The following texts are the property of their respective authors and we thank them for giving us the opportunity to share for free to students, teachers and users of the Web their texts will used only for illustrative educational and scientific purposes only.



The information of medicine and health contained in the site are of a general nature and purpose which is purely informative and for this reason may not replace in any case, the council of a doctor or a qualified entity legally to the profession.





The roots of the expressionism
At the stage of postimpressionismo the activities of some painters creates conditions of one of fundamental styles of the 20TH Century: the expressionism. The term "expressionism" was born in opposition to the "impressionism". THE impressionists painters express their own visual sensations. Express, in substance, the emotions of its own eye. THE expressionist painters want to express much more. They want to express their emotions and inner psychological, not only those sensory ottiche.quello that historically is defined "expressionism", was born around 1905 simultaneously in France and in Germany with two artistic groups: the "Fauves" and "Die Brucke". Their artistic innovations and stylistic are prepared, from 1880 onwards, from the activity of three main painters postimpressionisti: Van Gogh, Gauguin and Munch. In these three painters painting does not reproduce reality visible from the eye, but reproduces the reflection of inner reality esterna.le reasons in the origin of the work of these three painters are very different, as there are several results which come. However, Van Gogh, Gauguin, both Munch, express a strong sense of drama that puts them on a floor opposite to impressionism. THE impressionism was signaled by a joyfulness of the fund. On the contrary, the expressionism, and everything that came before and after, to begin by Van Gogh, he expresses feelings and sensations more intense and painful that touch on some of nerve centers more profound of human nature.



Web Site:


Author of the text: not indicated in the document of origin





4 Expressionism


The origin of modern expressionism must be sought in the tensions pitto­riche, socio-cultural and architectural that have produced the style at the end of the century of Art Nouveau. Between architectural ones stands out the figure of Gottfried Semper which is recognized as the encoder ornamentation dynamic , or an expression can activate special states of emotion by means of architecture.
Both in the figurative arts and architecture the cultural attitude of expressions­smo is characterized by denial of every experience artistic-composing a priori and the search for a continuous renewal language. It is most important direct experience, which leads us to discover the reality in its events, rather than the acquisition some skills resulting from an indoctrination not remedies.
There are no rules encoded in architecture since the expressionism "tends to deny a syntax communicable, and to seek rather than in each work its own rules creative and must therefore be judged on the level of the clash of reality and of opportunity".
Sichtbarkeit, einfuhlung and volksgeist are joined by a new linguistic nature that refuses any gestalt architectural resulting from historicist eclecticism, ready to accept the zeitgeist as a commitment to participatory modern reality. Through a degree of sperimen­ubway unlimited of the characteristics of liquidity and plasticity of reinforced concrete, expressionism invalidate the pro­ceased creative space as addition of interventions serial and discrete stereometry deriving from both the classical and the rules of incipient modern, to affirm the primacy of the continuity of the forms and the spa­zi architecture. Within this research develops the work of a precursor of Art Nouveau, Henry Van de Velde that with the Werkbundtheater designed for the exhibition in Cologne from Werkbund initiated in 1914, punctuates a transition phase between the protorazionalismo and expressionism. But it will be the three-dimensional­sionalita antiprospettica Erich Mendelsohn to complete the characters of the code-style that you will find the Einstein tower in Potsdam, 1920-24, the composition more emblematic.
Bruno Taut, leader of Novembergruppe, reversing the relationship between form and function expressed by Sullivan scri­true:

"( ... ) are not practical requirements, but the fantasy of the form to generate the architecture. So it shows that what determines the will of the architect is something completely different from the placing functional requirements and clarifies that this desire is beyond what is essentially practical and that the greatest aspiration of the architect and the type of buildings in which instances practices have very little weight or even non-existent. In every age of cultural splendour all aim to an architecture that rise above the narrow need materials and in this sense it is guiding the architectural choices of the period."

