Terms to know about European history



Terms to know about European history


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Terms to know about European history

AP European Review Guide

Middle Ages

Black Death, bubonic plague
Hundred Years’ War
Joan of Arc
English Peasant Revolt, 1381
John Wyclif, Lollards
John Hus, Hussites
Babylonian Captivity
Great Schism

Byzantine Empire
Fall of Constantinople
Ottoman Empire
Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy
Geoffrey Chaucer, Canterbury Tales
Scholasticism, Thomas Aquinas
Conciliar movement

The Renaissance

Italian Renaissance
Jacob Burckhart
Republic of Florence
Medici family
Cosimo de’ Medici
Lorenzo de’ Medici (the Magnificent)
Duchy of Milan
Sforza family
Peace of Lodi, 1454
Republic of Venice
Papal States
Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Charles VIII
Girolamo Savonarola
Machiavelli, The Prince
Cesare Borgia
Sack of Rome, 1527
Charles V
civic humanism
Boccaccio, Decameron
Leonardo Bruni
Lorenzo Valla
Marsilio Ficino
Pico Della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man
Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the Courtier
Johann Gutenberg, printing press, moveable type
Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Artists
cinquecento, 1500s

Pope Alexander VI
Brunelleschi, Il Duomo
Lorenzo Ghiberti, “gates of paradise”
Donatello, David
Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam & Eve
Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus
“High Renaissance”
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa
Raphael, School of Athens
Michelangelo, David; ceiling of Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter’s basilica, Pieta
El Greco
Northern Renaissance
Christian humanism
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
Thomas More, Utopia
Jacques Lefevre d’Etables
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
Francois Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel
Michel de Montaigne, skepticism, essay form
William Shakespeare
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
Flemish style
Jan van Eyck
Peter Brueghel, the Elder
Albrecht Dürer
Hans Holbein the Younger
Fugger family
Christine de Pisan
Isabella d’Este
Artemesia Gentilleschi

    • To what extent were women impacted by the Renaissance?
    • Analyze the influence of humanism on Renaissance art. Select at least three artists and analyze at least one work for each artist.

New Monarchs, Exploration &  Society

New Monarchs
Valois line of French monarchs
Louis XI (“Spider King”)
Francis I
Concordat of Bologna, 1516
War of the Roses
Tudor Dynasty
Henry VII
star chamber
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spanish Inquisition
Tomás de Torquemada
Holy Roman Empire
Maximilian I
Charles V
Commercial Revolution
Middle class (bourgeoisie)
Hanseatic League
joint-stock companies
“Price Revolution”

“God, glory, gold”
Prince Henry the Navigator
Bartholomew Días
Vasco da Gama
Amerigo Vespucci
Christopher Columbus
Bartólome de las Casas
Treaty of Tordesillas
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
Ferdinand Magellan
Hernan Cortés
Francisco Pizarro
“Golden Age of Spain”
Encomienda system
“Old Imperialism”
Francis Xavier
Dutch East India Company
Columbian Exchange
“Long 16th-Century”
witch hunts

    • Who were the “New Monarchs”?  How did they go about centralizing power in their states? To what extent were they successful?
    • What were the causes and features of the Commercial Revolution? How did the Commercial Revolution impact European society politically, economically, and socially between1500-1700?
    • Analyze the role that knowledge, politics and technology played in European exploration between 1450 and 1700.
    • Compare and contrast the European “Old Imperialism” in Africa and Asia with the European domination of the New World between 1450 and 1700.
    • Analyze causes for the rise and decline of the Spanish Empire and features of Spain’s rule in the New World
    • Analyze the impact of the Columbian Exchange on European society.
    • Analyze factors that enabled Europeans to dominate world trade between 1500 & 1700.



The Reformation

sale of indulgences
clerical ignorance
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
Martin Luther
Johann Tetzel
95 Theses
Johann Eck
“priesthood of all believers”
Diet of Worms
Confessions of Augsburg
Philip Melanchthon
Charles V
German Peasants War, Twelve Articles
Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Tragedy at Münster
Mennonites, Quakers, & Unitarians
Ulrich Zwingli, Zurich
John Calvin
Institutes of the Christian Religion
“elect/visible saints”
Michael Servetus
Protestant work ethic
John Knox
Dutch Reformed Church

