The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis



The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis


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The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis

Chapter 9 Section 1
Key Terms
Thomas Jefferson- third president of America; ran against adams and won
Aaron Burr- jefferson’s running mate who tied with him but became vice president
Laissez faire-the government should not interfere in the economy
John Marshall- Chief Justice of Supreme Court who thought Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional and established judiciary review
Judicial review- the authority of the Supreme Court to strike down unconstitutional laws

Key Ideas
The Election of 1800
A Bitter Campaign
Adams loses to a tie between Jefferson and Burr, his running mate
Jefferson became the decided president
12th amendment: electors vote separately for president and vice president

Jefferson’s Inauguration
First to be inaugurated in Washington DC, the new capital
Preached a less aristocratic government

  • Walked to the inauguration
  • Shook hands with the people


Jefferson Charts a New Course
Laissez Faire
Government shouldn’t interfere with the economy
Jefferson’s way of limiting federal power

New Republican Policies

  • Reduce the number of people in government
  • Shrunk military size and budget
  • Cut all federal taxes- only tariffs on imported goods
  • Pardoned all effected by sedition act

Federalist Policies Remain

  • He believed America should pay all debt
  • He didn’t fire Federalists- let them keep their jobs as long as they were loyal

The Supreme Court and Judicial Review
Marbury vs. Madison
Judiciary act of 1789 was ruled unconstitutional
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Supreme Court’s power comes from Constitution, not congress
The principle of judicial review was established- Supreme Court can strike down unconstitutional laws

Chapter 9 Section 2
Key Terms
Expedition-a long and carefully organized journey
Meriwether Lewis- army captain chosen by Jefferson to be the leader of western expedition
William Clark- army officer chosen by Lewis to be co leader of western expedition
Continental divide- the place on a continent that separates river systems flowing in opposite directions
Zebulon Pike-explored Spanish New Mexico after his failed attempt to climb the Rockies and was arrested but then released

Key Ideas
The Nation Looks West
Pinckney Treaty- allowed american use of Mississippi river and New Orleans port
Spain secretly gave Louisiana territory to France
Jefferson was worried because napoleon, the French dictator, set out to conquer Europe and was now trying to conquer America, starting with Louisiana

Buying Louisiana
A Surprise Offer

  • Haitian revolution led by Toussaint L’Ouverture
  • verge of war with Britain

France offered to sell Louisiana territory for $15 million, or 4 cents per acre
Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the country, had millions of acres of fertile land and natural resources, and gave America full control of the Mississippi river

Jefferson’s Dilemma
Jefferson had problem- constitution didn’t say president has the power to buy land from a foreign country
He decided he did have the authority because the constitution allows presidents to make treaties

Lewis and Clark Explore the West
Expedition to explore the west and prepare it

  • geography
  • plants, and animals
  • natives in region
  • waterways between the Mississippi river and pacific ocean

Into the Unknown
Reached the Dakota area
Sacagawea- Shoshone native, translator, helps the expedition

Crossing the Rockies
Climbed the Rocky mts and reached the continental divide
Met Shoshone Indians whose leader was Sacagawea’s brother- got the horses needed to cross the mountain

At the Pacific
Reached pacific ocean in a dense fog
Took half a year to return- returned safely

Pike’s Expedition
Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana territory
He traveled to the Rocky mts and tried to climb it but had to stop 2/3 of the way up because of snow
His return route took him to Spanish New Mexico where they was arrested by Spanish
Pike’s journey generated america’s interest in Spanish lands

Chapter 9 Section 3
Key terms
Tribute- money paid by one country to another in return for protection
Stephen Decatur- led American sailors in raiding Tripoli and burning down captured American ships
Embargo- government order that forbids foreign trade
Smuggling- act of illegally importing or exporting goods
Tecumseh- Shawnee who organized natives into leagues
William Henry Harrison- fought natives Battle of Tippecanoe and won