In the Netherlands is one of the largest diasporas of contemporary architectural culture that will be as opposite poles and irreconcilable the expressionism "Wendingen" of the School of Amsterdam on the one hand, and the abstraction neoplastic "De Stijl" with its center in The Hague on the other hand.
Among the first, Michel de Klerk (1884-1923), Pieter Lodewijk Kramer (1881-1961), Johan Melchior van der Mey (1878-1949), all forming part of the atelier of E. Cuypers in early 1900, sought to express the character of dutch cities and, in particular, the "Venice flemish". In it there are continual references to maritime language, as if the streets and the canals of the city represented the sea and the buildings the vessels, and where, therefore, buildings and cities tend to merge with one another in the other by creating an urban landscape unique for continuity, character and intensity. Are children who live the district to avail, together with the women that they spend most of their time in the place of residence, but also by the men that when they return home tired from work they deserve to live in a district designed to measure of the man.


"How can we thank this worker courageous for what it has done to our children ( … )? Isn't that wonderful, after the fatigue of the day, return to a house built of pure joy? It is as if every brick we called, come or workers, and rested in your homes".

Wendingen, the organ of the group's publishing, was not a real magazine but rather a newspaper, the School newspaper of Amsterdam, and its drafting more than publish posters ideological arose the obligation to be faithful to a cultural line heroic, for which there would be due to be split between architecture and town planning.
Among the principal animators of expressionism we find: Fritz Höger which gives new force to the code with the Chilehaus in 1923, a great "ship" that passes through the streets of Hamburg; Kurt Schwitters that in the house to Hannover 1924 deconstructs the links syntactic space reaching a pre-informal and anticipating deconstructivism; Hans Poelzig that dematerialises the housing in the project of the interior of the theater of mass in Berlin in 1919; Rudolf Steiner that with the Ghoeteanum II to Donark (Basel) of 1928 gives the expressionist architecture the plastic value of prehistoric stone tossed.
THE expressionism will generate the neo-expressionism between whose works are cited: the dinamicissima Berlin Philharmonic of Hans Sharoun, undisputed masterpiece is unsurpassed in the architecture of concert halls; the Opera-House in Sidney John Utzon, conformed by a series of shells which become swollen symbolically the sails of a sailing ship in navigation in the bay; the TWA Terminal at the airport J. F. Kennedy of New York designed by Eero Saarinen according to a structural layout germanic animal style which gives life to a shell of coverage supported by daring as sculptured pillars to "Y"; many of the works of Ralph Erskine between which the mill Burned in 1953 where the towers of ventilation are modeled plastically as pages of an open book, serpeggiante residential district Byker Newcastle upon Tyne completed in 1981, the Ark in London in 1994, building in the form of barge marina with an inner atrium antiprospettico and curvilinear.
The italian scene the genius of Giovanni Michelucci combines the expressionism with the organic architecture in the churches of San Giovanni Battista on the motorway A1, Florence North 1961, Borgomaggiore in San Marino, always in 1961, and of the Immaculate Conception in Longarone in 1970, and accommodation at the entrance of the park of Pinocchio in Collodi 1959. Luigi Moretti with the House of the Sunflower realized in Rome in 1948, thanks to a deep cut that connects the spatiality of the atrium on viale Bruno Buozzi with the most internal, avoids to conceive a building with courtyard, since these spaces only separated from the body scale-elevator, which becomes the tree of the building. With the intervention of the residential district Incis a Tenth, Rome, 1960 Moretti and Adalberto Libera curve the plot of the bodies of works so as to obtain urban spaces modeled on concave and convex forms. With the Watergate in Washington in 1961 finally Moretti realizes that modeling circular of the volumes of the buildings so dear in those years to Ludovico Quaroni with the project mestrino of Salt Marshes of San Giuliano in 1959.
The crisis of expressionism, which began in the mid 1920s, and due princi­indicative the individualistic character of the movement which has not succeeded in transforming­sea its uninterrupted plasticity architectural continuity proactive. Mendelsohn is a personality in a revolt, isolated, which refuses to unbundle cubic meters­is and, despite its great success in democratic Germany, does not participate in the important events of the period: the Bauhaus, the Exposure of Stuttgart, the CIAM, the exhibition in New York in 1932.
In addition to neo-expressionism, whose continuity can be sought in the poetics of informal and experiments arcologia of Paolo Soleri, a combination of this code with the Hi-Tech can be detected in tree structures of Meinhard von Gerkan, in destructuring composing the crashtest and the plates of Günter Domenig, in scaffolding boccioniane Frank Gehry, in sculpting multidimensional Massimiliano Fuksas.