English Reformation
William Tyndale
Henry VIII
Anne Boleyn
Thomas Wolsey
Thomas Cranmer
Church of England (Anglican Church)
Act of Supremacy
Pilgrimage of Grace
Statute of the Six Articles
Edward VI
Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary”
Marian Exiles
Elizabeth I
Elizabethan Settlement
Thirty-Nine Articles
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
Katerina von Bora
Angela Merici, Ursuline order of Nuns
Teresa de Avila
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Pope Paul III
Council of Trent
Index of Prohibited Books
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Ignatius Loyola
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions
Baroque Art
Canopy over St. Peter’s Tomb
Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Caravaggio, tenebrism
Peter Paul Rubens

Essay Questions

    • Analyze the causes of the Protestant Reformation
    • Compare and contrast the doctrines and practices of Lutheranism and Calvinism with Catholic doctrines and practices.
    • To what extent did Renaissance humanism result in the Reformation?
    • Compare and contrast the English Reformation with Luther’s reformation in Germany.
    • Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation on European politics and society in the 16th century. Be sure to consider Germany, England, France and the Netherlands.
    • To what extent did the Catholic Church succeed in achieving its goals during the Counter Reformation?
    • Analyze how Baroque art and architecture reflect the ideals of the Catholic Reformation


Essay Questions

    • Analyze the causes of the Protestant Reformation
    • Compare and contrast the doctrines and practices of Lutheranism and Calvinism with Catholic doctrines and practices.
    • To what extent did Renaissance humanism result in the Reformation?
    • Compare and contrast the English Reformation with Luther’s reformation in Germany.
    • Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation on European politics and society in the 16th century. Be sure to consider Germany, England, France and the Netherlands.
    • To what extent did the Catholic Church succeed in achieving its goals during the Counter Reformation?
    • Analyze how Baroque art and architecture reflect the ideals of the Catholic Reformation

Wars of Religion: 1559-1648

Habsburg-Valois Wars
Philip II
Battle of Lepanto
Dutch Revolt
William of Orange
United Provinces of the Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”)
Elizabeth I
Spanish Armada
French Civil Wars
Catherine de Medicis
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
War of the Three Henry’s
Henry IV
Edict of Nantes
Thirty Years’ War
Bohemian phase
Defenestration of Prague
Danish Phase

Albrecht von Wallenstein
Edict of Restitution
Swedish Phase
Gustavus Adolphus
French Phase
Cardinal Richelieu
Treaty of Westphalia
English Civil War
James I
Charles I
“divine right” of kings
Oliver Cromwell
New Model Army
Pride’s Purge
“Rump Parliament”
Levellers,  Diggers, Quakers
The Protectorate
Charles II

Essay Questions

  • Analyze the impact that religion played in the Dutch Revolt, the French Civil Wars, the Thirty Years’ War, and the English Civil War
  • Analyze the extent to which the religious policies of the following rulers were successful:
        • Philip II
        • Elizabeth I
        • Henry IV
        • James I & Charles I
        • Oliver Cromwell


  • To what degree did religion and politics play in the Thirty Years’ War?
  • Analyze the impact of the Thirty Years’ War on European politics.


  • To what extent did the wars of religion result in the decline of the Spanish Empire?
  • Analyze the causes of the English Civil War and the impact of Puritan rule on English politics and society.







Absolutism in Western Europe: c. 1589-1715

Jean Bodin
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
Bishop Bossuet
“divine right” of kings
First Estate
Second Estate
Third Estate
Henry IV
Bourbon dynasty
nobility of the sword
nobility of the robe
Duke of Sully
Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Intendant system
Peace of Alais
Louis XIV, “Sun King”
“L’ état, c’est moi”
Cardinal Mazarin
Versailles Palace
Edict of Fountainbleu

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
balance of power
War of the League of Augsburg
War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Philip II
“price revolution”
Spanish Armada
Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659
Versailles Palace
Winter Palace
Caravaggio, tenebrism
Peter Paul Rubens
Diego Velázquez
Artemisia Gentileschi
Dutch Style
Jan Vermeer
French Classicism
Nicolas Poussin
Jean Baptiste Racine
J.S. Bach

  • How did the political theories of Bodin and Bossuet play out in France during the 17th century?


  • Analyze the extent to which absolutism developed in France under Henry IV and Louis XIII.
  • Analyze the ways in which the absolutism of Louis XIV impacted the bureaucracy, the nobility, the peasantry, economics and religious issues in France.


  • To what extent did the balance of power remain intact in Europe between 1600 and 1715?
  • Analyze the role of mercantilism in France in the 17th century


  • Analyze how the baroque reflected the “Age of Absolutism.”




