Difference between old imperialism and new imperialism summary and study guide



Difference between old imperialism and new imperialism summary and study guide


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Difference between old imperialism and new imperialism summary and study guide




Old Imperialism 1450-1650

New Imperialism 1870-1914

Economic Causes

“God, Glory, and Gold” Sought precious metals and goods they could not produce Asia—luxury goods America—cash crops/land Africa—labor, ivory Sought new routes to Asia

Cheap, certain raw materials—metals, vegetable oils, dyes, cotton, hemp Colonies functioned as markets for     manufactured goods Large profits with minimum risks Military bases and materials Outlet for surplus population



Primarily Roman Catholic missionary zeal

As much Protestant missionary  activity as Catholic Humanitarianism

Geographic Focus

Africa—coastal Asia—coastal, islands Americas—primary focus for colonization

Sub-Saharan Africa divided up South and southeast Asia colonized Spheres of influence—Asia


Ocean-going vessels Cannon Muskets Writing

Quinine Vaccination Machine gun Railroad Telegraph Steamboat


Aspect of exploration and Commercial    Revolution

Africa and Asia—more commercial empire Explored for new trade routes Americas more a land empire Founded settlements Established rule

Aspect of Industrial Revolution Africa and Asia—land empires Pushed social reforms and western education Spread blessings of Western culture Nationalism Glory (place in the sun)


Large geographic areas under single nation Profit over empire Dutch and British East India Companies—monopolies through trading posts British—established permanent colonies with limited self-rule Spain—subjected conquered people to system of forced labor Not interested in territorial acquisitions and war, though they did occur

Smaller colonial areas British—relied on indirect rule Other powers ruled directly through paternalism and assimilation Not result of coherent planning With telegraph, more control from mother country More racism and segregation Social snobbery

Education Policies

State-supported in Java and India

Africa—not state education; left to Missionaries; higher ed not promoted Asia—More access to higher ed Superiority of Western learning and culture stressed; ultimately provoked anti-colonial resistance  and nationalism


Old Imperialism 1450-1650

New Imperialism 1870-1914

Leading States

1500s—Portugal & Spain 1600s—France, Britain, &     Netherlands

Great Britain dominant France Germany USA Italy Belgium Russia

Methods of Conquest

Military conquest of native peoples

Concessions Spheres of influence Protectorates Colonies

Resistance to Colonial Rule

Natives of New Mexico revolted against Spanish settlers

Algerians and East Africans failed in resistance attempts

Impact of Colonization

Negative— Death of natives from war and European diseases Breakdown of traditions Positive— Global exchange of food items and livestock

Negative— Death of natives from war and European diseases Economic exploitation Arbitrary political divisions Breakdown of traditions Positive— Reduced local warfare Unification Modernization Raised standards of living

Reason for End

Nations lost interest because: Napoleonic Wars Nationalistic movements Industrial development Cost of colonies outweighed               benefits

World War I Native uprisings



Never a single, simple process, western imperialism evolved over a 400-year period from 1450 to 1914.  New Imperialism is the mature stage of western expansion

1.          Both periods were shaped by an elite political control.
2.           Colonial government in both periods legitimized their authoritarian, non-representative methods with claims of progress and maintenance of order.
3.          Export-oriented development functioned to integrate the colony into the world economy.
4.          Sharp social/racial divisions were maintained.
Ex:  Mexico and Indonesia—a multi-racial/plural society, strict class lines
Ex:  South Africa—sharp racial divisions (European/African)
5.          Paternalist, racist colonial culture increased inequalities while ignoring needed social reforms
6.          Gender divisions of labor intensified
7.          Systems of exploitation and indebtedness were imposed.
8.           Precedents of administrations, legal and educational systems (British India, French Senegal, Dutch Java) continued to be used.
9.           Recruitment of one group against another (favored minorities like Christian converts, or western educated youths) was used for civil service or police.
10.        Europeans tended to concentrate in urban areas or provincial towns.


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Difference between old imperialism and new imperialism summary and study guide

Chapter 26:

  • During the century from 1815 to 1914, the West expanded its impact on the rest of the world largely by building far-flung empires.
  • A “new imperialism” of the 1880s marked the climax of this territorial expansion.

Old Imperialism
16th – 18th century

  • Focus is increasing trade by establishing more trading outlets
  • Purpose: to get resources to import back to their countries

-Examples: Africa, Asia, Middle East

  • The exception = New World

       -not as much focus on trade, unlike other parts of the world
-focus on: colonizing, using the huge land and its resources, profitable gold and silver, enslaving people, tobacco and sugar plantations
-The Spanish: conquered Aztecs and Incas for gold
-Brazil: slavery and sugar plantations
-Colonies: provided supplies for the mother land (like in Britain’s case)

  • In 1800, Europeans controlled 7% of the world’s territories

New Imperialism
19th century

  • Cause = Industrial Revolution
  • Need for creating a new global market/ selling goods

-Create all of these goods à you need to sell them
2) Need for new raw resources for machines
-iron, coal, steel, gas, oil, rubber

  • Justifications
  • Social Darwinism

“survival of the fittest”
-the superior dominate over the weak nations
-the more industrialized have the right to dominate other those who are less fit

  • Helping “savages” become civilized

-Europe is technologically more advanced

  • Bringing the light of Christianity

-makes the Europeans sound good
4)  Strategic reasons = to protect certain reasons

  • In 1914, Europeans controlled 84% of the world’s territories


Forms of Ruling over Territory

  • Someone of your own country rules in the country that you control
    • Foreign officials brought in to rule
    • No self rule
    • Your military is there
    • Goal: assimilation
    • Government institutions are based on only European styles
  • Examples:
  • A British general ruling in Egypt
  • French colonies such a Somaliland and Vietnam
  • German colonies such as German East Africa
  • Portuguese colonies such as Angola
  • Advantages

-easier to put down revolts
-more control over the territory
-more people you can trustà greater trust factor

  • Disadvantages

-natives might be resentful and revolt
-it’s expensive
-the ruler doesn’t know anything about the territory: the language, culture, religion, etc. and he won’t learn it because he feels superior
-the idea that you should make them learn yours because you’re superior

  • Generally, the French used this rule more than the British

                           -They believed in paternalism: raising the country to believe in your country

  • When you leave the government (from before) in place OR you find someone else (who lives there) to rule
    • Local government officials used
    • Limited self-rule
    • Goal: to develop future leaders
    • Government institutions are based on European styles, but may have local rules
  • Examples:
  • British colonies such as Nigeria, India, and Burma
  • U.S. colonies on the Pacific Islands
  • Advantages:


  • Disadvantages:

                           -you can’t trust the ruler as much
-are they loyal? Honest? Hoarding all the profits?
-not as good at controlling resources
-if there’s a revolt, the soldiers that you hired might join in the revolt
Forms of Imperialism




Colony (direct rule)

A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power

Somaliland in East Africa was a French colony.

Protectorate (indirect)

A country or territory with its own internal government, but under the control of an outside power

Britain established a protectorate over the Niger River delta.

Sphere of Influence (indirect rule)

An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges

Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United States.

Economic Imperialism (in between direct and indirect rule)

An independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments (when a company owns a country)

The Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii.