Problem areas:


1 - Relations architecture/city built:
Continuity of the architectural space to involve from the city.
2 - Laws of growth and of internal development to the project:
Style anti-code for excellence, are not accepted laws of serial development.
3 - Linguistic Characteristics of compositional elements:
Dynamic compositions based on the use of forms are modeled on the curve and on
Oblique lines.
4 - Relations between content plan and plan of the expression:
THE occasional quoting and the present moment are cultured and "petrified" in a
Moment of their existence.
5 - Volumetric Characteristics:
Free Forms and contempt for the volumes pure.
6 - Interior Space and relationship with the outside:
THE exterior of the building and reflection internally and configure.
7 - Promises:
The existential freedom fits well above the narrow material needs.


- Semper (1803-79), who is accredited with the Hittorf as the discoverer of the polychromy in Greek architecture, and the german architect more representative of half of the 19th century. He believes that a building should express their functions in the plant and the outer casing.

- V. Gregotti, the architecture of expressionism, Casabella, n. 254

- The pure visibility

- Introduction to the sentiment, feeling together, consensus.

- Popular Spirit.

- Appearance, figure, form.

- The Spirit of the time.

- The building, destroyed, had a strong axis of symmetry that reduces the office expressionist.

- Van De Velde has lived the late expressionism seeking the meeting between "the spirit gothic, his identification with timber, its frenzy of dematerialization, and the spirit of hellenic antiquity. ( …) it is obvious that raise a question of prevalence of one ri­pared to the other would irreparably the balance. Nothing understand of creates­tions of the most radical modernists, if we prohibit to recognize the spirit in their gothic co­chordata, who seek to divest themselves of any solid mass to appear read how strokes of a pencil and watercolour parties on their drawings. At the same time, however, a strong current and impressive architectural creations are trying to incorporate this spirit of gothic art in masses and volumes, animated, pledgee'S by the breath and the presence of life, as the masses and volumes of greek architecture. It seems to me no doubt that the two schools should meet to reconcile the principle of abstraction with the essence of the formula of plasticity, that earlier i tried to define." The via sacra, 1933; in Casabella n. 237, March 1960.

- Third invariant in modern language of architecture of B. Zevi.

- If Mendelsohn nor and the genius will be Hans Sharoun to perpetuate the message until the 1970s. (B. Zevi).

- Bruno Taut, The crown of the city, 1919. Milan And. Mazzotta, 1973. (Also in: Architet­tura and Town and Country Planning n. ???, p. 268)

- Which is the cradle of the Amsterdam school.

- This question if placed him in 1923 a woman who lived a house of M. de Klerk.


Web Site:

Author of the text: not indicated in the document of origin


THE Expressionism


"Expressionism" and a european cultural movement limited to about twenty years which coincides with the first years of the 1900s.

Born in Germany, between 1905 and 1925, as artistic movement that contrasted radically painters then in vogue, using colors aggressive, hard lines and broken and deforming the proportions.

It is a movement of complaint of the reality of the first years of the century: the bitter reality of the war, loss of values, of bitter class struggle; and the revolt of a society which is becoming agricultural industrial: born capitalism, is fostered urbanization in the metropolis, the work in factories and begin the contestation of class.

These were the main themes and painful expressionist artists that denounce social hardship in their works.

THE german Expressionism will use the image as a form of complaint policy and social: often the favorite subjects are people of the road, the marginalized.

The group uses dense colors, which appear as encrusted on the canvas while helping to give unpleasant sensations that underline the ugliness of reality and human degradation.

For this reason it can be considered a revolutionary group with a precise ideological orientation that expresses from the outset a open dissent against the conservative society in Germany during the time.