Constitutionalism in Western Europe: c. 1600-1725

House of Commons
Stuart dynasty
James I
“divine right” of kings
Charles I
Petition of Right, 1628
“ship money”
“Short Parliament”
“Long Parliament”
Archbishop Laud
English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell
New Model Army
Pride’s Purge
“Rump” Parliament

Charles II
Test Act, 1673
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
James II
“Glorious Revolution”
William and Mary
Bill of Rights
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
Toleration Act, 1689
Act of Settlement, 1701
Act of Union, 1707
Great Britain
Cabinet system
Prime Minister
Robert Walpole
United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic)
Dutch Reformed church
Dutch East India Co.
Gustavus Adolphus

  • Analyze the development of constitutionalism in England during the 17th century.


  • To what extent were the Puritans successful in achieving their goals in England between 1642 and 1660?
  • Analyze reasons for the failure of absolutism in England in the 17th century.


  • Analyze factors that led to the rise of the Dutch Republic and its commercial success in the 17th century.


Absolutism in Eastern Europe: c. 1600-1740

Holy Roman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Suleiman the Magnificent
Janissary Corps
liberum veto
Hapsburg Empire (Austrian Empire)
Austria proper
Leopold I
siege of Vienna, 1683
Charles VI
Pragmatic Sanction
Frederick William, the “Great Elector”
“king of Prussia”

Frederick William I
“Sparta of the North”
Ivan III (“the Great”)
“Third Rome”
Ivan IV (“the Terrible”)
“Time of Troubles”
Romanov dynasty
Michael Romanov
“Old Believers”
Peter the Great
Great Northern War
“Window on the West”
Table of Ranks
St. Petersburg
Winter Palace

  • Analyze the causes for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire and Poland-Lithuania in Europe during the 17th century.


  • Analyze the military, political and social factors for the rise of absolutism in Austria, Prussia and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Compare and contrast absolutism in eastern Europe with that of France in western Europe.



Scientific Revolution
Copernicus, heliocentric view
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
3 laws of planetary motion
laws of motion
Francis Bacon
inductive method
Rene Descartes
deductive reasoning
cogito ergo sum (“I think; therefore, I am”)
Cartesian dualism
scientific method
Isaac Newton
principle of universal gravitation
Principia, 1687
William Harvey
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Royal Society
John Locke, Two Treatises of Civil Gov’t
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
tabula rasa
“ecracsez l’infame” (destroy the damn thing) 
Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws
checks and balances
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract, 1762
general will
“noble savage”
Denis Diderot, The Encyclopedia
Marquis de Beccaria
François Quesnay
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations
salon movement
Madame de Geoffrin
Madame de Staël
Mary Wollstonecraft
Baron Paul d’Holbach
David Hume
Jean de Condorcet
Immanuel Kant
classical liberalism
German pietism
John Wesley
Enlightened Despotism
Frederick the Great
War of Austrian Succession
Seven Years’ War
“Diplomatic Revolution of 1756”
Treaty of Paris
“first servant of the state”
Catherine the Great
Pugachev Rebellion
Polish partitions
liberum veto
Maria Theresa
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
Joseph II

  • How did the Scientific Revolution impact European society (e.g. intellectually, religiously, economically)?
  • Analyze the extent to which the Enlightenment affected European society with regard to religion, education, and economics.
  • Analyze the impact of the Enlightenment on politics in the 18th century.
  • To what extent is the term “Enlightened Despot” appropriate when describing the reigns of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II?
  • Analyze how the balance of power was maintained in Europe between 1740 and 1786.


18th Century Economy and Society

Agricultural Revolution
open field system
Cornelius Vermuyden
Charles “Turnip” Townsend
crop rotation
Jethro Tull
seed drill
Robert Bakewell
Columbian exchange
Enclosure movement
Corn Laws
population explosion
cottage industry (“putting out” system)
flying shuttle
spinning jenny
water frame
spinning mule
Atlantic economy
Bank of England
Act of Union, 1707
Navigation Acts
Triangular Trade
Dutch Republic

Anglo-Dutch Wars
Slave trade
“Middle Passage”
South Sea Bubble
Mississippi Bubble
War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Seven years’ War
Treaty of Paris
American Revolution
“Spare the rod and spoil the child”
Edward Jenner
John Wesley
Jacques-Louis David
Classical Style (music)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Franz Joseph Haydn
Ludwig van Beethoven

  • Discuss the features of the Agricultural Revolution. How did the Agricultural Revolution affect European society in the 18th century?
  • Analyze the causes of the population explosion in the 18th century? What were some of the new social challenges posed by population growth?
  • Analyze the importance of proto-industrialization on the development of England’s economy in the 18th century.
  • Analyze the role that mercantilism played on the Atlantic economy during the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • What factors paved the way for the rise of the Dutch Republic as an economic power?
  • To what extent did the colonial wars of the 18th century impact the European balance of power?
  • To what extent did demographic and social trends of the 18th century impact the European family?


