A New Master: Philip II and the Rise of Macedon



A New Master: Philip II and the Rise of Macedon


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History summaries and notes


A New Master: Philip II and the Rise of Macedon


Greek History:

Persian Wars (490 – 480 B.C):

  • Conflict – Greece Vs Persia
  • Greece was on the edge of the Persian Empire and Persians tried to expand their empire by invading Greece.
  • Kings ruled Persian Empire. Greece was divided up into city-states (King Vs city-states).
  • Fragmented Greek forces Vs strong united Empire.
  • Greece wins against all odds.
  • Persian Invasions of Greece:
  • 490 B.C – Battle of Marathon – Darius I (Persian King) Vs Athens. Athenians won.
  • 480 B.C – Central Greece – Xerxes (Persian King) Vs Hellenic League (combination of Greek cities). First time in Greek world that there was a coherent united force.
  • Significance of Persian Wars – Philip united Greek city-states with the long-term aim of invading Persia to gain revenge for Persian invasion of Greece. Alexander the great invaded Persia.


Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 B.C):


  • Athens (+allies) Vs Sparta (+allies). (Superpowers of Greece).
  • Causes of war - Expansionism of Athens both across the Aegean and on the Greek mainland.
  • Resistance of other poleis (cities) Boetia, Megara and Corinth to Athens.
  • Sparta leads war against Athens claiming it was a war for the “liberation” of the subjects of the Athenians from Athenian tyranny.
  • 431 – 421 B.C - 10 years of fighting – stalemate.
  • 421 – 415 B.C - Peace of Nikias - “Hollow peace” between Athens and Sparta.
  • Then overconfident Athenians try to bring Sicily under their control.
  • 415 – 404 B.C – End of war. Sparta takes initiative and attacks Athens. Spartans obtain support form the Persian King (fickleness of alliances).
  • Note – Persians are never far away.
  • Defeat of Athens in 404 B.C.
  • 404 – 371 B.C – Sparta dominates the Greek world.
  • Significance of the Peloponnesian War – shows internal conflicts in Greece, which Philip later exploits and becomes ruler of all of Greece (huge achievement).


Philip and the rise of Macedonia:

  • 359 B.C – Philip becomes King of Macedonia.
  • Macedonia – was ruled by Kings, unlike Greece, which was divided into democratic city-states.
  • Macedonia lies to the North of Thessaly.
  • Up to now it had played a relatively small part in the affairs of the Greek world.
  • Greeks regarded Macedonians as non – Greeks (barbarians).
  • Yet kings of Macedonia claimed they were Greek (Philip and Alexander are both Greek names).
  • Main resources in Macedonia – harbours, extensive agricultural lands, timber, sheep, horses, gold, silver, iron and people.


Philip’s rule:

  • Philip became involved in Greek affairs:
  • When he came to power he had to secure his throne (as did Alexander) as the Paeonians and Illyrians were trying to seize power.
  • Philip was an expansionist and a military man. He conquered his first Greek city Amphipolis (near Macedonia) in 357
  • He continued to conquer Greek territory – Potidaia (356) and Methone (354).
  • In 349 he conquered Olynthos. He attacked Olynthos because they refused to hand over two of his half brothers.
  • Philip’s ruthlessness – he destroyed the whole city and enslaved the population. Terrorization of the Greeks. Philip did this in order to make an example of Olynthos.
  • Alexander later did the same to Thebes.
  • 340’s further expansion – Euboia, Byzantion.
  • Battle of Chaironeia 338 – Other superpowers wanted to stop the rise of Philip in the Greek world. Athens and Thebes Vs Macedonia. Philip won.
  • By 337 Philip is master over Greece.
  • Note – when Philip took over Greece he didn’t change the political running of the states.
  • Philips intentions -
  • Short term – unification of Greece (not for moral reasons but for reasons of expansion).
  • Long term – an all-Greek attack on Persia. (expansion and revenge for the invasion of Greece in 480 B.C)
  • Pausanius assassinated Philip in 336 BC. Alexander carried out the Persian invasion.
  • The triumph of kingdom over polis (city).
  • The individual genius of Philip.


