Chemistry notes and summaries


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Index of topics :


Acids bases and salts

Alcohols, Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Basic chemistry notes

Chemical bonding

Chemistry answers

Chemistry gases

Chemistry kinetics collision theory

Chemistry notes 1

Chemistry terms

Composition of matter

Concentration units



Elements, compounds and mixtures

Energy calculations

Gases and atmospheric

Gases & the kinetic molecular theory

Industrial chemistry and some important covalent

Inorganic chemistry summary

Measurement Data Processing and Data Presentation

Organic chemistry

Stoichiometry notes

Thermochemistry heat and energy changes

Thin layer and column chromatography


Branches of Chemistry


Analytical chemists explore the types and proportions of substances in a sample.


Astrochemists identify substances found in stars and other bodies in space.


Biochemists study the compounds and chemical reactions in living organisms.


Electrochemists investigate the relationship between the flow of electricity and chemical reactions.


Environmental chemists study how changes in the natural environment affect living organisms.


Geochemists analyze the chemical composition of the Earth.


Inorganic chemists study the chemistry of all the elements and their compounds, except for those compounds that contain mainly carbon and hydrogen.


Nuclear chemists investigate changes that happen in atomic nuclei.


Organic chemists study hydrocarbons – compounds of carbon and hydrogen – and other related compounds.


Photochemists investigate the relationship between light and chemical reactions.


Physical chemists use the principles of physics to explain observations about chemical substances and their reactions.


Radiochemists study the radioactive isotopes of the chemical elements.


The Elements


Elements are substances that ordinary chemical reactions cannot break down into simpler substances.

An element is a substance that consists of atoms that all have the same number of protons.  There are 90 naturally occurring elements and 21 artificial elements.


There are 16 nonmetals, 5 metalloids, and 90 metals.  Under normal conditions of room temperature and pressure, 11 elements are gases, and 98 are solids.  Only two elements – bromine and mercury – are liquids under normal conditions.


An atom is the smallest part of an element that can exist separately.  An atom consists of electrons orbiting around a nucleus.  The nucleus contains two kinds of nucleons: protons and neutrons.  The number of protons equals the number of electrons in a neutral atom.


The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.  The atomic number is sometimes called the proton number.


The mass number of an element is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons.  An atom of iron, for example, consists of 26 protons, 26 electrons, and 30 neutrons.  The atomic number of iron is 26, and the mass number is 56.


Laws and Principles of Chemistry


Avogadro’s Law – At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of molecules.

[Amedeo Avogadro, 1811]

By this law, a cubic foot of hydrogen contains the same number of molecules as a cubic foot of carbon dioxide.


Law of conservation of mass – During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.

[Antoine Lavoisier, 1774]

According to this law, the total mass of the products of a chemical reaction is equal to the total mass of the substances that react together.


Law of constant composition – No matter how a substance is made, it will always contain the same elements in the same proportions.

[Joseph Proust, 1779]

By Proust’s law, carbon dioxide exhaled in breath and carbon dioxide from a car exhaust both consist of molecules that contain one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen.


Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle – It is impossible to specify both the precise position and the momentum of a particle at the same time.

[Werner Heisenberg, 1927]

The more accurately the position of a particle is measured, the less accurate the knowledge of its momentum becomes, and vice versa.  The effect only becomes noticeable for subatomic particles, such as electrons and protons.


Key Dates of Chemistry



c.450    Leucippus of Miletus introduces the idea of atoms.  Empedocles of Akraga introduces the four elements: earth, air, water, and fire.


430       Democritus of Abdera develops the idea of atoms and suggests they explain the properties of matter.


340       Greek philosopher Aristotle proposes that substances are all combinations of the four elements.



750              Arabian alchemist Geber describes how to prepare acids and their salts.


1473     Democritus’s theory of atoms becomes known to alchemists in Europe through its Latin version.


1597   German chemist Andreas Libavius writes Alchemia, the first important chemistry textbook.


1610   French chemist Jean Béguin publishes the first chemistry book not based on alchemy.


1661     Irish chemist and physicist Robert Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist, introducing the concept of chemical elements.