Causes of the New Imperialism: 

  • Many factors contributed to the late 19th century rush for territory and empire, which was in turn one aspect of Western society’s generalized expansion in the age of industry and nationalism.
  • Despite controversy and complexity, basic causes are clearly identifiable .
  • Colonies = chances at making lots of money and were crucial for political and diplomatic greatness

**Economic motives played an important role in the extension of political empires, especially in Britain
-By the late 1870s, France, Germany, and the United States were industrializing rapidly behind rising tariff barriers à Britain was losing its early lead and facing increasingly tough competition in foreign markets
-Britain came to value colonial possessions, especially India
-When continental powers began to grab territory in the 1880s, Britain followed immediately
-they were afraid that France and Germany would seal off their empires with high tariffs and restrictions, and that future economic opportunities would be lost forever
                     -The actual overall economic gains of the new imperialism proved quite limited before 1914
-new colonies were too poor to buy much and offered very few immediately profitable investments
*Colonies became important for political and diplomatic reasons, rather than economic ones*
-each leading country saw colonies as crucial to national security, military power, and international prestige
-even the poorest, most barren desert was jealously prized and no territory was ever abandoned
-Many people were convinced that colonies were essential to great nations
-Heinrich von Treitschke: German historian who stated how all great nations will conquer barbarian lands, and those who fail to do this will play a “pitiable role in time to come”

  • Social Darwinism and racism were used to justify the taking of colonies

                     “Survival of the fittest”
-Stronger, more industrial nations dominate over the weak
-European nations had to seize colonies to show they were strong
-the conquest of “inferior” people was just

  • New technological and military superiority made conquest possible.
  • The maxim gun (the machine gun) in 1884

       -now Europeans had the superior technology
-guns vs. primitive technology such as spears and clubs
-gave Europeans an unfair advantage

  • Quinine for malaria

       -controlled malaria
-made from trees in Peru
-was mass produced as pills and is the “tonic” part of gin and tonic

  • Trains, railroads, steamboats, and the telegraph

       -better communication
-Western powers could quickly concentrate their firepower in a given area when it was needed

  • Conservative political leaders manipulated colonial issues in order to divert popular attention from the class struggle at home, and to create a false sense of national unity

**Conservative leaders defined imperialism as a national necessity, which they used to justify the status quo and their hold on power**
*Defenders of imperialism claimed that colonies increased workers’ living standard and provided jobs, promoted national prestige, and were militarily necessary.
-government leaders successfully encouraged the masses to enjoy foreign triumphs and feel a greater national pride

  • Special interest groups, from shipping companies to missionaries, encouraged imperialism.

                     -shipping companies wanted lucrative subsidies for profits
-white settlers demanded more land and greater protection
-missionaries and humanitarians wanted to spread religion and stop the slave trade
-military men and colonial officers foresaw rapid advancement and high paid positions in growing empires

A “Civilizing Mission”

  • Europeans claimed that imperialism benefited the natives by introducing civilizing influences, including economic advantages, modern medicine, and higher standards of living.
    • A popular idea was that Europeans should “civilize” more primitive, nonwhite people

-In time, natives might be ready for self-government and Western democracy

  • Known as the “white man’s burden,” this concept led Europeans to rule rather than liberate local peoples.

-This concept was popularized by Runyard Kipling (see below).

    • Americans too sincerely believed that their civilization had reached unprecedented heights and should give their unique benefits to all “less advanced” peoples
    • Another argument was that imperial government protected natives from tribal warfare, as well as cruder forms of exploitation by white settlers and business people
  • Peace and stability under European control also contributed to the spread of Christianity, particularly in parts of Africa, such as the Ibo people of Nigeria.

-Catholic and Protestant missionaries competed with Islam, seeking converts and building schools to spread the Gospel
-Many African’s first real contact with whites was in mission schools

  •  However, missionary efforts failed in India , China , and the Islamic world, often because these missionaries were very racist

-Christians often preached in vain to peoples with ancient, complex religious beliefs who resented the missionaries
-Yet the number of Christians still increased substantially in the 19th century, and missionaries kept trying

Critics of Imperialism: 

  • Not everyone believed imperialism was positive.

J. A. Hobson

  • He was a radical English economist who wrote Imperialism, after the Boer War
  • Heclaimed imperialism was a symptom of unregulated capitalism, particularly the need of the rich to find outlets for their surplus capital
  • He argued that only special interest groups profited, at the expense of the European taxpayer and the natives.
  • Furthermore, he thought it distracted from the need for reform in the home countries.
  • Arguments of Hobson and other critics weren’t very persuasive though.

-Most people were sold on the idea that imperialism was economically profitable for the homeland
-A broad and genuine enthusiasm for empire developed among the masses

  • Critics also claimed that imperialism was immoral in its treatment of the native peoples

-They criticized Kipling and his kind as racist bullies whose rule rested on brutality, racial contempt, and the Maxim gun
-Henry Labouchere: a British member of Parliament who mocked Kipling’s poem. He wrote the “Brown Man’s Burden”
-H. T. Johnson: American who wrote the “Black Man’s Burden”
-Joseph Conrad: wrote Heart of Darkness (1902)
-described the “pure selfishness” of Europeans in “civilizing” Africa
-the main character changes from a liberal scholar to a savage brute

  • These critics accused their governments of hypocrisy for conquering others, while they granted representative government, individual liberties, and a certain equality of opportunity at home.

-They were upset that Europeans imposed military dictatorships on Africans and Asians, forced them to work involuntarily like slaves, and discriminated against them shamelessly


Responding to Western Imperialism

  • Western imperialism created an identity crisis for native peoples because it threatened their ruling classes, traditional economies, and culture.

The Pattern of Response

  • Generally, the initial response of African and Asian rulers to aggressive Western expansion was to try to drive the unwelcome foreigners away.
    • Violent reactions were continually put down by the superior military technology of the industrialized West

-This was the case of Japan and upper Sudan

  • Responses varied from traditionalists, who tried to preserve their cultures, to modernizers, who adopted Western ways.
    • Beaten in battle, many traditionalist Africans and Asians concentrated on preserving their country at all costs
    • Others were forced to reconsider their initial hostility
    • Some modernizers concluded that the West was superior in some ways, so it’s necessary to reform their societies and copy some European achievements, especially if they wished to escape full blow Western political rule

-Like Japan and Egypt

    • Struggle between traditionalists and modernizers was often intense, but the modernizers tended to gain the upper hand with time
  • Due to the European use of force, most Asians and Africans accepted imperial rule, though often with minimal enthusiasm. 

-In these circumstances, Europeans governed smoothly and effectively, receiving support from traditionalists (local chiefs, landowners, religious leaders) and modernizers (western-educated professional classes and civil servants)

  • Support for European rule among the conforming and accepting millions was shallow and weak
  • When the opportunity arose, they were often willing to embrace anti-imperialist leaders who promised greater human dignity and embraced Western liberalism and nationalism.
    • They discovered liberalism in the West and realized how hypocritical European government was
    • Above all, they found themselves attracted to modern nationalism, which asserted that every people had the right to control its own destiny
  • The anti-imperialist search for dignity drew strength from the Western thought and culture itself, as exemplified through India, Japan, and China


Industrialization and the World Economy: 

  • Industrialization motivated Western nations to expand their economic interests, either peacefully or, when necessary, through force in non-Western areas.