  • The legacy of Philip II :
  • A united and powerful Macedonian kingdom
  • A tried and tested powerful army with well trained generals (e.g. Antigonos).
  • Conquered Greek poleis (cities) – Alexander was easily able to re-establish power (crush Greek revolts) when he came to the throne in 336 BC.


Main points about Philip:

  • He was  a diplomat.
  • An expansionist and a military man.
  • He didn’t change political systems in the territories he took over.
  • His rapid rise to power.
  • His short-term aim was to get Northern Macedonia under control and then to unify Greece.
  • Balance of powers in Greece – Superpowers were Thebes, Athens and Sparta. Macedonia
  • His long term aims – a conquest of Persia by a unified Greece becomes a superpower under Philip.


Relevant Leaving Certificate Questions:

Q.2003 - What do you think was Alexander’s debt to his father Philip?

Q.1999 – From your reading of Plutarch and Arrian, what influence would you say that each of the following people had on Alexander: his mother Olympias; his father Philip; his teacher Aristotle.

Q.1996 – From your reading of Plutarch and Arrian, assess the importance in Alexander’s life of his father Philip.

Q.1994 – Why did Alexander invade the Persian Empire?


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A New Master: Philip II and the Rise of Macedon

Chapter 4 Overview


Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome

  • Classical past- govt., architecture, philosophy

The Persian Tradition

  • Classical Mediterranean civilization- rise of city-states in Greece.  Expansion of Hellenistic Period.  Rome emerged as separate republic.  Roman expansion led to a decline of republican forms and rise of a great empire
  • Persians in the Middle East
  • 550BCE- Cyrus the Great- Persian empire from Middle East to northern India
    • Tolerant of local customs
    • Advanced iron technology
    • Developed Zoroastrianism

Patterns of Greek and Roman History

  • City-states in Greece- around 800BCE- high point in 5th c. BCE (Golden Age of Athens)
  • Greek values spread during Hellenistic Period begun by Alexander the Great
  • Greek rise and decline, Hellenism, Roman Republic, Roman Empire


  • Crete 2000BCE (Minoan culture)
  • Mycenae in Southern Greece around 1400BCE
  • Trojan War in Homer’s Iliad
  • Rise of Greek civilization 800-600 BCE- creation of strong city-states- each with own govt.
  • Monarchy- Oligarchy- Tyranny- Democracy
  • Geography- mountainous terrain prevented unification
  • Trade important
  • Alphabet from Phoenecians
  • Olympic games
  • Sparta: military, oligarchy, Hellots (slave population)
  • Athens: slavery, trade, colonies
  • Reasons for colonization: overcrowding, not enough arable land
  • 5th c BCE Pericles- Athenian politician- ruled w/ negotiation
  • Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BCE)- Sparta vs. Athens- Sparta won- then Thebes, weakened the Greeks and paved the way for Philip II of Macedon to invade in 338BCE and then Alexander the Great took over.
  • Spread of Hellenistic culture: Greek=Hellenes
  • Use of aristocratic assemblies
  • Aristocracy: Greek meaning “rule of the best”


  • Republic 1stc BCE to Empire
  • Representative democracy- elect officials


  • Senate: composed mostly of aristocrats- held most executive offices in Roman State
  • 2 Consuls: ruled jointly- except in times of crisis/ war, then rule by Dictator
  • Importance placed in ethics, duties of citizens, incorruptible service, and oratory
  • Key Roman writer: Cicero- emphasized participation in deliberate bodies that would make laws and judge the actions of executive officers
  • Empire: maintained Senate, but not powerful
  • Hierarchy of Roman Army- officers had great political power
  • 63CE: forced dissolution of the independent Jewish state after a major local rebellion- temple was dismantled, leaving only the Western Wall in Jerusalem
  • Legal codes important for administration of empire
  • Tolerance of local customs and religions and strong military organization
  • 450BCE- Roman republic- introduced 12 Tables:
    • Purposes: restrain upper classes from arbitrary action and subject all to common legal principles
    • Roman law: emphasized judges and common-sense fairness