Key ideas
Defeating the Barbary States
Piracy Plagues the Mediterranean Sea
Pirates came from four small countries: Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, and Tripoli
These countries were known as the Barbary States
Tributes, and in exchange the rulers agreed to leave their ships alone
Jefferson refused to pay tributes
Decatur burnt the ship Philedelphia so the pirates couldn’t use it
Marines take Tripoli
It inspired a wave of confidence in the ability of America to deal with foreign powers

American Neutrality is Challenged
Britain and France are at war again
The US remained neutral and kept trading with both France and Britain
Both countries seize U.S. ships
British impressments reinstated

Jefferson Responds With an Embargo
Embargo Act
Embargo- a government order that forbids foreign trade
Congress passed the Embargo Act which imposed a total embargo on American ships sailing to any foreign port
American economy suffers
Americans turned to smuggling- illegally importing and exporting
Congress repealed the Embargo Act and passed a law allowing trade with everyone but France and Britain

Tecumseh and the Prophet
Natives Face Tougher Hardships:

  • Diseases like measles, smallpox, etc. killed thousands
  • Settlers took over hunting grounds, and animals the natives hunted and depended on were driven away
  • As the native population declined, the power of their traditional leaders declined too

New Leaders Take Charge
Two Shawnee brothers- Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa who was also known as the Prophet- lead resistance and form a league

Harrison’s Victory
William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, marched a thousand soldiers against Shawnee villages
Harrison defeated the natives in the Battle of Tippecanoe
Becomes american hero

Chapter 9 Section 4
Key terms
Nationalism- pride in one’s country
War hawks- those eager for war with Britain
Blockade- action of shutting down a port of road to prevent people or supplies from coming into an area or leaving it
Oliver Hazard Perry- won the naval battle on Lake Erie at Put-In-Bay
Andrew Jackson- won the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in the south
Secede- withdraw

Key ideas
The Move Towards War
James Madison becomes the 4th president
Americans felt a new sense of nationalism- pride in one’s country
Strong nationalists known as war hawks
Henry Clay and John Calhoun
Congress declares war on Britain

  • Britain supplies natives with weapons and supplies
  • British impressments continue

Early Days of the War
Britain and america are unprepared for war
United States: Jefferson’s military cuts
Britain: war with france, other colonies to worry about
Britain blockades of the american ports
USS Constitution “Old Ironsides” defeated British Guerriere

The War in the West and South
Invasion of Canada
American General Hull invades Canada and retreats
Hull’s army captured by General Block - serious defeat for US
Commander Perry and General Harrison defeat british on Lake Erie
General Harrison won Battle of Thames where Tecumseh was killed
Conflict in the South
Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend
The treaty that ended the fighting forced natives to give up land

Final Battles
British finally defeated napoleon and sent more troops to fight the United States
The British Attack Washington and Baltimore
British burned government buildings including the White House
British moved on to Baltimore to capture Fort McHenry but America beat off the attack
Francis Scott Key watched the attack and wrote the poem “The Star-Spangled Banner” which became the national anthem of the U.S.

The War Ends
Britain was tired of war
Treaty of Ghent ends the war
General Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans

Protests and Peace
Federalists and New Englanders disliked the war
Mr. Madison’s war- New England threatens to secede
Hartford Convention: wanted to secede
The War of 1812 was the second war of independence
It secured america’s independence and earned respect internationally


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The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis

Ch. 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800-1812
John Adams:
One of the greatest problems that John Adams and the Federalists faced in the election of 1800 was
– Adams’s refusal to take the country to war against France
[Alien and Sedition Acts]
Thomas Jefferson:
In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following
having robbed a widow
having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave women
being an atheist
having robbed children of their trust funds
In the 1800 election Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because
– Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson
The Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans presented themselves as all of the following:
strict constructionists – protectors of agrarian purity
believers of political and economic liberty – strong supporters of state’s rights
They did not present themselves as believers in a strong central government
Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the – South and West
In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was chosen president by the – House of Representatives
Thomas Jefferson’s “Revolution of 1800” was remarkable in that it – marked the peaceful and orderly transfer
of power on the basis of election results accepted by all parties
Thomas Jefferson was elected president by the House of Representatives when
– a few Federalists refrained from voting
Thomas Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include all of the following
to return to the original spirit of the revolution
restore the republican experiment
check the growth of the republican experiment
halt the decay of virtue
But not to support the establishment of a strong army
As president, Thomas Jefferson’s stand on several political issues that he had previously championed
– was reversed
With Thomas Jefferson’s election as president, the Democratic-Republican party
– grew less unified as the Federalist party began to fade and lose power
Thomas Jefferson’s presidency was characterized by his – moderation in the administration of public policy
On becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed
– the excise tax on whiskey [Whiskey Rebellion]
When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Thomas Jefferson as president
– left practically all of them intact
Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams’ last-minute appointment of new federal judges
mainly because – it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government
[“Midnight Judges”]
Chief Justice John Marshall:
The chief justice who carried out, more than any other federal official, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton
concerning a powerful federal government was – John Marshall [Federalist]
Before he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall’s service at Valley Forge during the
American Revolution convinced him – of the drawbacks of feeble central authority

As chief justice of the United States, John Marshall helped to ensure that
– the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government
The legal precedent for judicial review was established when
– the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
The case of Marbury v. Madison involved the question of who had the right to
– declare an act of Congress unconstitutional [Judicial Review]
John Marshall, as chief justice of the United States, helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by
– asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation
Thomas Jefferson (Again):
Thomas Jefferson’s failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase for
“high crimes and misdemeanors” meant that
– judicial independence and the separation of powers had been preserved
Thomas Jefferson distrusted large standing armies because they – could be used to establish a dictatorship
Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because
– they could not march inland and endanger liberties
Thomas Jefferson had strong misgivings about the wisdom of – maintaining a large standing army
Thomas Jefferson’s first major foreign-policy decision was to – send a naval squadron to the Mediterranean
Thomas Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the
– Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States [Barbary Coast Pirates – North Africa – Libya today]
To guard American shores, Thomas Jefferson – constructed two hundred tiny gunboats
Louisiana Purchase”:
In order to purchase New Orleans from France, Thomas Jefferson
– decided to make an alliance with his old enemy Britain
Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because
he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo
he hoped that the territory would one day help America to thwart the ambitions of the British
he did not want to drive America into the arms of the British
yellow fever killed many French troops
Jefferson had authorized American negotiators to purchase only – New Orleans and the Floridas – from France
Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because
– he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional  [So, why did he do it then?]
{How do you think the Indians that lived there felt about France selling the land?}
Lewis and Clark’s expedition through the Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the following
a rich harvest of scientific observations – maps
hair-raising adventure stories – knowledge of the Indians of the region
But it did not yield treaties with several Indian nations
Lewis and Clark demonstrated the viability of – an overland trail to the Pacific
Dueling can lead to death & in Burr’s case, treason!:
After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr – plotted to divide the United States
What was so “impressive” about British sailors that caused them to kidnap American sailors?:
The British policy of impressments was a kind of – forced enlistment
The British impressed American sailors into the British navy because – they needed more men
The Chesapeake incident involved the flagrant use of – impressments
Naval conflicts on the high seas for a young and weak nation lead to a mistake by President Jefferson:
To deal with British and French violations of America’s neutrality, Thomas Jefferson
– enacted an economic embargo [the Ograbme snapping turtle political cartoon]
Thomas Jefferson’s embargo failed for all of the following reasons
he underestimated the determination of the British
Britain produced a bumper grain crop
Latin America opened its ports for commerce
he miscalculated the difficulty of enforcing it
President Jefferson’s foreign policy of economic coercion – stimulated manufacturing in the United States
Macon’s Bill No. 2 – permitted trade with all nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted its
commercial restrictions on American trade, the United States would stop trading with the other
James Madison:
President James Madison made a major foreign-policy mistake when he
– accepted Napoleon’s promise to recognize America’s rights [war with England]
War with the world’s superpower again?:
By 1810, the most insistent demand for a declaration of war against Britain came from – the West and South
The war hawks demanded war with Britain because they wanted to do all of the following
wipe out renewed Indian resistance [to expand in West & South]
defend American rights
gain more territory
revenge the manhandling of American sailors
The only argument not put forth by the war hawks as a justification for a declaration of war against Britain was
that – Britain’s commercial restrictions had come close to destroying America’s profitable New England
shipping business
War with Indians:
The following events are in chronological order
Embargo Act – war hawks enter Congress – Battle of Tippecanoe – declaration of war on Britain
Tecumseh argued that Indians should – not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed
Native American leader Tecumseh was killed in 1813 at the – Battle of the Thames
The battle of Tippecanoe resulted in – the death of the dream of an Indian confederacy
War of 1812 (1812-1814):
In 1812, James Madison turned to war – to restore confidence in the republican experiment [really?]
Seafaring New England opposed the War of 1812 because of all of the following
the Northeast Federalists sympathized with England
it resented the Republican’s sympathy with Napoleon
Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada
it could result in more agrarian states
Once begun, the War of 1812 was supported strongly by – the West and South
Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada because
– it was too agrarian and would give more voted to the Democratic-Republicans
During the War of 1812, the New England states
– lent more money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army