The French Revolution 1789-1799

Louix XV
Madame de Pomadour
René de Maupeou
Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
First Estate
Second Estate
Third Estate
Lettre de cachet
ancien regime (Old Regime)
Jacques Necker
Assembly of Notables
Estates General
cahiers de doléances
Abbé Sieyès, What is the Third Estate?
National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
storming of the Bastille
“Great Fear”
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Olympe de Gouges, The Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Madame de Stael
Women’s march to Versailles
Jean-Paul Marat
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790
“refactory clergy”
83 Departments
Flight to Varennes
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France
Thomas Paine, Rights of Man

Legislative Assembly
Declaration of Pillnitz
War of the First Coalition
Brunswick Manifesto
storming of the Tuleries
Paris Commune
Georges-Jacques Danton
September Massacres
“Age of Rousseau”
National Convention
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity
Committee of Public Safety
Maximilien Robespiere
Louis Saint-Just
Law of Maximum
lèvee en masse
Reign of Terror
Law of Suspects
Jacques Hébert, Hébertistes
Cult of the Supreme Being
“Temple of Reason”
Thermidorian Reaction
The Directory
Conspiracy of Equals
Coup d’Etat Brumaire
Consulate Era

  • Analyze the long-term and short-term causes of the French Revolution.
  • Analyze the impact of Enlightenment ideas on the French Revolution.
  • To what extent did the political, economic, social and religious goals of the National Assembly (1789-1791) become a permanent feature of the French Revolution by 1799?
  • To what extent did each of the following groups succeed in achieving their goals during the French Revolution (1789-1799)?
    • Monarchy                          e. Urban working class
    • Clergy                               f. Aristocracy
    • Bourgeoisie                       g.  Women
    • Peasantry                      
  • Compare and contrast the goals and actions of the leaders of the National Assembly (1789-91) with those of the National Convention (1792-1795)


French Rev & Napoleon (1789-1815)

“Age of Metternich”

“Age of Realpolitik”

“Age of Mass Politics”

  • Nat’l Assembly (1789-1791)
  • Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
  • Nat’l Convention (1792-1795)
  • Directory (1795-1799)
  • Consulate (1799-1804)
  • Empire (1804-1815)
  • Concert of Europe
  • Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
  • Reforms in Britain
  • Liberalism/ Nationalism vs. Conservatism
  • Romanticism
  • Second French Empire
  • Crimean War
  • Unification of Germany
  • Unification of Italy
  • Ausgleich: Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • French Third Republic
  • German Empire
  • Imperialism
  • Rise of socialist parties
  • Increased suffrage = mass politics

The Napoleonic Era: 1799-1815


Napoleon Bonaparte
Consulate Period
First Consul
Napoleonic Code
Careers Open to Talent
Concordat of 1801
Bank of France
Duke of Enghien
Treaty of Lunéville
Jacques-Louis David
Empire Period
Grand Empire
Battle of Trafalgar
Lord Horatio Nelson
Battle of Austerlitz
Arc de Triomphe
Treaty of Tilsit
Confederation of the Rhine
Continental System
Berlin Decree
Order in Council

Milan Decree
Peninsular War
Russian Campaign
Battle of Borodino
War of the Fourth Coalition
Battle of Leipzig
Quadruple Alliance
Charter of 1814
“First” Treaty of Paris, 1814
Congress of Vienna
Klemens von Metternich
Balance of Power
German Confederation (Bund)
Hundred Days
Battle of Waterloo
Duke of Wellington
Concert of Europe
“Holy Alliance”
Alexander I


  • To what extent was Napoleon an “Enlightened Despot”?  Contrast Napoleon’s rule with that of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II.


  • To what extent did Napoleon maintain the ideals of the French Revolution?
  • To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe by 1815?


  • To what extent did each of the following social groups succeed in achieving their goals during the Napoleonic Era?
    • Clergy
    • Aristocracy
    • Bourgeoisie
    • Urban working class
    • Peasantry
    • Women



The Industrial Revolution: 1780-1850

Commercial Revolution
cottage industry/“putting out system”
flying shuttle
spinning jenny
water frame
spinning mule
Agricultural Revolution
Bank of England
limited liability
Navigation Acts
Corn Laws
James Watt
steam engine
power loom
heavy industry
Henry Cort
puddling furnace
transportation revolution

Duke of Bridgewater, canals
John McAdam, hard-surfaced roads
Robert Fulton, steamboat
George Stephenson, Rocket
Crystal Palace
Crèdit Mobilier
“petite bourgeoisie”
Friedrich Engels
Combination Acts
Robert Owen
Saddler Commission
Factory Act of 1833
Mines Act of 1842
Irish Potato Famine

  • Analyze the role proto-industrialization played in setting the stage for the Industrial Revolution.