Classical Mediterranean in Comparative Perspective

  • India/China/Greco-Roman
  • Each developed empires, relied primarily on agricultural economy
  • Greco-Roman science emphasized theory more
  • Each had clear social hierarchy
  • Roman law as regulation of social life
  • Access to Roman citizenship
  • Athens and Rome placed great premium on importance of military conquest.
  • Rome: Control of masses w/ entertainment “bread and circuses”- cheap food and gladiator contests to prevent popular disorder
  • Government supported religion w/ gods and goddesses
    • Ex: Pantheon added gods as Roman Republic expanded
  • Roman Empire: persecution of Christians (ex: Nero), eventual tolerance and then it was made official religion of Empire
  • Sparta- extreme militaristic control- even down to raising children

Religion and Culture

  • Emphasis on philosophy and science an strong artistic tradition
  • Pantheon of Gods:






Head God/father



Wife of King of Gods



Regulated sun






God of War






Goddess of wisdom



Goddess of Hunting

  • Gods were believed to be flawed and human-like
  • Development of “mystery cults and religions”
  • Philosophers- Aristotle emphasized balance in human behavior (ex: felt Middle-class was ideal group to rule)
  • Stoics: Hellenistic Period: inner moral independence
    • Strict discipline of body and personal bravery
    • Influenced Christianity
  • Athens: Socrates (469BCE) encouraged pupils to question- Socratic Method- accused of corrupting the youth- chose suicide over exile b/c believed in absolute rather than relative truth (contrary to Sophists)
  • Plato: student to Socrates- human reason could approach an understanding of three perfect forms: absolutely True, Good, and Beautiful
    • Believed Philosopher-Kings should rule
  • Geometry: Ex: Pythagorean Theorem
  • Hellenistic Period: Galen (medical treatises)
    • Euclid: Geometry
    • Ptolemy: Geocentric Theory- fixed wisdom in Western Thought
  • Roman Achievements: great roads, aqueducts, arches
  • Greek drama: comedy and tragedy
  • Sophocles: Oedipus Rex- called most perfect example of tragedy by Aristotle
    • Oedipus is fated to kill his father and marry his mother
  • 8th c BCE: Iliad and Odyssey by Homer
  • Vergil (Virgil): The Aeneid- sought to link Roman history to mythology w/ Greek forerunner
  • 5th c BCE: Phidias (sculptor)
  • Greek monumental architecture (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian columns)

Economy and Society in the Mediterranean

  • Featured commercial agriculture, trade, and slavery.  Patriarchal family structure was characteristic
  • Most Greeks and Romans were farmers
  • Roman Republic: many tenant farmers forced to work for patrician landholders
    • Latifundia System
    • Many small farmers forced to become tenants or move into cities causing overcrowding
  • Need for grain led to colonization
    • Soil more suited to grapes and olives
  • Slavery was key ingredient of the classical economy
    • Athens: household and silver mines
    • Sparta: agricultural work (Helots)
    • Roman: household, mines, agricultural work (part of latifundia system)
  • Greece and Rome: importance of paterfamilias
    • Cases of female infanticide

Toward the Fall of Rome

  • Rome began to decline after 180CE
  • Fell in some parts more than other (ex: West before East: Byzantines)
  • Greek historian: Herodotus and Thucydides
  • Germanic tribes: invasion: disloyalty of outsiders: overexpansion


