US history age of Jackson 1820-1850 study guide and summary



US history age of Jackson 1820-1850 study guide and summary


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US history age of Jackson 1820-1850 study guide and summary


Age of Jackson (1820-1850):


Panic of 1819 – Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly.


Election of 1824 – “corrupt bargain” and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson.


Tariff of Abominations – under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade.


Jackson’s Presidency – focused on the “Common Man;” removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto.


Transportation Revolution – river traffic, roadbuilding, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC.


            • Erie Canal – goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by      inland waterways


            • National Road – part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to         Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion


Indian Removal Act – Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory.


      Five Civilized Tribes – Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; “civilized” due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion.


“Trail of Tears” – Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll.


Cherokee Nation v. Georgia – first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation.


• Worcester v. Georgia – Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes


Spoils System – “rotation in office;” Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy.


      Kitchen Cabinet – Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet


Lowell mill/system – young women employed by Lowell’s textile company, housed in dormitories.


Cotton Gin – allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves.


Nullification Controversy – southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them.


      South Carolina Exposition and Protest – written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification.


Bank of the United States – destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution.


    Pet banks – small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury


    Independent Treasury Bill – government would hold itsrevenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; “America’s Second Declaration of Independence”


    Specie – paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land


Maysville Road Veto – vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state.


123. Liberty Party – supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society.


Whig Party – believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson).


John C. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner.


Marshall Court (all cases) – Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties’ consent).


Second Great Awakening – religious movements, traveling “meetings,” rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney.


      Burned-Over District – heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith’s Mormonism movement.


Horace Mann – worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix.


William Lloyd Garrison – editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement (“Am I not a woman and a sister” picture of slave woman).


Frederick Douglass – runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star.


Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 – for women’s rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence.


      Elizabeth Cady Stanton – organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization


      Angelina and Sarah Grimké – fought for women’s rights and abolition, “Men and women are created equal!”


Dorothea Dix – worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann.


John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community – John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage.


            • New Harmony – first Utopian society, by Robert Owen


Hudson River School – American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects


Transcendentalism – founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature:


Ralph Waldo Emerson – in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote “The American Scholar”.


Henry David Thoreau (Walden and On Civil Disobedience) – in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writingWalden, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants Slavery and Sectionalism (1845-1860).


Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation.


Yeoman Farmers – family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners.


Underground Railroad – network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom


    Harriet Tubman – worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom.


“Wage slaves” – northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and clothed in their old age).


Nativism – anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics.


The Alamo – Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, “Remember the Alamo”.


James K. Polk - “Dark Horse” Democratic candidate; acquired majority of western US (Mexican concession, Texas Annexation, Oregon country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury.


            • Stephen Austin – American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan            independence from Mexico


Oregon and “Fifty-four Forty or Fight!” – Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced to settle for compromise south of 49° rather than 54°40’.


Manifest Destiny – stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible, advocated by Polk.


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – acquired Mexican Cession (future California, Arizona, and New Mexico); Mexico acknowledged American annexation of Texas Wilmot Proviso – slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico; never fully passed Congress.


California Gold Rush – gold discovery in Sutter’s Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West The Civil War (1850-1880).


William Seward – Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska “Seward’s Folly”.


Compromise of 1850 – (1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas.


      Fugitive Slave Act – runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property – running away was as good as stealing).


Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin– depicted the evils of slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse); increased participation in abolitionist movement, condemned by South.


Know-Nothing (American) Party – opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic.


Popular Sovereignty – the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.


Kansas-Nebraska Act – territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed by Stephen A. Douglas.


      “Bleeding Kansas” – border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy, proslavery group attacked Lawrence, Kansas, Pottawatomie Massacre.


    Lecompton Constitution – proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), denied statehood until after secession.


    John Brown – led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God’s work.


    Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856) – John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress.


    Republican Party – formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate.


Harpers Ferry (1859) – Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North.


Dred Scott v. Sandford – slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be taken from masters except by the law, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state.


Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) – over Senate seat for Illinois (Douglas victor), Lincoln stated the country could not remain split over the issue of slavery.


    Freeport Doctrine – Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty; voters would be able to exclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves as property.


