apart.


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Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia summary