Food and recipes




Food and recipes


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Food and recipes


Index of topics :

  • Broiling, grilling and pan-broiling
    Cake Preparation
    Carbohydrate and Dietary Fibre
    Chocolate and Flavourings
    Choux Paste Products
    Cooking and handling of meats
    Cooking techniques for:
    Cooking times
    Cream Desserts
    Dairy Products
    Developing Food Patterns
    Effects of heat on food
    Egg & Breakfast Cookery
    Eggs in Baking
    Energy sources
    Fire Procedures
    Fish & Shellfish Cookery
    Importance of mise en place
    Kitchen Tools – Identification, Storage & Handling
    Leavening Agents
    Major nutrient identification
    Meat Entrees
    Mineral Elements
    Modes of heat transfer
    Pie Dough
    Piping Batters
    Proper Food Storage and Packaging
    Proteins and Vegetarian Diets
    Quick Breads and Muffins
    Roasting and baking
    Sauce Cookery
    Sautéing, pan-frying and griddling
    Short Order Cookery
    Simmering and braising
    Soup Cookery
    Stock Cookery
    Sugar Commodities
    Thickening Agents
    Types of Shortening
    Uniform Standards
    Use of Salts
    Vegetable, Pasta & Rice Cookery
    Vitamins, Processing & Additives
    Water – Sources, value & quality
    Yeast Dough


Dry and Liquid Measure Equivalents


French Cooking Terms

A roasting pan or baking dish partially filled with water to allow food to cook more slowly and be protected from direct high heat. Used for custards and terrines.
Creamy pudding that is made with cream and eggs, then set with gelatin.
Fritters. Small dollops of dough that are fried.
Beurre Manié
Butter and flour mixed together in equal parts and used to thicken liquids.
Beurre Noisette
Browned butter.
A shellfish soup that has been thickened.
A stew made from meat that has not been browned or fried. Usually refers to stews made of lamb, chicken or veal.
Small puff pastry cases.
Broth or stock.
Bouquet Garni
A mixture of fresh herbs tied together with string and used to flavor stews, soups etc. It refers to a mix of parsley, bay leaf, thyme (and sometimes celery stalk). The bouquet is removed before serving.
Vegetables cut into very small diced pieces.
An appetizer consisting of a small bread or biscuit base covered with a flavored topping.
Browned bread crumbs.
To remove the backbone from a rack of ribs.
To chop roughly

Broth that has been made clear.
A thick sauce usually made from one main ingredient, such as raspberry coulis.
Court Bouillon
Flavored liquid used for cooking fish.
Very thin pancakes.
A mixture of potato with ground cooked meat, fish or poultry formed into balls, patties or other shapes and coated with a breading before frying.
Bread piece dipped in butter and baked until it is crisp.
Crust. Sometimes refers to a pastry crust, sometimes to toasted or fried bread.
Small cubes of bread used as a garnish is salads and soups.
Small mould shaped like a castle used for moulding salads or baking cakes.
To deglaze, to loosen browned juices and fat from the bottom of a frying pan or saucepan by adding liquid, bringing to a boil and stirring. The liquid is usually water, wine or broth.

To extract juices from meat, fish or vegetables, usually by salting them, then soaking or washing. It is usually done to remove a strong taste.
To skim off the scum that accumulates at the top of a stock or sauce.
Finely chopped raw mushrooms, used as a stuffing. Sometimes combined with chopped ham or scallops.
Sirloin steak.
The term used to refer to something served before the main course but is used now to refer to the actual main course.
Dessert or sweet, but not including pastries.
A thin slice of meat that is often pounded out to make it thinner.
Flamber or Flambé
To set alcohol on fire.
Something that is iced or set on or in a bed of ice.
A stew made from poultry, meat or rabbit that has a white sauce.
Glace de Viande
Reduced brown stock used to add color and flavor to sauces.
Gratiner or Au Gratin
To sprinkle the surface of a cooked food with bread crumbs and butter, and sometimes cheese and brown under the broiler. The finished food is referred to as au gratin as in au gratin potatoes.
Hors d'Oeuvre
First course or appetizer.
Jus or Jus de Viande
The juices that occur naturally from cooking.
Jus Lié
A thickened gravy.
Ingredients used for thickening sauces, soups or other liquids.
Small diced mixed vegetables, usually containing at least one root vegetable. Sometimes also means a mixture of fruit, like fruit salad.
French word for a covered earthenware container for soup. The soup is both cooked and served in it.
A mixture of braising vegetables.
To hand meat, game or poultry.
A cake tin that is wider at the base than at the top and only about 1" in depth.
To coat, mask or cover with something.
The word literally means "nut". It usually means nut brown in color. For example, beurre noisette is butter browned over heat until it becomes a nut brown color. It can also refer to boneless rack of lamb that is rolled, tied and cut into rounds. The word can also refer to hazelnuts.
Nouvelle Cuisine
A term that refers to the style of cooking that features lighter dishes with lighter sauces and very fresh ingredients.