The Rise of Global Inequality: 

  • The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of a new economic globalization.
  • From a global perspective, the ultimate importance of industrialization is that it allowed industrialized nations increase their wealth and power, becoming far richer than unindustrialized ones
  • This created a wide gap between industrialized countries (mainly Europe and North America) and non-industrialized ones (mainly Africa, Asia, and Latin America)
    • This created higher standards of living for industrialized countries
    • This caused us to evolve into a “lopsided world,” a world of rich lands and poor and uneven global development
  • Historical economists have charted this widening gap (See Figure 26.1 on page 848)

-Figure 26.1 compares the long-term evolution of average income per person for Great Britain, “developed” or industrialized countries (like Europe, North America, and Japan), and Third World, or non-industrialized, countries (such as Africa Asia, and Latin America)

  • Figure 26.1 highlights 3 major points:
  • In 1750, the average income was about the same throughout the whole world.

-In 1750, Europe was still a poor agricultural society
-But by 1970, the average income of a person in the wealthiest countries was 25 times more than a person in the poorest countries of Africa and Asia

  • It was industrialization that opened the gaps in wealth and well-being in countries

-Britain jumped well ahead of everyone by 1830, when they were the most industrialized
-Other Europeans and the United States gradually caught up to Britain as they successfully industrialized in the 19th century too

  • Income per person stagnated in Third World countries, which was the total opposite of industrialized nations

-Third World countries didn’t make any real economic progress until after 1945, when they began to industrialize too

  • The rise of these enormous income inequalities has caused a lot of debate.
    • One point of view:

-the West used science, technology, capitalism, and its critical worldview to create its wealth and greater physical well-being

    • Another point of view:

-the West used its political and economic power to steal most of its riches, continuing (in the 19th and 20th centuries) its colonialism born of the era of expansion

  • These issues are complex and there are few simple answers.

          People can agree that:
-technological improvement and more capitalist organization created lots of potential for wealth
-Britain was responsible for many of these developments because they were the 1st to industrialize and set an example for other countries
-in the 19th century, other industrializing countries joined with Britain to extend western domination over the entire world economy
-As a result, lots of wealth was created, but most of it flowed to the West and its propertied classes

 The World Market

  • The rapid growth of world trade in the nineteenth century helped create a global economy, centered in and directed by Europe

-Trade between nations has always stimulated the economy
-This was especially true in the 19th century, as world trade grew
-In 1913, the value of world trade was about $38 billion, 25 times what it had been in 1800, even though prices of sold goods were cheaper in 1913 than 1800

Great Britain played a key role in using trade to tie the world together economically

  • Britain led the way with its colonial empire

-In 1815, they already had possessions in India, Canada, Australia, and other scattered areas

  • The Industrial Revolution allowed Britain to manufacture goods more cheaply, so they far outstripped the demand for such goods in their country

-they were making so many goods, so fast and so efficiently, that they had more than they needed and could therefore sell this surplus

    • So they sought raw materials and export markets for their manufactured goods
  • For example: the cotton textile industry

-By 1820, Britain was exporting 50% of its production
-Europe bought 50% of these exports, while India only bought 6%
-When European nations started protective tariffs and promoted domestic industry (caused by nationalism), Britain turned to non-Western markets
-By 1850, India was buying 25% and Europe only 16% of their goods
-India couldn’t raise tariffs enough to protect its cotton industry à several Indian weavers lost their livelihoods

  • Britain became the world’s single best market after the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846

-Until 1914, they remained the best and allowed agricultural products, raw materials, and manufactured goods to enter freely
-Free access to Britain’s market stimulated the development of mines and plantations in many non-Western areas

Technological advances in transportation and communication facilitated the process and encouraged massive foreign investments

  • Railroads

-Railroad construction began 1st in Europe and then in America, and spread to other parts of the globe after 1860
-By 1920, more than ¼ of all railroads in the world were in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Australia
-Railroads reduced transportation costs, opened new economic opportunities, and called forth new skills and attitudes
-Railroads in Latin America, Asia, and Africa connected seaports with inland cities
*Railroads helped the inflow and sale of Western goods, and the export and development of raw materials

  • Steam power

-Steam power finally began to help sails and boats all over the world by late 1860s
-Lighter, stronger, cheaper steel replaced iron, which had replaced wood
-passenger and freight rates went down à allowed an easier intercontinental shipment of low-priced raw materials

  • This revolution in land and sea transportation helped Europeans open up vast new territories and produce raw materials in these  territories that they could sell to Europe

-Improved transportation allowed colonies to ship even more raw materials for industry: jute, rubber, cotton, and coconut oil along with spices, tea, sugar, and coffee

  • Other factors that helped intercontinental trade
    • The Suez and Panama canals
    • Continual investment made loading and unloading cheaper, faster, and more dependable
    • The telegraph helped with rapid communications among the financial centers of the world, and especially helped communicate and compare prices of company goods
  • The growth of trade and transportation encouraged the expanding European economy to make massive foreign investments, beginning around 1840

-By WWI in 1914, Europeans had invested more the $40 billion abroad
-Principal countries = Britain, France, and Germany

  • Most of the capital exported didn’t go to European colonies or protectorates in Asia and Africa

-¾ of foreign investment went to other European countries
-by lending money for a foreign railroad, Europeans allowed the Europeans living there to develop sources of cheap food and raw materials
-must of this investment was peaceful and mutually beneficial for lenders and borrowers

  • The victims of this whole situation = the Native American Indians and other natives who were destroyed b disease, liquor, and weapons because of the Europeans

 The Great Migration

  • Western influence on other parts of the world was accelerated by the great migration, as many people left their homeland to live in other countries.
  • It spread out the amount of European people throughout the world, making it not as concentrated in Europe
  • Migration also led to imperialism, like in South Africa

The Pressure of Population

  • In the early 18th century, the growth of European population entered its third and decisive stage, which continued until the early 20th century

-birthrates and death rates declined in the 19th century, mainly because of the rising standard of living and the medical revolution
-the population of Europe more than doubled from 118 million in 1800 to 432 million in 1900

  • Rapid European population growth in the nineteenth century, particularly in areas with little industrialization, led to land and work shortages.

-As people saw little available land and few opportunities, they migrated

  • Seeking economic opportunities, more than 60 million people emigrated

-These migrants usually went to the “areas of European settlement”: the Americas, Australia , New Zealand , and Siberia, where they contributed to a rapid growth in numbers and rapidly westernized the cultures.
-lots of people emigrated from countries that were not very industrialized yet
-millions of country folk went abroad as well as to nearby cities in search of work and economic opportunity

  • The growing number of Europeans was another reason for Western expansion and was a driving force behind emigration
  • The number of men and women who left Europe increased rapidly before World War I

-more than 11 million left between 1900 and 1910

  • Different countries had very different patterns of movement which mirrored social and economic conditions in the various European countries and provinces

-people left Britain and Ireland in large numbers from the 1840s on
-this emigration reflected rural poverty and the movement of skilled, industrial technicians
-about 1/3 of all European migrants came from the British Isles
-But in Germany, migration was quite different. It grew irregularly: first peaking, then declining as Germany became more industrialized
-But in Italy, more and more Italians left up until 1914, reflecting severe problems in Italian villages and relatively slow industrial growth

  • Although the United States absorbed the largest number of European migrants, less than half of all migrants went to the United States.