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The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis

Thomas Jefferson

Born in what is now Albermarle County, Virginia, Thomas Jefferson was educated at William and Mary College and studied law upon graduation. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1769 and established his reputation as an influential thinker and writer with his pamphlet A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), in which he argued that Americans did not need to be bound to the British monarchy. Jefferson went on to be a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia and, in 1776, was elected to join four other committee members to draft what would become the Declaration of Independence, a document that is primarily Jefferson's composition. Jefferson left the Congress later that year, entering the Virginia House of Delegates, and was elected governor in 1779. Unable to protect Richmond against a British invasion, he resigned in 1781, having lost the confidence of the people. Jefferson lived quietly at his residence, Monticello, writing his only book, Notes on the State of Virginia, before being appointed minister to France and serving with Benjamin Franklin on the committee for the Treaty of Paris. He ran for the American presidency in 1796 but lost to John Adams and accepted the vice president's role instead. Jefferson was elected president in 1800, the first to be inaugurated in Washington. He was also a dedicated farmer as well as an accomplished architect, having designed Monticello, the Virginia state capitol, and the original buildings of the University of Virginia. Always a great reader, Jefferson amassed a library that included over ten thousand volumes and formed the basis for the Library of Congress.

The last years of his life were spent in retirement at Monticello, during which period he founded, designed, and directed the building of the University of Virginia.

Jurist, diplomat, writer, inventor, philosopher, architect, gardener, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase, Thomas Jefferson requested that only three of his many accomplishments be noted on his tomb at Monticello:
•          Author of the Declaration of American Independence
•          Author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
•          And Father of the University of Virginia


Thomas Jefferson as an Inventor

Thomas Jefferson's design for a plow, ca. 1794.
President Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), one of Virginia's largest planters, considered agriculture to be “a science of the very first order,” and he studied it with great zeal and commitment. Jefferson introduced numerous plants to the United States, and he frequently exchanged farming advice and seeds with like-minded correspondents. Of particular interest to the innovative Jefferson was farm machinery, especially the development of a plow which would delve deeper than the two to three inches achieved by a standard wooden plow. Jefferson needed a plow and method of cultivation that would help prevent the soil erosion that plagued Virginia's Piedmont farms. To this end, he and his son-in-law, Thomas Mann Randolph (1768–1828), who managed much of Jefferson's land, worked together to develop iron and mould board plows, like the one shown here, that were specifically designed for hillside plowing, in that they turned the furrow to the downhill side. As the calculations on the sketch show, Jefferson's plows were often based on mathematical formulas, which helped facilitate their duplication and improvement.