  • Compare and contrast the Industrial Revolution in England with the industrial countries on the continent.
  • Analyze ways in which the Industrial Revolution altered the social fabric of European society.


  • Analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the following groups:
    • Women
    • Children
    • Middle Class
    • Proletariat
    • Peasantry

Ideologies and Revolutions: 1815-1850
“The Age of Metternich”

Congress of Vienna
Klemens von Metternich
legitimacy, compensation, balance of power
German Confederation (Bund)
Concert of Europe
Quadruple Alliance
Congress System
Carlsbad Diet, 1819
Corn Laws, 1815
Peterloo Massacre, 1819
Decembrist Uprising, 1825
classical liberalism
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776
David Ricardo, “iron law of wages”
Jeremy Bentham, utilitarianism
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859)
Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Greek Revolution
“Eastern Question”
Treaty of Adrianople, 1829
Revolutions of 1830
July Revolution
Louis Philippe, “Bourgeoisie King”
Guiseppe Mazzini
Young Italy
Reform Bill of 1832
Factory Act of 1831
Mines Act, 1842
Anti-Corn Law League
Revolutions of 1848

February Revolution
Second French Republic
“June Days” Revolution
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Louis Kossuth
Prague Conference, Austroslavism
Frankfurt Parliament
Frederick William IV
“Humiliation of Olmutz”
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract
Immanuel Kant
sturm and drang
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
William Wordsworth
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Lord Byron
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Grimm’s Fairytales
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Victor Hugo
Caspar David Friedrich
Eugene Delacroix
Théodore Géricault
J.W.M. Turner
John Constable
British Houses of Parliament
Ludwig van Beethoven
Frédéric Chopin
Franz Liszt
Giuseppi Verdi
Richard Wagner
Peter Tchaikovsky
Gothic revival architecture
Henry de Saint-Simon
Louis Blanc
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Charles Fourier
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
The Communist Manifesto,  1848
dialectical materialism

  • To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe between 1815 and 1850?


  • To what extent did conservatism achieve its objectives in the years between 1815 and 1850?
  • To what extent did liberals and nationalists achieve their goals in Europe between 1815 and 1900?


  • Why was there no revolution in Britain in the period 1815-1848 while many revolutions occurred on the Continent?
  • Compare and contrast the ideals of the Romantic Era with those of the Enlightenment.


  • To what extent did Romanticism play a political and philosophical role in Europe between 1800 and 1850?


19th Century Society: Urbanization and Intellectual Movements (1800-1914)

Second Industrial Revolution
Public Health Movement
Edwin Chadwick
“sanitary idea”
Georges von Haussmann
fin de siècle
“Belle époque”
Louis Pasteur, germ theory
Joseph Lister
Dmitri Mendeleev
Michael Faraday, electromagnetism
August Comte
Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species
Thomas Huxley
Hebert Spencer, Social Darwinism
Sigmund Freud
Marie Curie
Ernest Rutherford
Max Planck
Albert Einstein
theory of relativity
Rerum Novarum

Honoré de Balzac
Gustave Flaubert
Thomas Hardy
Emile Zola
George Eliot
Leo Tolstoy
Henrik Ibsen
Gustav Courbet
Francois Millet, The Gleaners
Honore Daumier, Third-Class Carriage
Edgar Degas
Edouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe ;Olympia
Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette
Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night
Paul Gauguin
Paul Cézanne
Henri Matisse, les fauves 
Pablo Picasso, Les Madamoselle d’Avignon
Wassily Kandinsky

  • Compare and contrast the “first” and “second” industrial revolutions.


  • Analyze ways in which urbanization impacted European society in the 19th century.
  • How did the industrial revolution and urbanization impact Europe’s social structure.


  • Analyze the forces that caused the family to change in the 19th century.
  • How did scientific advances in the late-19th century challenge the ways Europeans viewed the world?


  • Analyze how Realism, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism reflected European society in the late-19th and early 20th centuries.