-Lots went to various places such as Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand
-the common American assumption that European migration meant migration to the US is quite inaccurate

European Migrants

  • Typical European migrants were peasants or village craftsmen whose traditional life was rapidly changing due to industrialization.

-German peasants for example left because they felt trapped by the German economy and the declining craft industries
-Selling out and moving to buy much cheaper land in the American Midwest became very common
-European migrants were trying hard to stay ahead of poverty

  • Often seeking cheaper land in the Americas, they made valuable economic contributions to their new countries with their labor.

-they were determined to maintain or improve their status
-the vast majority was young and very often unmarried, and was ready to work
-many Europeans moved, but remained within Europe, settling temporarily or permanently in other European countries

  • Some migrated to other European countries, and many would eventually return home.

-People who migrated from the Balkans were much more likely to return to their countries than Jews or people from Ireland
-Non-Jewish migrants from Russia had access to land and returned much more frequently to their peasant villages in central Russia, Poland, and Ukraine

  • The mass movement of Italians illustrates many of the characteristics of European migration

-In the 1880s, 3 out of 4 Italians depended on agriculture
-land-owning peasants whose standard of living was falling began to leave their country
-many Italians went to the United States, but more went to Argentina and Brazil
-many Italians had no intention of settling abroad permanently, and called themselves swallows.
-after harvesting their own wheat and flax in Italy, they “flew” to Argentina to harvest wheat between December and April. Returning to Italy for the spring planting, they repeated this exhausting process.

  • Ties of family and friendship played a crucial role in the movement of peoples

-many people from a given province or village settled together in tightly knit neighborhoods
-often a strong individual would blaze the way and others would follow, forming a “migration chain”

  • Other migrants were motivated by political and social repression.
  • Some were motivated by a spirit of revolt and independence

-In Sweden and Norway, young landless European men and women felt frustrated by the small privileged classes, which often controlled both church and government and resisted demands for change and greater opportunity
-thus, for many, migration was a radical way to “get out from under”

  • Migration slowed down when the people won basic political and social reforms, such as the right to vote and social security

Asian Migrants

  • Not all migration was from Europe. Lots of people responded to rural hardship and permanently or temporarily migrated from Asia, from places like China, Japan, India, and the Philippines
  • Approximately 3 million Asians emigrated prior to 1920
  • Most became indentured laborers in plantations or gold mines, where they were practically slaves.

-they had to work under terrible conditions
-In Cuba, for example, there was a strong demand for field hands, so the Spanish government recruited Chinese laborers, who were basically slaves

  • As a result, Asians rapidly fled these conditions to pursue better opportunities in trade and cities.

-In cities they came into conflict with local populations, and these Europeans demanded a halt to Asian migration

  • Prejudice against Asian immigrants led to discriminatory laws, called great white walls, to limit Asian immigration in many countries.

-The general policy of “whites only” became part of Western dominance in the increasingly lopsided world
-Europeans reaped the main benefits from migration

  • By 1913, people in Australia, Canada, and the United States had higher average incomes than people in Britain (which was still Europe’s wealthiest nation)

Western Imperialism (1880–1914): 

  • Western expansion peaked between 1880 and 1914, not only through migration and economic means, but also through political domination.
  • The consequences of this new imperialism included increased rivalry among European states that competed for colonies, especially in African and Asia, and ultimately led to war.


  • Sets the model for imperialism

-illustrates the exploding power of the expanding European economy and society and their appeal in non-Western lands
-this new model was based on military force, political domination, and a self-justifying ideology of beneficial reform
-this model dominated until 1914
-Thus Europe’s industrial revolution led to tremendous political as well as economic expansion throughout the world after 1880

  • Was controlled by the French when Napoleon I conquered Egypt à when the French left, it created a power vacuum à the Ottomans stepped in and ruled à was later taken over by the British
  • The Ottoman ruler, Muhammad Ali, established a strong, independent Egypt by building up the military and reforming the government along Western standards.

-Muhammad Ali stepped in after Napoleon invaded Egypt and occupied the territory for 3 years
-built up a powerful army
-drafted the peasants
-hired Italian and French army officers
-his policies of modernization attracted lots of Europeans
-Europeans served many jobs: army officers, engineers, doctors, government officials, and police officers

  • To pay for his plans of modernization, Muhammad Ali took over farms and forced Egyptians to grow cash crops, in order to encourage the development of commercial agricultures

-Egyptian peasants were poor, but largely self-sufficient
-Egyptian landowners “modernized” agriculture, but to the detriment of peasant well-being, as they forced them to grow cash crops

  • The khedive, or prince, Ismail, son of Muhammad Ali, saw the Suez Canal completed but accumulated an enormous debt.

-He was a westernizing autocrat
-He promoted cotton production and caused exports to Europe to boom with irrigation
-He was too impatient and reckless, and all of his projects were so expensive that Egypt was in a lot of debt by 1876
**He had borrowed money from France, Britain and other European countries

  • Inability to pay this debt led to French and British intervention.

-The British and French governments tried to oversee Egyptian finances:
-This was a change to direct European rule, a sharp break from the old imperialism centered on trade and investment.
-Europeans were going to determine the state budget and effectively rule Europe
-the French and British didn’t want them to declare bankruptcy because they would lose the money that they had loaned out

  • Foreign financial control led to a violent nationalistic uprising among Egyptian religious leaders, army officers, and young intellects.

They formed the Egyptian Nationalist Party

  • Britain then used military force to gain control of Egypt

-British forces put down the bloody rebellions in Alexandria and occupied all of Egypt
-The British said their occupation was temporary, but they stayed in Egypt until 1956

  • Until Britain took over, Egypt was ruled by economic imperialism.

*They kept the khedive in power, but he was just a puppet*(like a direct rule)
-British rule resulted in tax reforms and somewhat better conditions for peasants, while foreign bondholders received their interest


  • Before in 1878: only 10% of Africa was colonized

-It was hard to penetrate into Africa à it was uncharted so they depended on African tribe leaders on the inside
-Europeans just traded with ports

  • Europeans thought that they were bringing order to the Africans and “civilizing them”
  • 1900, Europeans controlled almost all of Africa, except for Ethiopia and Liberia

-The French had begun conquering Algeria in 1830, and by 1880 numbers of French, Italian, and Spanish colonists had settled among the overwhelming Arab majority
-Between 1880 and 1900, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy scrambled for African possessions

  • In the years before 1914, the European powers tightened their control and established colonial governments to rule their gigantic empires
  • Why they couldn’t take over Africa before:
  • Africa had strong powerful tribes that were difficult to conquer
  • African superiority of technology
  • Disease (especially malaria)
  • Navigating through Africa was very difficult à fear of the unknown

-the Nile runs north

  • Changes:
  • Maxim gun (1884)

-now they had the superior technology
-primitive African technology vs. European machine guns

  • Quinine for malaria

-made from trees in Peru
-was mass produced as pills and is the “tonic” part of gin and tonic