Macaroni Machine ca. 1787
Thomas Jefferson acquired a taste for continental cooking while serving as American minister to France in the 1780s. When he returned to the United States in 1790 he brought with him a French cook and many recipes for French, Italian, and other au courant cookery. Jefferson not only served his guests the best European wines, but he liked to dazzle them with delights such as ice cream, peach flambe, macaroni, and macaroons. This drawing of a macaroni machine, with the sectional view showing holes from which dough could be extruded, reflects Jefferson's curious mind and his interest and aptitude in mechanical matters.

Thomas Jefferson also designed an improved version of the dumbwaiter.

Jefferson’s Comments on Religion
“It is not to be understood that I am with him (Jesus Christ) in all his doctrines. I am a Materialist; he takes the side of Spiritualism; he preaches the efficacy of repentence toward forgiveness of sin; I require a counterpoise of good works to redeem it. Among the sayings and discourses imputed to him by his biographers, I find many passages of fine imagination, correct morality, and of the most lovely benevolence; and others, again, of so much ignorance, so much absurdity, so much untruth, charlatanism and imposture, as to pronounce it impossible that such contradictions should have proceeded from the same being. I separate, therefore, the gold from the dross; restore him to the former, and leave the latter to the stupidity of some, the roguery of others of his disciples. Of this band of dupes and imposters, Paul was the great Coryphaeus, and the first corruptor of the doctrines of Jesus.” — to W. Short, 1820

“The doctrines of Jesus are simple, and tend all to the happiness of man. But compare with these the demoralizing dogmas of Calvin. 1. That there are three Gods. 2. That good works, or the love of our neighbor, is nothing. 3. That faith is every thing, and the more incomprehensible the proposition, the more merit the faith. 4. That reason in religion is of unlawful use. 5. That God, from the beginning, elected certain individuals to be saved, and certain others to be damned; and that no crimes of the former can damn them; no virtues of the latter save.” — to Benjamin Waterhouse, Jun. 26, 1822

 “Creeds have been the bane of the Christian church ... made of Christendom a slaughter-house.” — to Benjamin Waterhouse, Jun. 26, 1822

 “The truth is, that the greatest enemies of the doctrine of Jesus are those, calling themselves the expositors of them, who have perverted them to the structure of a system of fancy absolutely incomprehensible, and without any foundation in his genuine words. And the day will come, when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the Supreme Being as his father, in the womb of a virgin, will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter.” — to John Adams, Apr. 11, 1823

 “The metaphysical insanities of Athanasius, of Loyola, and of Calvin, are, to my understanding, mere lapses into polytheism, differing from paganism only by being more unintelligible.” — to Jared Sparks, 1820

Jefferson compares to Franklin and Edwards in being an intellectual adventurer, interested in many fields of study and willing to trust reason, direct observation, and logic, rather than prevailing opinions and conventions. He was a slaveholder who drafted one of the fundamental affirmations of human rights, the Declaration of Independence; he was an aristocrat who took enormous risks with his social standing and personal fortune; and he was a key figure in the theory and practice of American higher education, helping to begin a revolution there which continues to this day. The NAAL selections give us a sense of Jefferson's range and contradictions.

 1. Jefferson's Autobiography offers us two versions of the Declaration of Independence—the draft that Jefferson presented to the Continental Congress, and the final version that was published and sent to King George III. We have, therefore, a wonderful opportunity to see a founding document undergo substantial revision and to speculate on the political and moral motives and rhetorical tastes which caused these changes to be made. In the draft, look at the long deleted paragraph beginning “He has waged cruel war against human nature itself” and at the deleted excerpt toward the end of the document, beginning “At this very time too, they are permitting their chief magistrate . . .” Why exclude these passages? Who is the implicit audience? Are there differences between the rhetoric of these deleted passages and the general tone and style of the final document? Do you see any relationship between the values implicit in these revisions and the values that a modern writer might have in mind as he or she revises prose?