The Age of Realpolitik: 1848-1871

Crimean War
Florence Nightingale
Second French Republic
Second French Empire
Napoleon III
Falloux Law
“Liberal Empire”
Syllabus of Errors, 1864
King Victor Emmanuel
Count Cavour
“Il Risorgimento”
Plombiérès, 1859
Giuseppe Garibaldi, Red Shirts
“Humiliation of Olmutz”

kleindeutsch plan
Otto von Bismarck
“gap theory”
“blood and iron”
Prussian-Danish War, 1863
Austro-Prussian War, 1866
Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71
Ems Dispatch
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Ausgleich,  1867


  • Compare and contrast the role that nationalism played in Italy, Germany and Austria in the years between 1848 and 1871.
  • To what extent was Otto von Bismarck successful in achieving his political goals by 1871?


  • How was the balance of power in Europe changed in the period 1848-1871?


The Age of Mass Politics: 1871-1914

“Age of Mass Politics”
German Empire
Kaiser Wilhelm I
Otto von Bismarck
Catholic Center Party
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)
Wilhelm II
Third French Republic
Paris Commune
Adolphe Thiers
Chamber of Deputies
Jules Ferry
Boulanger Crisis
Dreyfus Affair
Emile Zola, “J’accuse!”
Jean Jaurès
Conservative Party
Benjamin Disraeli
Liberal Party
William Gladstone
Reform Bill of 1867,
Reform Act of 1884
Fabian Society
Kier Hardie
Independent Labor Party
Parliament Act of 1911
Millicent Garrett Fawcett

Emmeline Pankhurst
Representation of the People Act, 1918
“Irish Question”
Young Ireland
Irish Home Rule
Easter Rebellion
“Eastern Question”
“Sick Man of Europe”
Congress of Berlin, 1878
Socialist Revisionism
Eduard Bernstein
Mikhail Bakunin
Alexander II
Emancipation Act, 1861
Count Sergei Witte
Alexander III
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification”
Theodore Herzl, Zionism
Nicholas II
Russo-Japanese War
“Bloody Sunday”
Revolution of 1905
Gregorii Rasputin

  • What was the “age of mass politics?”  How were government policies in western and central Europe impacted by mass politics during the period 1871-1914?


  • To what extent did liberalism achieve gains in each of the following countries between 1871 and 1914?
  • England
  • France
  • Germany
  • Russia
  • To what extent were conservatives able to maintain power in the period 1871-1914?


  • Analyze the impact of socialism on European politics in the period 1871-1914.
  • Analyze the ways in which female suffrage movements sought to gain the franchise in England between 1890 and 1918.


The New Imperialism: 1880-1914

“Old Imperialism”
“New Imperialism”
Dr. David Livingston
H. M. Stanley
Social Darwinism, “survival of the fittest”
“White Man’s Burden”
Rudyard Kipling
“Scramble for Africa”
Belgian Congo
Leopold II
Egypt, protectorate
Berlin Conference, 1884-85
Battle of Omdurman
General Horatio H. Kitchener
Fashoda Incident
Cecil Rhodes
Cape Colony

Boer War
Kruger Telegram
Opium Wars
Treaty of Nanking
“spheres of influence”
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
British East India Company
Robert Clive
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-58
Indian National Congress
Boxer Rebellion
Russo-Japanese War
Karl Marx, Das Kapital
J. A. Hobson

  • Compare and contrast the “New Imperialism” of the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with the “Old Imperialism” of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


  • Analyze the causes of the “New Imperialism” between 1880 and 1914.  What justifications did Europeans use for their acquisition of colonies?
  • Analyze the methods that the European imperial powers used to acquire colonies in Africa and Asia between 1880 and 1914. Be able to discuss the following countries:
  • Belgium
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy


The Great War

Triple Alliance
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
“splendid isolation”
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Entente Cordial
Anglo-German arms race
Triple Entente
Kruger Telegram
Algeciras Conference
Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911
“sick man of Europe”
Young Turks
First Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis)
First Balkan War, 1912
Second Balkan War, 1913
“Third Balkan War”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Princip, “Black Hand”
Kaiser Wilhelm II
“blank check”
Central Powers
Allies (Triple Entente)
Western Front
Schlieffen Plan
Battle of the Marne, 1914
trench warfare
Battle of Verdun, 1916

Battle of the Somme, 1916 
Erich Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929
new weapons
Eastern Front
Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorf
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1917
Gallipoli campaign, 1915
T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
British naval blockade
unrestricted submarine warfare
Archangel expedition, 1918
“Total war”
Georges Clemenceau
Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy”)
Zimmerman Telegram
Balfour Note, 1917
Woodrow Wilson
Fourteen Points
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
Big Four
Versailles Treaty
Article 231
League of Nations
John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919
Easter Rebellion, 1916

  • Analyze major causes of World War I.