  • Trains, railroads, and steamboats

-better communication
**Also, Africans weren’t really unified
-there were many tribes, languages, cultures, and religions that had rivalries against each other
-couldn’t consolidate to fight off Europe

  • Another problem = fear of the unknown

Solution = an explorer

  • Dr. David Livingstone (late 1860s)

-Scottish missionary
-was interested in:
1) Mapping out the area
2) Spreading Christianity
3) Finding the source of the Nile
-He disappeared in the interior of Africa in the late 1860s

  • The New York Herald sent a journalist and reporter named Henry Stanly to look for him

-makes people excited and interested in exploring Africa and its glory
-excites the world for imperialism and conquering

  • They met up at Tanganyika Lake in 1871

-Stanley’s famous line—“Dr. Livingstone, I Presume”
-kind of ironic: who else could it be?
-they came back

The Belgium Congo

  • Belgium led the colonization of the interior of Africa and started a chain reaction
  • Stanley was given money by King Leopold II of Belgium to establish trading stations, sign treaties with African tribes, and plant Leopold’s flag

-He sent Stanley to justify Belgian control and make things official
-So Stanley went and convinced the natives to sign the treaties, therefore signing all their territory to Leopold I
-the natives had no idea what they were signing
This was mainly a show for European powers
-He sold this idea to them by saying it’s for the better of the people, to educate them by:
1) bringing the light of Christianity
2) preventing them from being in slavery
-His real motivation = greed, money, and profit
-The powers thought Leopold was an idiot for doing this, but they approved it anyways
-France was worried by Leopold’s actions though
-they sent Pierre de Brazza to establish a French protectorate on the north bank of the Congo River just in case

  • Makes lots of money from his Belgium Congo

-He enslaves people and makes them get rubber sap from trees
-10 million died = ½ the population

  • The Belgian parliament took over to run it

-continued to mistreat them
-“Heart of Darkness” = the book written about these horrors

  • For control:

-They would cut off the hands of workers if they didn’t meet the quota
-Held women hostage so the men would meet the quota

  • They changed their policies because so many people were dying à there wasn’t going to be a labor force left to pick rubber
  • This is a common theme among countries in Africa
  • By forcing people to grow cash crops, these people don’t have enough time to grow food and take care of themselves
  • Many died from:
  • Disease
  • Starvation

The Berlin Conference (1884 – 1885)

  • Problem with imperialism: it could lead to war
    • Europe had caught “African fever” and the race for territory was on

Solution: the Berlin conference

  • This international conference was called by Jules Ferry of France and Bismarck of Germany

-Bismarck had seen little value in colonies prior to 1880, but then suddenly made a switch in 1884 as political expansion grew
-Germany established protectorates over a number of small African kingdoms and tribes
-In acquiring territories, Bismarck cooperated with France’s Ferry, against the British.
-With Bismarck’s approval, the French pressed on with expansion

  • European powers divided up Africa

-no single European power would be able to claim the entire continent
-they also recognized Leopold’s personal rule over a neutral Congo free state and agreed to work to stop slavery and the slave trade in Africa

  • A country could have a territory if they could show that:
  • Nobody else had a claim to it
  • They could rule effectively
  • No Africans were invited
  • Importance: this shapes the map of Africa
    • Causes the mess in Africa
    • Europeans just took over with no regard to the different tribes
    • They split tribes in half, or put rival tribes together in the same territory
      • As a result, when the Europeans leave, they kill each other
  • Example = Rwanda

-The Dutch made a tribe to help them rule. This tribe was called the Tootsies, and consisted of the lighter skinned people
-The Whotoo, another tribe, were so upset about being mistreated that they took revenge when the Dutch left

Upper Sudan

  • The British began enlarging their West African territories
  • General Horatio Kitchener moved successfully up the Nile River, building a railroad to help supply arms and reinforcements
  • Finally, in 1898, these British troops fought tribes at the Battle of Omdurman, and completely destroyed Africans with their guns

-Winston Churchill was a young British officer in this battle

  • Kitchener’s armies continued up the Nile and found a small French force already occupied the village of Fashoda.

-The French had been determined to beat the British to the upper Nile, one of Africa’s last unclaimed areas, and had succeeded.
-This led to serious diplomatic crisis and the threat of war

  • France eventually withdrew its forces, unwilling to fight and divided by the Dreyfus Affair, and allowed the British to take over
  • The British conquest of Sudan exemplifies the general process of empire building in Africa, particularly destroying natives with superior military technology
  • But no matter how much the European powers squabbled for territory and privilege around the world, they always had the sense to stop short of actually fighting each other.
  • Imperial ambitions were not worth a great European war.


The only independent states:

  • Ethiopia

*The only country that was able to stand up against Europe

  • In 1896: A new emperor Menelik II came into power
  • French + Italians + British all wanted his territory

   -he plays European powers off of each other

  • The French and Russians sold arms to Ethiopia
  • The Italians decided to take over the territory

   -They got the agreement of Britain and France

  • Italy gave a treaty to Menelik for him to sign

   In Ethiopian: says that they will give up a little bit of land
In Italian: says that they will give up their entire empire

  • Menelik signed it à found out what the treaty really said and what happened à is furious à Hedeclares war on Italy
  • The Battle of Adowa (1896)

   -Ethiopians defeated the Italians
-low blow to the Italians, very humiliating
-this was the Ethiopian’s only true success

  • Menelik continued to get weapons from Europeans to protect himself just in case
  • After this, the European powers agreed not to give away weapons to African countries
  • As a result:

   **Italy was the only European country without African territory
-In 1931, Musellini decided to send in Italians to conquer Ethiopians
-Ethiopians had weapons from 1896 still
-The Italians had new weapons that destroyed the Ethiopians

  • Liberia

       -not completely independent—protected by the United States
-where slaves could return to Africa from the United States

Maji Maji Revolt (1905)

  • Takes place in German East Africa
  • The natives were forced to grow cash crops of cotton à they couldn’t provide enough food for the themselves and their community à starvation
  • 20 different tribes went against the Germans
  • It was a terrible catastrophe for the tribes
  • “Maji Maji” means magic water

-the tribes believed that by putting this magic water on themselves, the bullets couldn’t hurt them

  • On the German side: 389 Africans and 15 Germans died

On the African side: 200,000 died

  • It was a completely unfair battle

-Africans were very unsophisticated: had clubs and spears

  • After the revolt, the tribes were still forced to make cotton

-Another 200,000 died from starvation
-Europeans looked at them like a huge supply of workers and didn’t care if they died

South Africa

  • The only real fighting between European powers took place here
  • British vs. Dutch
  • The Dutch = Afrikaners and Boers (= farmers)
  • Originally, the Dutch settled in South Africa
  • But more and more British moved there and then kicked the Dutch out

-They wanted the Cape of Good Hope especially
-They took possession of these Dutch settlements at Cape Town during the wars with Napoleon I

  • The Dutch moved up north in the “Great Trek” (1835)

-disgruntled Dutch cattle ranchers and farmers moved into the interior, to Transvaal and Orange Free State
-the Afrikaners proclaimed their political independence and defended it against British armies
-By 1880, Afrikaners and British settlers, who hated each other, had wrestled control of most of South Africa from the African tribes
-Then the Afrikaners found gold and diamonds here
-Gold rush à everyone wanted to move there
-But the Dutch wanted it just for themselves à they denied anyone from Europe political rights, except Holland