THE german Expressionism artistic is usually divided into three currents:

  • The Bridge (in german Die Brucke), was formed in Dresden in 1905 (Ernest Ludwig Kirchner, Emil Nolde): the artists of the Bridge denounce the degradation of society at the beginning of the century and want to represent a "bridge" toward a more perfect future
  • The blue Rider (in german Der Blaue Reiter) current formed in 1911 by Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc , sought in the art a spiritual dimension, often representing the nature
  • The New Objectivity (in german Neue Sachlichkeit under) is expressed with the works of Otto Dix and George Grosz denouncing the horrors of war and the degradation of the german policy.

The expressionist fitzgeralds extended their interests in every form of communication (literature, theater, music, cinema).

For them, the man was an alienated devoid of spirituality who lived in a society false and hypocritical.



The 1° August 1914 begins the war: the germans acclaim the war with a patriotic exultation, an optimism that makes them sure of victory and that extends to the intellectuals and artists.

Among these last few depart volunteers for combat, others for help in the medical service and the Red Cross.

TO many, the war, in a first moment, appears as an event which would have destroyed the past and would have strengthened the forces young tending to renewal.
But after the 1916 things change.

Thousands of fallen, attrition of trench warfare, the misery of civilians hungry, the spectacle of traumatic craters caused by bombing, mutilation, led to a profound disappointment, a situation of suffering.

It was everything to generate the current of Expressionist Realism or the New Objectivity.
Preferred themes will be the misery and death, mutilation, as opposed to scenes of ease and wealth of the few enriched by war.



Some of the works of expressionist




E. L. Kirchner (current of the Bridge):

The city is not a serene and pleasant place for recreation: passers-by are devoid of humanity, closed in their desperate loneliness.




E. L. Kirchner: Five women on the street

The author represents five prostitutes in squalid waiting in the streets of Berlin; their faces are sharp, the symbol of the shrivel of feelings


Franz Marc (current blue Rider): Toro rosso

Paint the nature and an antidote to the frustration of modern life, a search for harmony with the universe



Otto Dix: (current New objectivity):

It depicts in a bloody manner and dramatic

The disasters of the First World War.



Otto Dix: Seller of matches

A poor mutilated sells matches, passers-by the slip beside hastily, ignoring its condition: even the little dog has respect for him.




Author of the text: not indicated in the document of origin


Source : Babylon 9 Translation




If you want to quickly find the pages about a particular topic as expressionism use the following search engine:










This site is not a newspaper and shall be updated without any periodicity, exclusively on the basis of the availability of the material, therefore is not an editorial product subject to the provisions referred to in art. 1, Paragraph III of the Law n. 62, 03.7.2001 . The summaries , the clipboard the texts and the quotes contained in our site are available free of charge to students, researchers, teachers and technicians with illustrative purposes scientific and teaching with the concept of fair use and with the objective of the european directive 2001/29/EC and of the law n. 633 Article. 70 And 5641 68. The site is managed and coordinated by the author for information purposes only and didactic. While considering the sources used reliable, the author of this site does not guarantee the accuracy and integrity of the information contained and therefore declines all responsibility for any problems or damage caused by errors or omissions, in the case of errors or omissions resulting from negligence, accident or other cause. All the notes, quotes the texts and images, are the property of their respective authors or production houses that hold the rights, if the are entitled felt damaged by the inclusion in this site of the abovementioned files or were inadvertently inserted images, information, text or other copyrighted material will be immediately removed and/or it will be named the sources for simple reporting to the e-mail address indicated in the contact page .

The objectives of this site are the progress of the sciences and the arts profits which we think are very important for our country the social and cultural benefits of the free dissemination of useful information. All information and images contained on this site are used here solely for educational purposes, cognitive and informative. The information of medicine and health contained in the site are of a general nature and purpose which is purely informative and for this reason may not replace in any case, the council of a doctor or a qualified entity legally to the profession). On this site have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of tools, calculators and information, we cannot give a guarantee or be responsible for any errors that have been made, the texts used were taken from sites that have made them available, free of charge, to make them known on the web for educational purposes. If you find an error on this site or if you find a text or tool that can violate the laws in force in the field of copyright and, let us know by e-mail and we'll promptly remove it.