A very thick mixture, usually made from a combination of flour, butter and milk, that is used as a base for dishes such as soufflés and fish cakes.
To coat with egg and crumbs before frying.
A wrapping of parchment paper around fish or meat used for cooking. The paper retains moisture in the food.
Refers to potatoes molded into balls with a melon scoop and fried or roasted.
A basic mixture or paste. Often refers to uncooked dough or pastry.
A paste made of liver, pork or game.

A sweet or pastry, it also refers to a cake shop.
To insert fat, bacon, ham etc into meat or poultry.
A young chicken.
Minced fish or meat mixture that is formed into small shapes and poached. It also refers to a shape that the minced mixture is made into.
A stew
Reheated food.
Flour mixed with water or egg white and used to seal pans when cooking food slowly. Often used when cooking a ragoût.
To quickly fry meats or vegetables in hot fat to warm them through.
Melted butter to which flour has been added. Used as a thickener for sauces or soups.
Garlic and oil emulsion used as flavoring.
A deep frying pan with a lid, used for recipes that require fast frying, then slow cooking.
Pâté or mixture of minced ingredients, baked or steamed in a loaf shaped container.
A dish cooked in a mould that is higher than it is wide and has sloping sides.
A type of sauce made from butter, flour, cream and stock.
A large pastry case made of puff pastry that is usually used as a container for creamed dishes, such as creamed chicken.



Cooking Terms



Cooking with water, but never allowed to boil, covered

2. Score


To make very straight cuts in the surface of food usually parallel lines



To turn food’s surface brown through applied heat through boiling, frying, or baking



To simmer and evaporate moisture



To cook meat or poultry slowly in a covered utensil with some liquid



To cook over an open flame or charcoal



To cook with the dry heat of the oven



To cook under an open flame

9.  Boiling


To cook in high temperature water



To cook on a low heat where liquid just bubbles below the surface



To cook by steam heat only



To cook in a Wok, foods are cut into small pieces and cooked quickly

13. Sauté


To cook in a small amount of fat on high heat

14. Beat


To make a mixture smooth or to incorporate air into a mixture using a circular motion

15. Blend


To mix two or more ingredients until thoroughly combined



To place small pieces of an ingredient over surface



To cover food with another ingredient such as flour or bread crumbs



To separate a liquid from a food

19. Fold in


To combine two ingredients or mixtures by gently cutting down through a mixture around the bottom back up to the surface and across the top in a down motion that does not leave the mixture until it is well blended

20. Coat


To coat food with a dry ingredient such as flour



To add another touch of food for decorating with color, texture, or contrast

22. Baste


To moisten meat of other foods with a liquid while cooking to add flavor and to prevent drying of the surface

23. Puree


To force a food through a fine strainer to make a pulp



To cut food into small uniform pieces



To remove the central portion of seed from fruits or vegetables



To cut food into small squares-usually about ½ in. cubes

27. Blanch


To dip into boiling water for a short time

28. Dice


To cut into small cubes-smaller than those for instructions “to cube”


To cut food into very small pieces


To decorate the edge of a food such as a pastry

31. Cut in
32. Glaze

To incorporate a solid fat into dry ingredients
To coat with a thin syrup



To work one or more foods until soft and smooth with a spoon rubbing against the side of the bowl



To beat rapidly to incorporate air to increase volume and fluffiness



To heat a liquid just to the simmering point



To let stand in a specific mixture for a specified amount of time for flavor and/or tenderizing



To shape a food

38. Baking


To cook with the dry heat of the oven, not a term used for meats



To rub a surface with fat or oil



To cut off the thinnest possible layer of peel

41. Sear


To brown a meat surface quickly using high heat



To force a dry ingredient through a fine sieve


To combine two or more ingredients

44. Peel


To pull off the rind or outer covering of an orange, banana, pomegranate, etc.