Chapter 4 Overview

Duiker & Speilvogel


  • Pericles: Funeral Oration- ideals of democracy and importance of the individual
  • Early Greece
    • Geography- mountainous terrain- isolating, sea trading
  • Minoan Crete
    • 2000-1450 BCE = height
    • Around 2800 BCE Bronze tools/ weapons
    • Palace at Knossos
    • Bull-leapers (gymnasts)
    • Why did they decline?  Invasion?
  • Mycenaeans
    • 1600-1100 BCE= height
    • Homer
    • Invasion by the Dorians?
  • Dark Age (1100-750BCE)
    • Migration due to declining population and falling food production
    • Iron replaced bronze
    • Adoption of Phoenecian alphabet
  • Homer
    • Based Iliad and Odyssey on oral tradition of the Trojan War
    • “the gods strong and incalculable; that the quality of a man matters more than his achievement, that violence and recklessness will still lead to disaster, and that this will fall on the innocent as well as on the guilty.”
    • Homer gave an idealized past- cornerstone of education
  • Greek City-States (c750-500BCE)
    • Polis= small but autonomous political unit, town and countryside
      • Acropolis= fortified hill
      • Agora= market and assembly (AGORAPHOBIC)
      • Classes w/in polis: Adult males (full political rights), women and children (citizens w/ no political rights), noncitizens (slaves and resident aliens)
      • New Military- hoplites (heavily armed) Phalanx formation
  • Colonization (750-550BCE)
    • Causes: poverty, land hunger, growing gulf between rich and poor, overpopulation and development of trade
    • Effects: Establishment of colonies, spread of culture throughout Mediterranean region, increased trade and industry
  • Govt.
    • Monarchy-Oligarchy-Tyranny-Democracy
    • Tyrants- usurpers of power in a coup d’etat- upheld public works projects to enhance their popularity
  • Sparta
    • Peloponnesus- conquered the Laconians and subjected theme to serfdom “HELOTS”- bound to the land
    • Created a military state to control Laconian and Messenian Helots
    • Babies judged at birth- defective- left to die
    • Boys- wet-nursed- taken away at 7 to military barracks- military training- joined army at 20, lived at Barracks until 30-could retire at 60. 
    • Could marry and visit wife at night, but couldn’t get caught
    • Spartan women unique- had more rights- trained in wrestling and gymnastics to make them strong and bear healthy children- married later
    • Spartan Govt. (oligarchy)
      • 2 kings- military affairs and supreme priests
      • Gerousia= council of elders
      • Ephors= supervised education
      • Apella= assembly of all male citizens
    • isolationist
    • Leader of Peloponnesian League
    • Spartans valued their strength as justification for their militaristic ideals and regimented society
  • Athens
    • Monarchy-Oligarchy (7thcBCE)-Tyranny-Democracy
    • 7thcBCE- political and social discontent- rival factions w/in aristocracy- many farmers sold into slavery when they couldn’t pay debts
    • 594BCE- Solon- reforms- cancelled land debts, outlawed new loans based on human collateral and freed people from slavery
    • Tyrants: Pisistratus & Clisthenes
      • Created new Council of 500 chosen by lot
  • Classical Greece (500-338BCE)
    • Greece vs. Persia
      • Ionian colonies revolt against Persians 499BCE aided by Athenian navy
      • 490BCE Persian king Darius attacked Greece Battle of Marathon
      • Xerxes renewed plans for invasion of Greece
      • Battle of Thermopolae- Leonidas (Spartan king) 9,000 Greeks and 300 Spartans held off Persians for 2 days
      • 479BCE Persian army defeated at Platea
    • 478-477BCE Delian League founded w/ Athens
    • “Age of Pericles”- height of Athenian power and the culmination of its brilliance as a civilization
    • Athens was sacked and burned, Greek naval fleet won decisive victory over Persian navy at Salamis. 
    • 479BCE Greeks defeated the Persians at Plataea
  • Athenian Empire
    • Athens formed the Delian League
  • Age of Pericles
    • Assembly “will of the people”= all male citizens over 18- passed all laws and made financial decisions on war and foreign policy
    • Direct Democracy
    • Pericles expanded suffrage: lower-class citizens eligible for public offices formerly closed: state pay for office-holders
    • City magistrates chosen by lot
    • “Generals”=directors of policy (10 officials)= elected by public vote
    • Ostracism- person receiving 6,000 votes could be exiled for 10 years
    • Used treasury of Delian League to rebuild Athens
  • The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)
    • Sparta v. Athens
    • Athen’s plan to stay behind walls but plague struck
    • Athens defeated= walls torn down, navy disbanded, empire destroyed
    • Interfighting b/w Athens, Sparta, and Thebes weakens the Greek city-states while Macedonia became stronger.
  • Culture of Classical Greece
    • Herodotus (484-425BCE) History of the Persian Wars
      • Central theme struggle b/w Greeks and Persians for greek freedom
      • Divine intervention in Greek victory
    • Thucydides (460-400BCE)
      • Greatest historian of ancient world
      • Scientific, methodical, and objective account of Pelop. War
    • Greek Drama
      • 1st were tragedies- suffering of hero (tragic flaw) ex: Hubris
    • Aeschylus (525-456BCE)
      • 1st tragedian
      • Oresteia Trilogy- evil acts breed evil acts- Reason Triumphs
    • Sophocles (496-406BCE)
      • Oedipus Rex- man is fated to kill father and marry his mother
    • Euripedes (485-406BCE)
      • The Bacchae   
      • Critical of view that war was glorious- showed war as brutal and barbaric
  • Greek Comedy
    • Aristophanes (450-385 BCE)
      • The Clouds, Lysistrata
      • Comic but effective message against the Peloponnesian War (women have sex strike until war is ended)
  • The Arts: The Classical Ideal
    • Architecture- the Temple
    • Doric- Ionic- Corinthian columns
    • Parthenon- Temple of Athena
  • Sophists
    • Wandering teachers
    • Truth is relative to everyone
  • Socrates
    • Socratic Method
    • Sentenced to death for corrupting the youth of Athens- hemlock
  • Plato
    • The Republic
    • Ideal state: Population divided into 3 groups
    • Upper-class – Philosopher-Kings
    • Men and women have same education and equal access to all positions
  • Aristotle
    • Student of Plato, tutor to Alexander the Great
    • Book: Politics: constitutional govt.
    • Marriage impt for mutual support
    • Women biologically inferior to men and therefore should be subordinate to men in marriage
  • Greek Religion
    • Social and practical
    • Civic cult necessary for well-being of state
    • 12 Olympian gods (Zeus, Hera, Athena, Apollo, Aphrodite, Poseidon, etc)
    • Each polis had a patron god
    • Afterdeath spirits to a gloomy underworld- Hades
    • Ritual important along w/ prayer and sacrifices
    • Oracles (at Delphi)
  • Daily Life
    • Males part of public life
    • Slavery common
    • Limited arable land- trade very important especially for grain
    • Women as wives, primary duty to have children
    • Homosexuality accepted