 2. In Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), Jefferson offers a long commentary on Native American peoples, apparently based on direct encounters and on consultation of published authorities. These are among the most detailed and dispassionate observations offered at that time or before, but Jefferson was writing several generations before the development of systematic anthropology. What dubious generalizations does he work from or arrive at? Where do his own cultural values and paradigms show themselves in his descriptions?


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The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis

Chapter 7
The Jeffersonian Era

Chapter Summary

The period covered in this chapter was marked by definition and expansion. Having achieved political independence, Americans struggled to achieve cultural independence as well, and this search for self-identity touched almost every phase of the nation's life. "American" tastes in music, literature, and art developed. Religious bodies with ties to colonial ways declined as the Second Great Awakening swept America.  The global process of industrialization began to have an impact in the United States while technology, unrestrained by mercantile regulations, expanded to solve problems that were particularly American.  Meanwhile American politics began to take on characteristics and respond to needs with little precedent in European systems. At the center of this activity, at times leading it and at times being led, was Thomas Jefferson, a president whose versatility seemed to mirror the diversity of the nation. A pragmatic politician, Jefferson was also a committed idealist¾one who deserves to be the symbol of the age that bears his name. The War of 1812 did more than test the army and navy of the United States¾it tested the nation's ability to survive deep internal divisions that threatened America's independence as surely as did the forces of Great Britain. Hoping to keep his nation out of war, Jefferson followed a policy that kept the peace but raised fears among his political enemies. The rest of the nation, feeling that Britain was insulting its sovereignty, rallied to the president. In the end, these divisions, although they hampered the war effort, did not survive the conflict, and the United States entered the postwar period with a new sense of nationalism.

Objectives  - A thorough study of Chapter 7 should enable the student to understand

1.   Thomas Jefferson's views on education, and the role of education in the concept of a "virtuous and enlightened citizenry," and how these views were put into practice.
2.   The indications of American cultural nationalism that were beginning to emerge during the first two decades of the nineteenth century.
3.   The evidence noticeable in the first two decades that the nation was not destined to remain the simple, agrarian republic envisioned by Jefferson.
4.   The political philosophy of Jefferson and the extent to which he was able to adhere to his philosophy while president.
5.   The Jefferson-Federalist struggle over the judiciary¾its causes, the main points of conflict, and the importance of the outcome for the future of the nation.
6.   President Jefferson's constitutional reservations concerning the Louisiana Purchase and the significance of his decision to accept the bargain.
7.   The reasons for President Jefferson's sponsorship of the Lewis and Clark expedition and the importance of those explorations.
8.   The many problems involved in understanding Aaron Burr and his "conspiracy."
9.   What Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were attempting to accomplish by "peaceable coercion," and why their efforts were not successful.
10.   The numerous explanations of the causes of the War of 1812 and why there is so much disagreement among historians.
11.   The problems caused by Tecumseh's attempts at confederation and by the Spanish presence in Florida as Americans surged westward.
12.   The state of the nation in 1812 and how the Madison administration waged war against the world’s foremost naval power.
13.   The extent of the opposition to the American war effort, and the ways in which the New England Federalists attempted to show their objections.
14.   The ways in which the skill of the American peace commissioners and the international problems faced by England contributed to a satisfactory¾for Americans¾peace settlement.

15.   How the industrial revolution in the United States was largely a product of rapid changes in Great Britain and the impact this revolution had on American society.

Main Themes

1.  How Americans expressed their cultural independence.
2.  The impact of industrialism on the United States and its people.
3.  The role that Thomas Jefferson played in shaping the American character.
4.  How the American people and their political system responded to the nation's physical expansion.
5.  How American ambitions and attitudes came into conflict with British policies and led to the War of 1812.
6.  How Americans were able to ‘win’ the war and the peace that followed.