  • Analyze political, economic and military factors for the Allied victory in World War I.
  • Analyze ways in which World War I altered European society.


  • How was the balance of power in Europe changed as a result of World War I?


The Russian Revolution

Czar Alexander I
“Holy Alliance”
Decembrist Uprising
Nicholas I
Alexander II
Emancipation Act, 1861
Mikhail Bakunin
Alexander III
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification”
Theodore Herzl, zionism
Count S. Y. Witte
Nicholas II
Russo-Japanese War
Treaty of Portsmouth
“Bloody Sunday”
Revolution of 1905
October Manifesto
Peter Stolypin

Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
February Revolution
Provisional Government
Alexander Kerensky
Petrograd Soviet
Army Order No. 1
April Theses
Kornilov Affair
October Revolution
Red Army
Communist Party
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
Russian Civil War
“war communism”
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

1.  Why did liberalism not take root in Russia between 1815 and 1917 when it played a major role in western and central Europe?

2.  Analyze the major causes of the Russian Revolution.

3.  Why did the Bolsheviks, who were a small minority, ultimately succeed in acquiring and maintaining power?

The “Age of Anxiety”: 1914-1950

Friedrich Nietzsche
Henri Bergson
Georges Sorel, syndicalism
Sigmund Freud, “ID”
Paul Valèry
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Logical empiricism (logical positivism)
Oswald Spenger, Decline of the West
T. S. Eliot, “The Waste Land”
Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front
Franz Kafka
John-Paul Sartre
Albert Camus


“New Physics”
Max Planck
Albert Einstein, theory of relativity
Ernest Rutherford
Werner Heisenberg
Bauhaus movement, Walter Gropius
Pablo Picasso, Guernica
Wassily Kandinsky
Marcel Duchamp: The Fountain; L.H.O.O.Q.
Salvador Dali
Igor Stravinsky
Arnold Schönberg
George Orwell, 1984; Animal Farm
Ayn Rand
William Golding, Lord of the Flies

  • Analyze the ways in which World War I influenced European thought in the years between 1918 and 1939.
  • How is the “age of anxiety” reflected in philosophy, literature and art in the period 1914-1950?
  • How did science and psychology in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries challenge European assumptions of how the universe and society functioned?
  • Contrast art and entertainment during the first half of the twentieth century with art and entertainment in the last half of the nineteenth century.


Democracies in the 1920s

Weimar Republic
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)
Treaty of Versailles
Article 231
John Maynard Keynes, Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919
“stab in the back”; “diktat”
Ruhr Crisis, 1923
Raymond Poincaré
Gustave Stresemann
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
Dawes Plan

Locarno Pact, “spirit of Locarno”
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
Representation of the People Act, 1928
General Strike, 1926
Labour Party
“Irish Question”
Sinn Fein
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Northern Ireland
Stock Market Crash, 1929
Great Depression
New Deal
Keynesian economics
Popular Front

  • What were weaknesses of the Weimar Republic? How did different political groups seek to remedy these weaknesses?


  • Evaluate the strength of the economy in the 1920s for each of the following countries:
  • Britain
  • Germany
  • France

4.  Analyze how the Great Depression differed in its impact on various countries during the 1930s?


Totalitarianism: c. 1920-1940

conservative authoritarianism
Vladimir Lenin
Marxist-Leninist philosophy
war communism
Kronstadt Rebellion
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Joseph Stalin
“socialism in one country”
Leon Trotsky
Five-Year Plans
Central Committee
General Secretary
“Great Terror”
show trials
“Old Bolsheviks”
Benito Mussolini, Il Duce
Fascist party

“Black Shirts”
March on Rome
corporate state
Lateran Pact
Weimar Republic
Aryan race
National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI)
S.A. (“Brown Shirts”)
Beer Hall Putsch
Mein Kampf, 1923
Great Depression
Third Reich
Reichstag fire
Joseph Goebbels
Leni Riefenstal, Triumph of the Will
“Night of Long Knives”
Heinrich Himmler
Hitler Youth
Nuremberg Laws
Holocaust, “Final Solution”

  • Compare and contrast conservative authoritarianism in Fascist Italy with totalitarianism in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.


  • To what extent did Lenin and Stalin adhere to the ideas of Karl Marx in governing the USSR between 1918 and 1940?
  • Compare and contrast totalitarianism in the USSR and Nazi Germany.


  • Compare and contrast totalitarianism in the 1920s and 1930s with absolutism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • To what extent did the rise of fascism in Italy and Germany constitute a social revolution in each of those two countries?


