The Last Nomadic Challenges from Chinggis Khan to Timur study guide chapter summary



The Last Nomadic Challenges from Chinggis Khan to Timur study guide chapter summary


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The Last Nomadic Challenges from Chinggis Khan to Timur study guide chapter summary

Chapter 14 Study Guide:  The Last Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur


  • The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan


The Mongols intervened periodically in Chinese history. But tribal divisions and rivalries with neighboring ethnic groups, particularly Turkic peoples, had long blunted the expansive potential of Mongol warrior culture. Within the first decades of the 13th century, because of the political strategies and military accomplishments of Chinggis Khan, the Mongols and allies nomadic groups built an empire that stretched from the Middle East to the East China Sea.

 The Mongol Drive to the West

                   While pursuing a fleeing Persian ruler, the Mongols made their first contacts
with the kingdoms to the west of Chinggis Khan’s Empire. Subjugating these regions became the projects of the armies of the Golden Horde, the Mongol khanate, which ruled the western lands. After the death of Chinggis Khan, the empire was divided into four khanates. The khanate to the south, called the Ilkhan Empire, attempted to conquer the Muslim world. Although neither Europe nor the Islamic lands were subdued, Mongol successes affected the regions’ history.

  • The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History

Of all the areas the Mongols conquered, perhaps none was more closely administered than China. The Mongol interlude in Chinese history lasted only about a century. Although the Chinese attempted to assimilate the Mongols from the start, the Mongols managed to retain a distinct culture and social separateness until they were driven back beyond the Great Wall in the late 1360s. They also opened China to influences from Arab and Persian lands, and even to contacts with Europe, which came to full fruition in the centuries of indigenous Chinese revival that followed under the Ming Dynasty.

  • Conclusion: The Mongol Legacy


The Mongol impact on the many areas they raided and conquered varied greatly. The sedentary peoples on the farms and in the cities, who suffered the fury of their assaults and the burden of their demands, understandably emphasized the destructive side of the Mongol legacy. But the Mongol campaigns also influenced the course of human history, especially through disrupting the political map. The Mongol empire promoted trade and other important exchanges between civilizations. Mongol rule also brought stable, often effective government and religious toleration to peoples over much of Asia.

*(Genghis Khan in the west)


Intro (p. 315)

  1. How big was the empire?
    • During the life if Chinggis:


    • Under Chinggis Khan’s sons & grandsons:


    • How long did it last?


  1. Despite their reputation as savages – what was the real effect of Mongol domination, especially for merchants?


Note – For this Study Guide - majors sections (those in blue) will be designated, however individual sub-sections (those in burnt orange) will not.

(14.1) The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan(p. 317)

  1. Describe the lifestyle of the Nomadic herdsmen.
    • Political:leaders


    • Economic:
    • Religion: NOT COVERED in SECTION


    • Social:
    • Interactions with Others:


    • Achievements:
    • eNvironmental


  1. Chinggis Khan:
    • Original name:         


    • Date:            
    • What happened in 1182:


    • What happened in 1206:


  1. Most effective weapon of the Mongol warrior? Describe its effectiveness.


  1. Why was the Mongol cavalry so successful?


  1. How did the end of the tribe rivalries contribute to the Mongol success?


  1. Describe the Mongol tumens?


  1. How did the khan deal with deserters?


  1. What strategic and technological advantages were used by the Mongols?
  1. What weapons did the Mongols use to attack cities? Once captured what happened to the people?


  1. After dominating north China toward what empire did the Mongols first turn? …and next?


  1. What was the war tactic of the Mongols?


  1. What did Chinggis Khan do with the captured Turkish cavalry?


  1. Describe the exchange of ideas that flourished at Karakorum, the capital?


  1. What models were used to create the “bureaucracy” at Karakorum?


  1.  What was the main “purpose” of Mongol laws?


  1. Describe the effects “Pax Mongola” the time of peace during the Mongol Empire. What was meant by the reference to a “golden platter”?


  1. Who inherited power from Chinggis Khan after his death in 1227?  


(14.2) The Mongol Drive to the West (p. 325)

  1. Why were the Mongol invaders into Russia called the “Yellow Horde”? Why were they called “tartars”?


  1. Unlike the Russian invasions of Napoleon and later Hitler where the fierce winter protected “Mother Russia”, why did the Mongols prefer to go to war in the winter?


  1. What happened to Russian cities that resisted the Mongols?


  1. How long did the Mongols control Russia?


  1. How did the Mongol invasions change the relationship of the peasants to the Russian princes?


  1. What city eventually benefited from Mongol control? Why?


  1. What happened in 1380 to strengthen the power of Moscow?


  1. How did Mongol influence affect the growth of the Russian government & culture?


  1. Why did the Christians of the west originally like the Mongols?


  1. Within 15 years of the death of Chinggis Khan, the Mongols were ready to overrun and conquer Europe. They defeated the Hungarians without any problems. The end was in sight for Europe. What happened? .


  1. Hulegu was another grandson of Chinggis Khan. What did he do?


  1. How did the Mongols “help” the Ottoman Turks become the next great Islamic power after the end of the Abbasids? .


  1. What group of Muslims finally defeated the Mongols? Where? What unexpected support did they receive?



  1. What were the positive / negative effects of the Mongol invasions for the Middle East and Europe?

(14.3) The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History (p. 329)


  1. Who directed the Mongol take-over of China? What dynasty lost to the Mongols?


  1. What “Chinese” name did Kubilai Khan give to his “dynasty”?


  1. What laws / practices attempted to maintain a division between the Chinese and the Mongols
  1. Where was the Mongol capital? What is the present-day name?


  1. What measures taken by Kubilai indicate that he wanted to adopt Chinese culture?


  1. Describe the bureaucracy of Kubilai Khan?


  1. Mongol women vs. Chinese women


  1. Describe the influence of Muslims at the court.



  1. How did Marco Polo affect the European view of China?
  1. What policies alienated the Chinese?


  1. List some of the artistic achievements during the Yuan Dynasty?


  1. How did the Yuans treat the peasants?


  1. Factors of the Fall of the House of Yuan


  1. What was the White Lotus Society?


(In Depth – The Eclipse of the Nomadic War Machine (p. 334)

  1. What are the warring advantages of the nomads?


  1. How did the Black Death affect the nomadic warriors


 Conclusion (p. 334)

  1. Who was the leader of the Turks that threatened Europe in the 1360s? Where did he go?


  1. Why is he most remembered?



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