  • Britain tried to incite a riot, but it was put down à the Dutch were angry
  • Led to the Boer War

The Boer War (1899-1902)

  • 1st modern war
  • Total war: using everything at your disposal for war
  • Dutch used guerilla tactics
  • British used concentration camps

-captured women and children and Africans on the side of the Dutch
-lots died from disease
British also used “slash and burn” = kill the land to kill the guerilla armies

  • Effects:

-Britain was victorious
-created animosity throughout Europe
-led to Britain creating alliances with France, as Germany spread bad press about Britain through Europe
-Britain controlled the area, but Afrikaners had limited rights and power
-Afrikaners were able to use their numerical superiority over the British settlers to gradually take political power
-The British, led by Cecil Rhodes in the Cape Colony, tried to go over the heads of the Afrikaners and established protectorates in Bechuanaland and Rhodesia
-Cecil Rhodes = face of British imperialism
-By 1910, South Africa became an official colony. It gets larger when they finally defeated the Zulu, a powerful African tribe.
-By 1910, Dutch territories were combined with the Cape Colony and the province of Natal in a new Union of South Africa. This union was established as a largely “self-governing colony”


Imperialism in India
In the 1800s- Britain and France wanted India

  • 1600s- Britain established trading posts in India’s main cities

-Calcatta, Bonsay, and Madras

  • Mughul Dynasty

       -Muslims who controlled the larger Hindu population of India

    • By 1707, the Ming Dynasty was on its downfall

-Some started to break away and declare independence
-Britain tried to gain more influence at this time

Battle of Plassey (1757)
-part of the 7 Years War

  • Robert Clives: the general who was hired by the British East India Trading Company
  • He led this defeat of the French and Mughul empire
  • Result = the British East India Trading Company runs India from 1757 – 1858
  • They needed the help of the Sepoys

              -Sepoys = Indian troops for hire (basically mercenaries)
-problem: Indians controlling Indians
Your arming the people that you’re trying to control
-“It’s a dangerous and delicate machine”

  • India = “the jewel in the crown”
  • Lots of resources: tea, jute (for rope), cotton, indigo, opium (sold to China; addictive)
  • Prestige of owning such a large territory that everyone wanted
  • Population = 300 million = the largest population ruled by a country

-had the 3rd largest railroad network

  • Lots of money to be made
  •  1858- the British East Company ends with a huge revolt

-It’s called the Great Rebellion by the Indians
-It’s called the Mutiny by the British

“The Great Rebellion” or “The Mutiny”

  • Causes
  • Background

       -living under harsh conditions
-not treated equally
-an Indian engineer made 20 times less than a British one
-separate cars for Indians
-British had weddings at the Taj Mahal (a burial chamber of a Mughul wife and one of the world’s 7 wonders)
-some people took pieces out of it as souveniers
-British changed the Indian gardens
-Forced Indians to buy British cloth
-This almost destroyed the Indian textile industry

  • Rumor that cartridges are lined with pork and beef fats

       -Pork upset Muslims, Beef upset Hindus
-Soldiers refused to use them to load their guns
-The British arrested them
-This news gets around

  • Led to rebellion: The sepoys revolt
  • British government sent troops and put down the revolt
    • There were divisions between Hindus and Muslims because the Hindus resented being controlled by the Muslims
  • Atrocity at the House of Ladies

-was a country club where wives and their kids would hang out
-Sepoys broke in and slaughtered the women and children
-the British captured the Sepoys and made them drink the blood off the ground.
-They then shot them all.
-not all of the Sepoys were responsible
*This didn’t make the British look good

  • 1858 – 1948: British decided to use direct rule instead, called the Raj

-lasted until after World War II

  • After crushing this rebellion in 1857–1858, a small British civil service administered India with a sense of cultural and racial superiority

-the white elite was competent and generally well-disposed toward the welfare of the Indian peasants masses
-yet there was still strict job discrimination and social segregation, and most of its members considered the Indian people to be “racially inferior”

  • British women played an important art in the imperial enterprise

-After the opening of the Suez Canal, it was much easier for civil servants and businessmen to bring their wives and children with them
-These British families tended to live in their own separate communities, where they lived in good conditions. The wife ran this complex household and relished their duties.
-Wives directed their household servants with the same confident authoritarianism that characterized British political rule in India

  • A small minority of British women sought to shoulder the “white women’s burden” in India

-They tried to improve the lives of Indian women, both Muslim and Hindu, and to move them closer through education and legislation to the better conditions that they believed Western women had attained
-Their greatest success was educating some elite Hindu women who took up the cause of reform.

  • With British men and women sharing a sense of mission and superiority, the British acted energetically and introduced many desirable changes to India.
  • Reforms included:
  •  Better education

-British realized they needed education Indians to serve in the army and government as skilled subordinates

  •  The development of a bureaucratic Indian elite

-the British offered some Indians excellent opportunities for both economic and social advancement
-High-caste Hindus soon formed a new elite that was profoundly influenced by Western thought and culture.

  •  Economic development

-this new elite played a role in economic development
-irrigation projects for agriculture, the world’s 3rd largest railroad network, and large tea and jute plantations were all developed
-unfortunately, the lot of the Indian masses improved little, for the increase in production was eaten up by population increase

  •  The creation of a unified state

-with a well-educated, English-speaking Indian bureaucracy and modern communications
-they put all of the different Hindu and Muslim peoples, people who had fought each other for centuries, under one system of government

  • Indians responded nationalistically with resentment of racial discrimination and foreign political control.

-An Indian could never become the white ruler’s equal
-for example, the top jobs were sealed off to Indians
-peasant masses accepted this inequality, but the Indian elite felt an injured pride and bitter injustice and were upset about the European’s hypocrisy: they ruled India with a dictatorship even though their countries were liberal and democratic

  • By 1885, the Hindu Indian National Congress was demanding equality, self-government, and ultimately independence.

-Lots wanted home rule for India through an elected parliament

  • The common heritage of the British rule and Western ideals, along with the reform and revitalization of the Hindu religion, had created a genuine movement for national independence


  • The worst things about this rule:
  • Famines

-because of cash crops (like in Africa)
-10 million died

  • Indians were allowed their religion and their caste system BUT racist missionaries continued to try to convert people

Shooting an Elephant

  • By George Orwell
  • Talks about how the Indians show resentment towards the British

-spit on them
-tripped him at a soccer game

  • The elephant represents the British empire

-out of control
-he saw the empire as slowly dying, just like the elephant slowly died
-the Indians will take back what they lost, just like the natives in the book skinned the elephant

  • He was happy that a “coolie” was killed because it justified his shooting

“Coolie” = an Indian worker

  • He also wrote Animal Farm and 1984


China and Japan

  • Europe’s peaceful development in North America, Australia, and Latin America was considered the most important aspect of Europe’s global expansion
  • However, their conquest of old, densely population civilizations in Asia was also very significant, especially for the natives who lived their
  • Europeans increased their trade and profit, and they were prepared to use force, if necessary, to attain their desires
  • This is what happened in China and Japan, two crucial examples of the general pattern of intrusion into non-Western lands