156. Fort Sumter – first shots are fired at Charleston, North Carolina


Negro Law – exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”.


Anaconda plan – the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico.


Ulysses S. Grant – won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Union commanding general.


William T. Sherman – pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, “march to the sea” (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina.


Robert E. Lee – opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyal to Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army.


162. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson – Lee’s chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer.

Battle of Antietam – Lee’s attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate, McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again.


    Emancipation Proclamation – issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states), symbolic gesture to support Union’s moral cause in the war.


Battle of Gettysburg – Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett’s Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union).


New York City draft riots (1863) – drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned.


Military Reconstruction Act (1867) – South divided into 5 military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment.


Compromise of 1877 – South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction; North wins Hayes as president Business and Labor: The Gilded Age (1865-1900) & Progressivism and Populism (1900-1920).


Andrew Carnegie – achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie Range to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner), Bessemer steel process.


Standard Oil Trust – small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market.


John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest).


Vertical and horizontal integration – beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental).


Sherman Anti-Trust Act – forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act.


United States vs. EC Knight Company – decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court – sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce.


National Labor Union – founded by William Sylvis(1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks.


Knights of Labor – founded by Uriah Stephens (1869); excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; “bread and butter” unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions).


      Terence V. Powderly – Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation).


American Federation of Labor – craft unions that left the Knights (1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts.


      Samuel Gompers – focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8- hour workday and injury liability.


“Yellow dog contracts” – fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union.


Pinkertons – detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes.


Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – 10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries).


Haymarket Bombing – bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers’ unions.


Eugene V. Debs – led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested; Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes.


Social Darwinism – natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner.


Henry George, Progress and Poverty – single tax on speculated and to ameliorate industrialization misery.


Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards – state-run economy to provide conflict-free society.


Karl Marx, Das Kapital – working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society.


Thomas Edison – electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures.


Louis Sullivan – led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings’ functions, especially in Chicago.


Interstate Commerce Act – created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC/


Social Gospel movement – stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army.


Young Men’s and Young Women’s Christian Association (YMCA & YWCA) – provided housing and recreation to city youth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth.


Jane Addams – helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty.


Hull House – Jane Addams’s pioneer settlement house (center for women’s activism and social reform) in Chicago.


Salvation Army – established by “General” William Booth, uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment to families, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues.


194. Declining death rate – sewer systems and purification of water


New immigrants vs. old immigrants – old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life; new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and often did not stay in the US.


Cult of domesticity – Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations.


William Marcy Tweed – leader of Tammany Hall, gained large sums of money through the political machine, prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail.

Tammany Hall – Democratic political machine in NYC, “supported” immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for Democratic election victories.


Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie, The Financier – attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals.


Regionalist and naturalist writers – writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane).


Bland-Allison Act (1878) – government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month; government stuck to minimum and inflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew.


Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) – government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold.


James G. Blaine – Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland).


Pendleton Civil Service Act – effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield.


Farmers’ Alliance movement – Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop – farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks


Greenback Party – supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, granger(farmer)-supported.


Populist Party – emerged from Farmers’ Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denounced Eastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes; Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, Jerry Simpson.


Convict-lease system – blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy.


Civil Rights Cases – Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens.


208. Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court legalized the “separate but equal” philosophy


Munn v. Illinois – private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest; against railroads.

Jim Crow laws – educational and residential segregation; inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans, predominantly in South.


Coxey’s Army – Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program.


Panic of 1893 – 8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads); due to stock market crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmer loans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression; decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland’s repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act.


William Jennings Bryan – repeat candidate for president,proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speechagainst gold standard; Democratic candidate (1896).


      Free silver – Populists campaigned for silver-backed money rather than gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor.


Triangle Shirtwaist fire – workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions.


Gifford Pinchot – head of federal Division of Forestry, contributed to Roosevelt’s natural conservation efforts.


Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management (Taylorism) – increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast; efficiency.


Industrial Workers of the World – supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause.


                        • “Big Bill” Haywood – leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners


Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class – satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society.


Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life – activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded the New Republic Magazine.


John Dewey – Three “R’s” - Reading, Writing, and arithmetic; social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction).


Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. – law meant to evolve as society evolves, opposed conservative majority.

Booker T. Washington – proponent of gradual gain of equal rights for African-Americans:


    “Atlanta Compromise” speech – given by BTW to ease whites’ fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois.


WEB DuBois, Souls of Black Folk – opposed BTW’s accommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas.


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People – formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement, in response to Springfield Race Riots.


Muckrakers – uncovered the “dirt” on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life; heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt; Ida Tarabell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips (Senate), Aschen School (child labor – photography), mass magazines


      Upton Sinclair, The Jungle – revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)


            • Thomas Nast – political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism


Robert La Follette – created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) – regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers.


Mann Act – made it illegal to transport women across state borders for “immoral purposes,” violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/white woman).


Women’s Christian Temperance Union – led by Francis Willard, powerful “interest group” following the civil war, urged women’s suffrage, led to Prohibition.


Charlotte Perkins Gilman – women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates).


Northern Securities Case – Northern Securities Company (JP Morgan and James G. Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as “bad” trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust.


Theodore Roosevelt – first “modern” president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassed congressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in world affairs (known as the “Trustbuster”).


Square Deal – Roosevelt’s plan that aimed to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins and Hepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act). It helped satisfy everyone.


Preservationism vs. Conservationism – Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned and regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses).


William H. Taft – “trustbuster” (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split).


Bull Moose Party – party formed from Republican split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving “Republican Old Guard” to control Republican party.


New Nationalism – federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency).


New Freedom – ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states’ rights, more active government, trustbusting, left social issues up to the states.


Woodrow Wilson – Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act.


Federal Reserve Act – created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of each bank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued “Federal Reserve Notes”.


F. Imperialism (1885 - 1920):


Pan-Americanism – James G. Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the U.S.; rejected by Latin America due to fear of U.S. dominance and satisfaction with European market.


Yellow journalism (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) – aimed to excite American imperialist interests; media bias, subjective representation of events.


Jingoism – belligerent nationalism against other threatening nations.


Secretary of State John Hay – ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes’ acceptance from the major powers.


Open Door Policy – sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the powers in mind.


Spanish American War (1898) – McKinley reluctant; armed intervention to free Cuba from Spain; Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders” made attack on Spanish at Cuba.


      Explosion of USS Maine – meant to provide evacuation opportunity for Americans in Cuba; internal accidental explosion blamed on Spanish mines, leading to Spanish - American War.


      Platt Amendment – U.S. would ensure that Cuba would be protected from European powers and maintain a place in Cuban affairs; provided coal and naval stations.


US acquisitions: Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam– granted to U.S. at the end of Spanish-American War; Philippines were captured after treaty, and thus not part of spoils, but kept as territory with an inevitable movement for independence; Philippines and Hawaii steps toward Asia.


Naval battle in Manila Bay, Philippines – Admiral Dewey (only Admiral of the Navy ever) defeated Spanish initially; American troops (aided by Aguinaldo’s insurgents) captured Manila, leading to annexation.


TR mediates Russo-Japanese War – secretly sponsored peace negotiations so as to prevent Japanese or Russian monopoly on Asia; concerned with safety of Philippines.


President Theodore Roosevelt – military and naval preparedness.


Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – U.S. felt it was its duty to “watch out” for the interests of other countries in the Western hemisphere; provided justification for invasions of Latin America.


Panama Canal – needed to protect new Pacific acquisitions, U.S. took over the project from the French after overcoming Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (prohibited exclusive control of canal) with the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.


“Gentlemen’s Agreement” (1908) – in response to Japanese discrimination in San Fran schools; Japanese to stop laborers into U.S., Californians forbidden to ban Japanese from public schools.


“Dollar Diplomacy” – government would protect America’s foreign investments with any force needed; under president Taft.


Moral Diplomacy – intervention in Mexican Revolution (Madero overthrew dictator Diaz) to overthrow Madero out of fear of property confiscation, General Huerta (seen as “brute” by Wilson, sought new leader) replaced Madero.


Invasion of Mexico, Pancho Villa – Huerta’s enemy, reluctantly supported by U.S.; U.S. sought Villa’s submission due to terrorism, eventually assassinated; Wilson’s policy highly unpopular.



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