  • The Rise of Macedonia
    • Philip II (359-336BCE)- King of Macedonia
      • Built efficient army and conquered the Greeks
      • He was assassinated
    • Alexander the Great (336-323BCE)
      • Became king of Macedonia at 20
      • Invaded the Persian Empire
      • Asia Minor-Syria, Palestine, Egypt- Mesopotamia (Babylon)-Persepolis-Indus River
      • His troops mutinied at Indus River, forced to turn back
      • On return trip, Alexander died in Babylon
      • Legacy: Hero or Villain?


  • Hellenistic Era “to imitate Greeks”
    • “Hellenic” culture= Greek culture
    • Extension of Greek language and ideas to non-Greek world of Middle East
    • Spreading of Greek language, art, architecture, and literature
    • Urban centers key for diffusing Greek culture
      • Non-Greeks restricted from high positions so that Greeks could maintain their dominance
        • Ex: Alexandria in Egypt
      • Many Greek colonists moved to the Middle East
  •  Economic and Social Trends
    • Agriculture
    • Commerce increased trade between west and east
    • Key trade item= grain
    • New opportunities for women
    • Education for upper class women
    • Ptolemaic rulers in Egypt= return to kings marrying own sisters
  • Culture in Hellenistic World
    • Hellenistic sculptures tried for more emotional and realistic art rather than idealized
    • Menander (342-291BCE)= New Comedy “Pretty Woman” Stories
    • Polybus (203-120BCE)= chief historian of Hellenistic Age
  • A Golden Age of Science
    • Separation of science from philosophy
    • Archimedes (287-212 BCE)= famous scientist
      • Worked on geometry in spheres and cylinders
      • Pi
      • Science of hydrostatics
      • Archimedian screw
  • Philosophy
    • Epicurus (341-270BCE)- founder of Epicureanism
      • Human beings were free to follow self-interest as a basic motivating force. 
      • Happiness was goal of life- pursuit of pleasure
      • Pleasure= freedom from emotional turmoil, freedom from worry
      • Remove from public activity
      • Friendship important
    • Stoicism- founded by Zeno (335-263BCE)
      • Happiness, the supreme good, could only be found by living in harmony with the will of God
      • You could bear whatever life offered
      • Public service important and noble
  • Religion in Hellenistic World
    • Decline in population of traditional Greek Olympian Religion
    • Mystery cults= individuals could pursue a path to salvation and achieve eternal life by being initiated into a union with a savior god or goddess who had died and risen again.


