The Ferment of Reform and Culture study guide and summary

 

 

 

The Ferment of Reform and Culture study guide and summary

 

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The Ferment of Reform and Culture study guide and summary

Ch. 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790-1860
Religious beliefs in America – including those of many Founders:
The Deist faith embraced all of the following:
the reliance on reason rather then revolution
belief in a Supreme Being
belief in human beings’ capacity for moral behavior
denial of the divinity of Jesus
But not the concept of original sin
Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of
– a Supreme Being who created the universe
By 1850, organized religion in America – had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor
Unitarians endorsed the concept of – salvation through good works
An early-nineteenth-century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the
– Unitarians
Second Great Awakening:
All of the following are true of the Second Great Awakening:
it resulted in the conversion of countless souls
it encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms
it strengthened democratic denominations like the Baptists and Methodists
it was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion
But it was not as large as the First Great Awakening
Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in
– a strong religious influence in many areas of American life
As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated:
opposition to slavery
a perfect Christian kingdom on earth
opposition to alcohol
public prayer by women
The greatest of the revival preachers of the Second Great Awakening was – Charles G. Finney
The Second Great Awakening tended to – promote religious diversity
The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the
– Methodists and Baptists
The Second Great Awakening tended to – widen the lines between classes and regions
Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening
– lacked much intellectual vitality (many of those universities are around still but now academic)
Latter Day Saints [Mormons]:
The Mormon religion originated in – the Burned-Over District of New York
The original prophet of the Mormon religion was – Joseph Smith
Brigham Young, The Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City, and polygamy (do not take out of context or exaggerate)
One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their
– emphasis on cooperative or group effort
[Utah, violence against, violence of, persecution – why?]
The Mormons were advocates or practitioners of – theocracy and polygamy (do not take out of context or exaggerate)
Public education:
Tax-supported public education – was deemed essential for social stability and democracy
In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were
– chiefly available to educate the children of the poor
Webster’s Dictionary:
Noah Webster’s dictionary – helped to standardize the American language
Status of Women:
One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the
belief that – too much learning would injure women’s brains and ruin their health
Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the Second Great Awakening because
– evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their
activity outside the home
Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were
– moral sensibility and artistic refinement
New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of – prison and asylum reform
Temperance movement (prohibition of alcohol):
The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s
– stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many
[women were active in this movement – why?]
Neal Dow sponsored the Main Law of 1851, which called for
– a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor
Gender Roles of Men & Women in the Economy:
Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because
– the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles
Abolition (puts women’s rights on hold):
By the 1850s, the crusade for women’s rights was eclipsed by – abolitionism
Utopian communities (interesting in a way):
According to John Humphrey Noyes, the key to happiness is – the suppression of selfishness
The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following:
no private property
sharing of ALL material goods
belief in a vengeful deity
improvement of the human race through eugenics
But not in strictly monogamous marriages
The key to Oneida’s financial success was – the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware
The Oneida colony declined due to – widespread criticism of its sexual practices
Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held – cooperative social and economic practices
– as one of their founding ideals
The most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at – Oneida, New York

American medical profession used to be a joke:
The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for – its still primitive standards
American science:
When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was – more interested in practical matters [$$$]
Each individual below is matched with the correct description:
Louis Agassiz – Harvard biologist
Gilbert Stuart – portrait artist
John J. Audubon – author of Birds of America
American art:
America’s artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century – were least notable in architecture
The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting – landscapes
American literature:
A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the
– wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812
Each writer below is matched with his work:
Washington Irving – The Sketch Book, with “Rip Van Winkle”
James Fenimore Cooper – Leatherstocking Tales
Ralph Waldo Emerson – “The American Scholar”
Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through – an inner light
All of the following influenced transcendental thought:
German philosophers
Oriental religions
individualism
love of nature
But not Catholic belief
“Civil Disobedience,” an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was
written by the transcendentalist – Henry David Thoreau
The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses
and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was – Walt Whitman
The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was – William Gilmore Simms
One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was – Edgar Allan Poe
Each writer below is matched with his work:
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – “Hiawatha”
Edgar Allan Poe – The Scarlet Letter
Herman Melville – Moby Dick
The Knickerbocker group of American writers included - Washington Irving and William Cullen Bryant
American transcendentalist writers included -
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
Transcendentalists were dedicated to - Individualism and self-reliance
American historians tend to be from New England in the 19th century:
Virtually all the distinguished historians of the early-nineteenth-century America came from – New England
American education:
Early-nineteenth-century American educators included:
Horace Mann
William H. McGuffey
Noah Webster
Emma Willard
Mary Lyon

 

Social reformers in early 19th century America:
Social reformers of the early nineteenth century wanted to -
find a practical application for their evangelical religion
reaffirm traditional values in the confusion of industrialization
fulfill the ideals of American democracy
Women in America (again):
In early-nineteenth-century America -
women could not vote
married women could not retain ownership of their property
In early-nineteenth-century America, men usually regarded women as -
having a sharply distinct economic role in society
physically and emotionally weak but morally superior to men
having their proper place in the home
The leaders of the women’s rights movement in the early nineteenth century included -
Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony

 

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