  • Prior to the 1850s – the Japanese were isolationists

-Europeans first arrived in Japan in the 16th century and by 1640, Japan had reacted quite negatively to their presence
-the government decided to seal off the country from all European influences in order to preserve traditional Japanese culture and society
-thought they were superior
-saw the outside as dangerous
-wanted no influence from the outside
- Japan’s isolation seemed hostile and barbaric to the West, especially to the United States
-it thwarted their hope of trade and profit
-American shipwrecked ships couldn’t stop in Japan
-America also felt destined to play a great role in the pacific, and felt as if it was their duty to force the Japanese to share their ports and behave as a “civilized” nation
1853 – Commodore Matthew Perry got a letter from President Filmore
-Letter said to open up free trade and ports between the United States and Japan
-Perry was sent to Japan with 4 steamships/ warships
-He showed up at Tokyo Harbor
-the Japanese thought their steamships were on fire
-had never seen such advanced technology
-Told them they had a year to open their ports or he would come back

  • Perry showed up in less than a year à difficult position for Japan

Give in OR fight back??
     Treaty of Kanagawa
-Shocked and humiliated, Japan reluctantly gave in and signed a treaty
-opened 2 ports and permitted trade

  • By 1860, several ports were opened to outsiders and Europeans and Americans gained extraterritorial rights

-Extraterritorial rights = they only had to answer to their country, not Japan à could do whatever they wanted to do
-basically, they had immunity
-caused resentment of foreigners
-Japan was “opened” with only the threat of war, unlike the British opening of China

  • This led to a fight within the Japanese government

-Shogun – the Japanese hereditary military governor running the government at this time
-People wanted him overthrown
-they were upset that so many foreign countries were coming to their ports. They didn’t want Western ideas corrupting their society
-saw the shogun as weak
-The samurai, the Japanese nobility, helped to overthrow the shogun
Emperor Mutsuhito
-Replaced the shogun and was in charge

  • He started the Meiji Restoration and Reform (or “Enlightened Rule”) in 1867
  • The most important goal = meet the foreign threat
  • He realized the way to fight the Europeans = become like the Europeans

-He dropped anti-foreign attacks
-He tried to industrialize Japan so it could control its own history

  • He abolished the old feudal system and formed a strong unified state.
  • What to copy:

-declared social equality like French Revolution
-Railroads and modern factories
-army like Germany with 3 year military service for all males
-this army of draftees effectively put down disturbances in the country
-In 1887, it was used to crush a major rebellion by traditionalists mad about losing their feudal privileges
-navy like Britain
-the United States public school system
-Japanese students were encouraged to study abroad
-Governments hired foreign experts who were replaced by trained Japanese as soon as possible
-created a free, competitive, government-stimulated economy
-increased freedom of movement so people could travel abroad
-In 1890, they copied the German constitution and rejected democracy

  • To become a world power à become imperialistic

-They decided to focus on Asia
-Russia got in the way of the Asian empire they were trying to create à led to the Russo-Japanese wars

  • 1894: repealed the extraterritorial rights
  • In World War I – they joined to take over German colonies

In World War II – they joined to gain more territory

Russo-Japanese Wars (1904-1905)

  • Cause:

-Japan wanted Korea, and Russia wanted Korea and trading rights in Manchuria
-In 1903, Japan told Russia if they stayed out of Korea, they would give them trading rights in Manchuria
-Russia disagreed
-Nicholas II wanted to go to war on some level because:
-he knew there was discontent and thought that winning would create feelings of nationalism
-he thought it would be an easy win

  • In 1904, the Japanese launched a surprise attack and drove Russian troops out of Korea

-They captured Russia’s pacific fleet
-This demonstrated how poorly led the Russian troops were

  • Treaty of Portsmouth

-signed in New Hampshire in 1905 with President Roosevelt
-Russia agreed to withdraw from Manchuria and Korea – humiliating defeat for Russia
-Japan got all the land it captured
-America got the prestige and status
-By 1910, Japan got Korea and became a major imperialist power

  • Effects of the War on Russia:

-crushing blow to Russia
-showed that the “Steamroller” Russia wasn’t as powerful as they used to be
-The Russian military deserted because there wasn’t enough payà led to food shortages and inflation
-Sparked Bloody Sunday
-stopped Russian colonial expansion in the West
-part of the reason why they couldn’t help Serbia in 1908

  • Japan became the first non-western country to use an ancient love of country to transform itself and meet the challenge of Western expansion
  • Japan demonstrated that a modern Asian nation could defeat and humble a great Western power
  • Japan provided patriots throughout Asia and Africa with an inspiring example of national recovery and liberation


  • In 1793: the Qing emperor was visited by a British ambassador

-Europeans weren’t allowed to look at the emperor

  • The ambassador thought he was going to impress the Chinese with all types of technology

-showed them clocks, watches, and even a hot air balloon
-trying to get them to want to trade with Britain

  • The emperor was unimpressed and said that China had everything it needs
    • China was very self sufficient

-had trade with the Portuguese and Spanish and got sweet potatoes and maize à helped feed their population
-rich in minerals
-sent more goods and inventions to Europe than it received

    • Europeans wanted:
      • silk, cotton, porcelains, tea
      • Imperialists wanted it because it’s a huge market, so there’s lots of people to trade with

1845: 400 million people in China

      • Missionaries – there’s lots of people for them to convert
  • The Chinese decided to open one port called Guangzhon (Canton) to the Europeans to satisfy them

-But it’s not a fair trade balance à the Chinese got the better of them
-The Qing dynasty had required all foreign merchants to live in the southern city of Canton and to buy from and sell to only the local merchant monopoly
-For years, this little community of foreign merchants had to accept this system, until the 1820s, when the British emerged on the scene

  • The British wanted more ports opened
  • Opium trade:

-China had outlawed opium
-Opium was illegal in Britain, but they thought it was okay to trade it with the Chinese
-The British grew opium in British-occupied India, and then smuggled it into China
-British merchants in Canton had a goal: to create an independent British colony in China and “safe and unrestricted liberty in trade” with more ports
-By 1835: 12 million addicts

The Opium Wars (1839-1842)

  • Cause: The Chinese sank a British boat with opium on it

-The Qing government wanted to stop opium trade because they thought it was harmful to Chinese interests. They thought it was ruining the people and stripping the empire of its silver, because merchants used silver to pay the British for the opium.

  • The British declared war on them
    • The British wanted to go to war with them

-wanted to defeat the Chinese to force them to give them more ports

  • It wasn’t a fair war: the British had a superior navy and weapons

-British used troops from India and occupied several coastal cities with their navy
-forced the Chinese to surrender

  • 1842: Solved with the Treaty of Nanjing (the book calls it the Treaty of Nanking)

-more ports were opened
-Europeans and Americans got extraterritorial rights
-the British got Hong Kong

  • As a result:

-opium trade flourished
-Hong Kong developed rapidly as an Anglo-Chinese territory
-China continued to accept foreign diplomats in Beijing (Peking),the imperial capital
-There was a second round of war between 1859 and 1860, which resulted in British and French occupation in Beijing
-Another harsh treaty gave Europeans more privileges and protection
-Thus Europeans used military aggression to blow a hole in the wall of Chinese seclusion and open the country to foreign trade and ideas

  • In 1860, the Qing Dynasty in China managed to overcome what appeared to be an imminent collapse and continued its rule.