  • Analyze the extent to which women’s roles changed in the USSR, Italy and Germany in the years 1917 to 1940.

World War II

Treaty of Versailles
Article 231
League of Nations
Locarno Pact, 1925
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
Manchuria, 1931
Ethiopia, 1935
Spanish Civil War
Francisco Franco
Rome-Berlin Axis
Rhineland, 1936
Anschluss, 1938
Munich Conference
Neville Chamberlain
Polish Corridor, Danzig
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
invasion of Poland
fall of France
Vichy France

Charles de Gaulle
Tripartite Pact, 1940
Battle of Britain: RAF vs. Luftwaffe
“Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland”
Atlantic Charter
Pearl Harbor
Grand Alliance
Jewish ghettos
Wannsee Conference
“Final Solution”
El Alamein
Battle of the Bulge
Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Tehran Conference, 1943
Yalta Conference, 1945
Potsdam Conference, 1945

  • Analyze political, economic and diplomatic factors for the failure of peace after World War I.


  • Analyze military, economic and political reasons for Germany’s loss in WWII.
  • Analyzes the causes and results of WWII


The Cold War and Nationalism

Tehran Conference
Yalta Conference
Potsdam Conference
“Iron Curtain” speech
West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)
East Germany (German Democratic Republic)
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Berlin Airlift, 1948-49
Warsaw Pact
hydrogen bomb
“massive retaliation”
Eastern Bloc
Joseph Stalin
Josip Broz Tito
Nikita Khrushchev
20th Party Congress speech
Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago
Aleksandr Solzenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
Hungarian Uprising, 1956
“Peaceful Coexistence”
Austrian independence
Geneva Conference, 1955
“space race”
U-2 incident
Berlin Wall
Cuban Missile Crisis
Leonid Brezhnev
“Prague Spring”
“socialism with a human face”
Alexander Dubcek
Brezhnev Doctrine
Willy Brandt

Salt I
Helsinki Conference
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Pope John Paul II
Lech Walesa
Atlantic Alliance
Margaret Thatcher
Helmut Kohl
Ronald Reagan
Mikhail Gorbachev
INF Treaty, 1987
START Treaty, 1990
Revolutions of 1989
German reunification
Vaclav Havel, “Velvet Revolution”
Romania, Nicolai Ceaucescu
fall of Soviet Union
Boris Yeltsin
Vladimir Putin
India, Gandhi
Dien Bien Phu
British Commonwealth of Nations
Mao Mao
Slobodan Milosevic
ethnic cleansing
Dayton Agreements
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Basques, ETA
“guest workers”

  • Identify and analyze factors that were responsible for the onset of the Cold War.


  • Analyze the ways in which the Soviet Union was able to maintain control of the Eastern Bloc nations in the period between 1945 and 1988.
  • Identify and analyze reasons for the decline of communism and Soviet influence in eastern Europe between 1968 and 1989.


  • Identify and analyze long-term causes for the fall of the Soviet Union?
  • “Western liberalism won the Cold War.” Assess the validity of this statement.


  • Identify and analyze factors that led to the de-colonization of Europe’s empires in Africa and Asia.
  • Analyze the ways in which nationalism played a major role in European affairs between 1945 and 2001.


  • To what extent was nationalism the dominant force in eastern Europe between 1989 and 2001?

Economic Recovery and European Unity:

Bretton Woods Conference, 1944
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
World Bank
United Nations
Security Council
General Assembly
Christian Democrats
Charles de Gaulle
French Fourth Republic
Catholic Party
Clement Attlee
Labour Party
Conrad Adenaur
“economic miracle”
Keynesian economics
Jean Monnet
Ludwig Erhard
“welfare state”
mixed economy
Margaret Thatcher
“guest workers”
Council of Europe
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
Schuman Plan

 “the Six”
European Economic Community (EEC), “Common Market”
Treaty of Rome, 1957
French Fifth Republic
European Union (EU)
Maastricht Treaty, 1991
Euro dollar, euro
oil crisis
Francois Mitterand
“Big Science”
space race
Yuri Gagarin
“Brain Drain”, The American Challenge
French student revolt, 1968
women’s rights movement
Simone de Beauvoir
Second Vatican Council (Vatican II)

  • Analyze the factors that resulted in the “economic miracle.”
  • Account for the rise of the “welfare state” in Europe after World War II. What were some of the challenges to the “welfare” state in the late-twentieth century?
  • Analyze changes in European family patterns after World War II.
  • What factors led to the rise of the middle class after World War II?
  • To what extent had women’s movements achieved their objectives by the late-twentieth century?



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