Duiker & Spielvogel


Chapter 5: The World of the Romans

  • Similarities b/w Rome and China= empires lasted for centuries, remarkable success in establishing centralized control over their empires, and throughout their empires they maintained their law and political institutions, their technical skills, and their languages. 


  • Italian peninsula had good arable land & important trade route on Med. Sea
  • Rome built on 7 hills, easy to defend

Early Rome:

  • Legend of Romulus and Remus
  • Influence of Greeks and Etruscans on Early Rome

Roman Republic:

  • Livy: History of Early Republic
  • Roman Confederation: Latins=full citizenship, other groups could eventually gain citizenship
  • Established colonies w/ fortified towns in strategic locations connected by roads
  • Govt: 2 consuls chosen annually “right to command”-administered govt. and led army into battle. 
  • Praetor- execution of justice and “right to command” when consuls were away
  • Roman senate: 300 men served for life
  • Struggle of orders: b/w the plebeians and patricians- result= Council of Plebs
  • Patricians= aristocratic governing class
  • Plebeians= majority of population, could vote, but couldn’t hold office
  • Tribunes= office to represent the plebeians
  • Eventually pats and plebs could intermarry- new aristocratic class

Roman Conquest in Mediterranean

  • Punic Wars
  • Cato “And I think Carthage must be destroyed”
  • Eventually took over Macedonia and Greece
  • 3 Stages: Conquest of Italy, conflict w/ Carthage and expansion into western Med., involvement w/ and domination of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the eastern Med.

Decline and Fall of Roman Republic

  • Disparity b/w rich and poor
  • Elite class called Nobiles (nobles)
  • Latifundia were large plantations using slave labor that forced small farmers out of business.  Many farmers moved to cities resulting in overcrowding.  Also, membership in the Roman army declined
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus worked for land-reform for small farmers, but both were assassinated.
  • Marius: general that recruited army by offering land, army swore allegiance to him= more power in the hands of individual generals
  • Sulla- used his army to seize power in Rome, purge, and strengthen the Senate
  • Jostling for power by a number of powerful individuals and civil wars generated by these conflicts.
  • 60BCE: First Triumvirate: Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
  • Crassus dies, Caesar’s forces vs. Pompey’s forces after J.Caesar “Crossed the Rubicon” J.Caesar won
  • 47BCE J. Caesar= dictator 44 BCE Dictator for life
  • Land reforms, increased senate to 900 members, new calendar, citizenship
  • March 15th 44BCE “ides of march” Caesar was assassinated
  • 2nd Triumvirate: Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus
  • Battle of Actium, Octavian won and Marc Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide

The Age of Augustus 31BCE-14CE

  • Augustus- 1st Emperor
    • Stable frontiers
  • Social stratification
    • Senatorial
    • Equestrian
    • Lower classes
      • Free grain and public spectacles to keep them distracted

The Early Empire (14-180CE)

  • Augustus-to Stepson Tiberius (Julio-Claudian Dynasty)
  • Emperors took more power
  • Nero(54-68): murdered mother “played fiddle while Rome burned”
  • The Five Good Emperors (96-180)
  • Trajan 98-117- alimentary program (state funds to assist poor parents in raising and educating their children)
  • Trajan and Hadrian: Building projects
  • Large Empire= difficult to defend
  • Cities were important for the spread of Roman culture, law and the Latin language
  • Development of towns and cities- based upon agricultural surpluses of the countryside