-Efforts to repel foreigners had failed, and rebellion and chaos wracked the country
-Yet the government drew on its traditional strengths and made a surprising comeback.
-Two factors were crucial in this reversal

  • Strong leadership that introduced reforms

-loyal generals quelled rebellions and disturbances
-the empress dowager Tzu His helped to revitalize the bureaucracy

  • Less destructive foreign aggression

-happened after Europeans had obtained their goal of trade and diplomatic relations
-Some Europeans even contributed to the dynasty’s recovery.
-An Irishman reorganized China’s customs office and increased the government tax receipts
-A sympathetic American diplomat represented China in foreign lands and helped strengthen the central government.
-These efforts helped the dynasty adopt some aspects of Western government and technology, while still maintaining traditional Chinese values and beliefs

  • Success would not last, however, due to Japanese imperialism.
    • Japan realized that they need to industrialize
    • China didn’t and were slow to industrialize à much more of a gradual change than Japan
    • China wanted to hold on to traditions and be self-sufficient

*As a result, Japan dominates over china

  • Chinese defeat in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895 led to a rush of foreign involvement.

-In 1898, it appeared that the European powers might actually divide China among themselves, like they carved up Africa
Why it wasn’t divided up:
1) the jealousy each nation felt towards its imperialist competitors
2) China wasn’t as profitable and full of resources as Africa
3) Africa wasn’t a single entity like China- It was divided with different tribes to begin with
4) Europe had more respect for China because they were more “civilized” and had a centralized government
5) U.S. Open Door Policy (1899)

    • passed by American President McKinley
    • officially establishes free trade with China for everyone
    • The U.S. came up witih this because

1) Didn’t want to go to war with China about trade
2) Didn’t want China to be carved up like Africa
-It was in America’s best interests to keep China united so they could have ports for trade
Hundred Days of Reform

  • Some leaders thought that China needed to be westernized, so the government launched a desperate hundred days of reform in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge.
  • This was a very half-hearted attempt at industrialization, and it didn’t do anything
  • Traditionalists got in the way

Boxer Rebellion (1900-1903)

  • Rebellion against foreigners, not the government
  • Boxers = secret society of low class workers and peasants with little education

-they believed in spiritual possessions: the idea that gods would possess them so they could fight skillfully and be immune to guns

  • Causes:
  • Upset about Christian missionaries trying to convert them and telling them that their religion, language, and customs are wrong. They weren’t being respectful of Chinese culture and were too forceful.
  • Mad about Europeans and Americans getting extraterritorial rights

-they felt like they were superior to the Europeans and Americans
-Many Europeans were taking over trading posts

  • Catalyst: Floods and droughts

-thought it was a sign that the gods were angry and were punishing them
-the only way to appease the gods is to get rid of the foreigners

  • They called foreigners “secondary devils”
  • Empress Dowager was in power at this time, and she waited to see what was going to happen before taking sides

-She secretly supported the Boxers, but didn’t want to be on their side if they were crushed

  • She sided with the Boxers because they were doing well and because she was tricked.

-an adviser gave her a forged letter from Europe that said they were planning on kicking her out of power

  • Goal of Boxers = restore Chinese culture and way of life in Beijing

-They attacked the little European “cities” within the Chinese cities that consisted of embassies and trading posts
-It took weeks for the European and American cavalry to come to the aid of the Europeans and Americans in China

  • The Europeans and Americans, who were in these embassies under attack, made a heroic effort and stayed alive
  • Once again, the imperialist response was quick and harsh

-Peking (Beijing) was occupied and plundered by foreign armies
-Europeans looted China and Beijing
-A heavy indemnity was imposed

  • Empress Dowager stepped down, but then made a comeback à she changed her loyalty and sided with the Europeans and killed many Boxers.

-she was a smart politician

  • Importance:
  • Shows Chinese resentment of foreigners and imperialistic European countries
  • Causes the Chinese to start to industrialize

1905: empress dowager started moving towards reform
*This was 40 years after Japan had started à Japan had a huge advantage

The Aftermath

  • The years that followed the Boxer rebellion were very troubled
  • In 1912, the Qing dynasty was overthrown
  • A loose coalition of revolutionaries proclaimed a Western-style republic and called for an elected parliament.
  • The transformation of China under the impact of expanding Western society entered a new phase, and the end was not in sight.

Imperialism in Asia: 

  • Europeans also extended their political control in Asia

-The Dutch gained control over most of the East Indies.
-In 1815, the Dutch only ruled the little island of Java in the East Indies
-they gradually brought almost all of the East Indies under their political authority
-they had to share some with Britain and Germany
-The French took Indochina, under the leadership of Ferry.
-Russia gained territory to their south, in Central Asia, and in outer Chinese provinces.
-The United States gained the Philippines.
-they took it from Spain in 1898 after the Spanish-American War
-when it became clear that the United States had no intention of granting independence, Philippine patriots rose in revolt and were suppressed only after long bitter fighting
-some Americans protested the taking of the Philippines, but with no success
-Thus another great Western power joined the imperialist ranks in Asia.
Stuff from the small Perry Book

  • against imperialism
    • Wrote …. In 1902
      • The “white man’s burden” was just a façade and was never justified
      • Only those with influence are profiting
      • Imperialism is just for prestige, not economic prosperity of the state or the average person

Pierson (1900)

  • Wrote
  • Thought imperialism was justified by human nature and social Darwinism

Cecil Rhodes

  • The face of British imperialism
  • Promoted imperialism a lot
  • Set up protectorates in Bechuanaland and Rhodesia in South Africa after the Boer War


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Difference between old imperialism and new imperialism summary and study guide

New Imperialism


What is the difference between old v. new imperialism?

Old- Developed during and after the “Age of Discovery and Exploration” in the 15th -17th centuries (1400-1600)
Goal was for mother countries to utilize (use) their colonies to benefit them economically. For example, a mother country would use colony for natural resources but had little influence on the lives of the people. In other words, mother countries did not try to alter the colony’s culture. (See this in China/India/Africa)


New- Developed in the last third of the 19th Century and was the total domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life by another country. The intention of “new imperialism” was to exert total control and change the colony.

- Sudden mania for expansion that gripped the 19th century. The idea of imperialism was not new, however what occurred was.
What brought about the change?
- Changes in Europe- with the unification of Germany and Italy, France and GB no longer were the only dominant powers. These nations are going to embark on conquest of new land as a way to over-power other countries in Europe.


New Imperialism Timeline:
Overview of Unit

1750’s British East India Company begins the takeover of India
1793- China rejects British request for Open Trade
1838-1842- First Opium War (War Britain v. China)
1850-1864- Taiping Uprising in China
1853- Commodore Perry (U.S.) arrives in Japan
1857-1858- Sepoy Mutiny/Rebellion in India
1868- Meiji Restoration in Japan
1870-1871- Unification of Italy and Germany
1880-1914- Colonial Conquest of Africa (Europe scrambles for Africa)
1899-1901- Boxer Rebellion in China


Source : http://bartelsmodernworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/New+Imperialism+Timeline.doc

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