46. Julienne

To cut into matchstick sized pieces

47. Melt

To convert a solid to a liquid with heat







To manipulate dough with the hands by pressing with the palms and folding until the dough becomes smooth or elastic



To let heated food stand at room temp. until it reaches room temperature



To bring to refrigerator temperature




Glossary of terms for Commercial Cookery

aioli – a cold egg and oil emulsion with olive oil and garlic.
acid – a chemical with a pH lower than 7. Strong acids have a pH of less than 3. E.g. vinegar, citric acid, hydrochloric acid.
al dente – a term, meaning "to the teeth", used to describe the correct degree of cooking for pasta and vegetables so they still have
a slightly chewy texture
alkali – a liquid with a pH higher than 7. E.g. ammonia.
albumen – the protein of egg whites
antipasto – an Italian word for snacks served before a meal
arrowroot – a starch similar to cornstarch but which leaves the colour of the food unchanged and sauces with a gloss finish
aspic – a jelly made from stock, fumet, wine, or fruit juices used to mould dishes
au gratin – a dish prepared with or without sauce, topped with breadcrumbs or grated cheese or both, dotted with butter and browned under a grill
bacteria – single celled micro organisms. Some bacteria when present in large numbers can cause food poisoning.
bain-marie – used for keeping food hot by surrounding the food container with simmering water
baking powder – a leavening agent combining an acid with bicarbonate of soda to form the gas which enables baked products to rise
baking soda – a leavening agent which is used as an essential ingredient in baking powder
béchamel – a white mother sauce made from roux, milk and a studded onion
blanch – to plunge briefly into boiling water and drain
blend – to combine ingredients with a spoon, using a wide circular motion to mix until smooth
bouquet garni – a bunch of herbs, usually three sprigs of parsley, two sprigs of thyme, a sprig of marjoram and a bay leaf tied with
a piece of string, to be placed in a simmering sauce or stew
buttermilkoriginally a by-product of butter making, buttermilk is commercially produced by adding lactic acid culture to skimmed or
partially skimmed milk
caviar – eggs of the sturgeon that have been salted and cured
crepe – a very thin pancake used for sweet and savoury fillings
cross contamination – the passing of microorganisms from contaminated food or surfaces to other foods or surfaces
flour –the finely ground grain of wheat, corn, rice, oat, rye, or barley. Unless specified, this term refers to wheat flour.
foie gras – goose liver, but the term is used to describe the fattened liver of both duck and geese
food contamination – the presence of an unintended item, substance or microorganisms in food which can lead to illness and disease, when the food is eaten
food poisoning – an illness that happens when a person eats contaminated foods or beverages
fondant – an icing made of sugar syrup and glucose, which is cooked to a specific temperature and then kneaded to a smooth, soft paste
fondue – there are several different types of fondue. A Swiss cheese fondue is made of melted cheese with wine, eggs, and seasonings and served with bread and fresh vegetables.
garnish – to decorate food. A garnish should always be edible and match the dish it accompanies.
gateau – a round flat cake or jelly used as a base for fruits
glaze – brush over with liquid such as egg, milk, sugar and water, to improve the appearance
hazard – an item, condition, event or situation which could lead to a potential accident or harm
hollandaise sauce – the most basic of the egg and oil emulsified sauces. The only flavouring is fresh lemon juice or a
good quality vinegar.
hygiene – clean and sanitary conditions which promote health and safety
jus - a rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the roasting pan, then reduced to achieve a rich flavour.
julienne – a fine precision cut usually applied to vegetables. Julienne is defined as 3mm x 3mm x 40mm but may also be thinner and longer depending on the effect required.
marinade a seasoned liquid made of oils, herbs and vinegar. Meat or fish is soaked in it for some time to give it flavour
mousse – sweet or savoury dishes made of ingredients which are blended and folded together.
MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet. This is a document that gives details on chemicals such as cleaning products. It provides information on how to use the chemicals properly as well as warnings and safety issues.
perishable – foods that will deteriorate quickly if not stored properly. E.g. dairy products, eggs, meat, seafood, fruit and vegetables.
roux – a mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews
tepid water – warm water
truffle – a fungus of unusual flavour and aroma
simmer – to stay just below boiling point while bubbling gently
vinaigrette – a sauce used to dress salads, made with oil, vinegar and chopped herbs
yeast – a fungus used in the production of bread and beer in a process called fermentation.
zest – thinly sliced or grated outer rind of citrus fruits; mainly orange and lem



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Food and recipes