Culture and Society in the Roman world

  • conflict over Greek Culture- pervasive, but controversial
  • Roman Literature
  • Cattilus “best lyric poet”- letters to Lesbia
  • Cicero- great prose writer and oratory
  • Virgil: The Aeneid- moral Rome was on a divine mission to rule the world
  • Horace: Satires- “follies and vices of his age”
  • Ovid: Amores: The Art of Love
  • Livy: History of Rome- human character was the determining factor in history
  • Seneca- Stoicism
  • Tacitus: Annals & Historia & Germania= history had moral purpose
  • Roman Art: realistic sculptures and architecture projects (roads, aqueducts)
  • Roman Law
    • 450BCE Twelve Tables: 1st code of laws
      • influenced by Stoicism
      • Innocent until proven otherwise
      • People could defend themselves before a judge
  • Roman Family
    • Led by paterfamilias (dominant male)
    • Divorce eventually allowed and became extensive
    • Legal min age for girls to marry was 12 but 14 was common
    • Roman women eventually gained more freedom
  • Roman conquest of Med. Brought drastic change in use of slaves- large #’s of foreign slaves were brought back to Italy
    • Cato the Elder “cheaper to work slaves to death, and then replace them than to treat them favorably.”
    • Murder of master by slave could mean the execution of all other household slaves
  • 73BCE Spartacus Rebellion: Led by a Thracian slave- managed to defeat several Roman armies before he was finally trapped and killed in southern Italy-6,000 of his followers were crucified along the Appian Way
  • Imperial Rome
    • Gap b/w living conditions for rich and poor
    • Gladiatorial Games- fought to the death
    • Trajan- spectacles are necessary for the “contentment of the masses”
  • The Development of Christianity
    • Greco-Roman gods
    • Polytheistic- tolerant of other religions
    • Jewish background
      • Divided Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes, Zealots
      • Jewish revolt 66-70CE crushed by Romans and Jewish temple in Jerusalem destroyed (Western Wall remained)

The Rise of Christianity

  • Jesus of Nazareth (6BCE-29CE)
  • Reassured fellow Jews- did not plan to undermine their traditional religion: fulfill the prophesies
  • Jesus was crucified
  • Belief in Jesus’ resurrection became an important tenet of Christian doctrine
  • Important figure: Paul of Tarsus
    • Jewish Roman citizen- preached to Jews and Gentiles
    • Founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor
    • Accept Jesus as savior, they could be saved
  • Early Christians suspicious b/c of their secret meetings
    • Accused of cannibalism
    • Christians refused to participate in the worship of the state gods & imperial cult= act of treason= death
  • Nero- fire in Rome- Christians scapegoated- used as human torches
  • Christian church created a well-defined hierarchical structure in which bishops and clergy were salaried officers separate from the laity, or regular church members
  • Christianity- promise of salvation- initiation w/ baptism
  • New roles for Woman in Christianity
  • Constantine (306-337) 1st Christian Emperor
    • Edict of Milan- tolerated the existence of Xty
  • Theodosius 378-395
    • Christianity made official religion of Roman Empire

Decline and Fall of Roman Empire

  • 235-284: Roman Empire in continuous Civil War
    • 50 years: 22 Emperors!
  • Invasions: Persians and Germanic Tribes
  • Military dependent upon mercenary soldiers and not as loyal
  • Diocletian 284-305: Divided empire into 4 administrative units
  • Constantine 306-337 new capital city in Byzantium (Constantinople)
    • Basic jobs hereditary

Fall of Western Roman Empire

  • 2nd ½ 4th Century- Huns (Xiongnu)-to- Eastern Europe-Visigoths to south and west
  • 410 Visigoths attached Rome
  • 476: Western Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus deposed- series of Germanic kingdoms
  • Factors
    • Christianity’s emphasis on spiritual kingdom
    • Traditional Roman values declined
    • Lead poisoning
    • Plague
    • Rome hindered technologically by slavery
    • Didn’t achieve a working political system
    • Key Factor: INVASION in West



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A New Master: Philip II and the Rise of Macedon



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A New Master: Philip II and the Rise of Macedon