Points for Discussion

1.  What was the "vision of America" shared by Thomas Jefferson and his followers? How did American cultural life in the early nineteenth century reflect the Republican vision of the nation's future?
2.  Many Federalists feared what would happen if Thomas Jefferson was elected. On what did they base these fears, and what did Jefferson do to allay them?
3.  Politically, was Jefferson's election as president in 1800 a "revolution"? In what ways did he alter or accept Federalist beliefs and practices?
4.  How did the Federalists respond to Republican programs? If the Federalists favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution, why did they protest when Jefferson used a loose interpretation as well? What was it in the Republican program that the Federalists saw as a threat and how did they respond?
5.  American society of the early nineteenth century might be described as "patriarchal". Discuss the implications for women, African Americans, and Native Americans.
6.  Describe the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England. Could America have guarded against similar problems?
7.  Analyze Jefferson's conflict with the courts. Include a discussion of the Judiciary Act of 1801, Marbury v. Madison, the role of John Marshall, and Jefferson's attempt to impeach Federalist judges.
8.  Explain the international circumstances that made possible the Louisiana Purchase. Analyze the political and economic consequences of that transaction.
9.  How might Aaron Burr's "conspiracy" have been judged by New England Federalists, by Jeffersonian Republicans, and by western settlers? Explain.
10.  Many historians view the War of 1812 as the "second American war for independence," but is this an accurate characterization? In what ways did British policies prior to 1812 threaten our independence? Had the United States not fought the war, what might the results have been?  Assess these questions, and determine if we were indeed fighting for "independence."
11.  What were the causes of the War of 1812? Was it a "justifiable" war for the United States? What group considered it unjustified and on what grounds?
12.  In what ways did the United States attempt to avoid the War of 1812? Why were these attempts unsuccessful?
13.  How and why did both belligerents during the War of 1812 seem incapable of executing an effective offensive strategy?
14.  How and why did New England Federalists protest the War of 1812? To what extent was their protest successful?
15.  What happened to the Federalists? For the first decade under the Constitution, the Federalist party held the nation together, started the government working on a day-to-day basis, and set precedents that are still held valid. Twenty years later, it had all but ceased to exist as a party. Why? Examine the events and issues that accompanied the decline of the Federalists, and determine what caused this powerful party to fall.
16.  Although generally viewed as only a secondary aspect of the War of 1812, the conflict between white Americans and the western Indians was more conclusive and perhaps more significant for the nation's future. Analyze that statement, discussing the causes and results of America's early "Indian problem."
17.  Who won the War of 1812? Explain your answer in terms of both the reality of the Treaty of Ghent and the illusion created by the Battle of New Orleans.
18.  The War of 1812, although fought for free seas and sailors' rights, was opposed by the group most directly interested in seagoing commerce, the New England merchants. Why? Why did these people not see a threat to their independence in the policies of Great Britain, yet they did see the policies of Jefferson and Madison as just that? Put yourself in the place of those merchants, and, from their point of view, explain (and justify) the position they took.
19.  Why was horse racing a "natural" leisure activity for early Americans?  How was this pastime "bounded by lines of class and race"?
20.  How did the industrial revolution in Great Britain lead to and influence the industrial revolution in the US?
21.  How did the industrial revolution change societies in the United States and the world?



Key Terms
Jeffersonian Vision                       Toussaint L’Ouverture     Interchangeable parts       Noah Webster
Wasington Irving              Lewis and Clark               LA Purchase                     Chesapeake Affair
Mason Weems                  Zebulon Pike                    Embargo                                        Non-Intercourse Act
Deism                               Burr-Hamilton Duel         Turnpike Era                    Macon’s Bill #2
Rev of 1800                     Burr Conspiracy               William Henry Harrison   Barbary Pirates
Impressment                     Unitarianism                     Tecumseh/The Prophet     War Hawks
Marbury v. Madison        Midnight judges                Henry Clay                       John Marshall
Samuel Chase                   Eli Whitney                      Samuel Slater                   Treaty of Ghent
Hartford Convention


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The Jefferson Presidency Summary and Analysis