1766   British chemist Henry Cavendish discovers hydrogen, which he names “inflammable air.”


1777   French chemist Antoine Lavoisier suggests air consists of two gases.


1781   British chemist and clergyman Joseph Priestley makes water by burning hydrogen in oxygen.


1803   British chemist and physicist John Dalton formulates atomic theory.


1807     British chemist Humphry Davy uses the recently invented electric battery to isolate the elements sodium and potassium.


1811     Italian chemist and physicist Amedeo Avogadro proposes that equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of molecules.


1828     German chemist Friedrich Wöhler makes urea, an organic compound, from inorganic ammonium cyanate.


1833     French chemist Anselme Payen discovers diastase, an enzyme.


1856     British chemist William Perkin makes the first synthetic dye.


1869     Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev publishes the first form of the periodic table.


1893     German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesizes aspirin.


1911     British physicist Ernest Rutherford discovers the proton.


1913     Danish physicist Niels Bohr proposes a theory of atomic structure based on electron orbits.


1926     Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger develops a wave equation of atomic structure.


1932     British physicist John Cockcroft and Irish physicist Ernest Walton build the first particle accelerator to change one element into another.


1935     US chemist Wallace Carothers develops nylon, the polymer of the first totally synthetic fiber.


1938     German chemist Otto Hahn splits atoms of uranium.


1942     Italian-born US physicist Enrico Fermi creates the first controlled nuclear chain reaction.


1971     US company DuPont begins production of Kevlar, a polymer that is stronger than steel.


1985     Ball-shaped carbon molecules are discovered and named fullerenes.



Author : not indicated on the source document of the above text


1.     Substance: a form of matter with unique composition and distinct properties.  Substances are identified by a chemical formula.
2.    Elements: the basic substances from which all matter is made.  There are 90 naturally occurring elements on Earth.
3.     Atom: the smallest particle of an element.  Each element has its own unique atoms.
4.    Compound: a substance made from two or more kinds of atoms.
5.    Chemical Reaction- a process in which initial substances, called reactants, change into new substances called products
6.     Compression: reduction of gas volume as a result of applied force.
7.    Expansion: increase in volume.  Expansion can result from increased kinetic energy of molecules.
8.    Contraction: decrease of volume due to decreased kinetic energy of molecules
9.     Kinetic energy: energy due to motion.  Kinetic energy of molecules is heat.
10.    Energy transfer: movement of energy (heat; kinetic energy) from one location (molecule) with more energy to a location of less energy.
11.  Conduction: transfer of energy as a result of contact between molecules.
12. Melting: a solid changes into a liquid due to increased kinetic energy (heat)
13. Dissolving: a liquid causes the molecules of a solid substance to break away and mix  evenly into the liquid (solution)
14. Freezing: a liquid changes into a solid due to decreased kinetic energy
15. Evaporation: a liquid changes into a gas due to increased kinetic energy
16. Condensation: a gas changes into a liquid due to decreased kinetic energy
17. Conservation of Energy: energy is never created or destroyed during energy transfers
18. Calorie: a unit of heat; the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.
19. Equilibrium: the condition of a system when no observable change is taking place.
20. Heat: a form of energy related to the kinetic energy of molecules.
21. Temperature: a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance.
 22. Heat of Fusion: the amount of heat needed to change 1g of solid material at it's melting temperature to 1 g. of liquid at the same temperature.  Heat of Fusion of Water =80 c/g
      Also .. it works the other way- amount of heat needed to change the state of a substance from a solid to liquid or from a liquid to solid. 
23. Solution: the resulting mixture when a solid dissolves into a liquid and appears to disappear.
24. Solute: the part of a solution that dissolves (the solid) 
25. Solvent: the part of the solution (liquid) that the solute dissolves in
26. Saturation: state at which a solid substance will no longer dissolve in a liquid.  The solid will just accumulate at the bottom of the container.
27. Concentration: the ratio of solute to solvent in a solution
28. Bonds: attractive forces that hold atoms together when they form molecules
29. Reactants: the starting substances in chemical reactions
30. Products: the new substances that are formed during a chemical reaction




  • Atomic and molecular structure
  • Chemical bonds
  • Conservation of matter and stoichiometry
  • Gases and their properties
  • Acids and bases
  • Solutions
  • Chemical thermodynamics
  • Reaction rates
  • Chemical equilibrium
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Nuclear processes
  • Atomic theory and atomic structure
    1. Evidence for the atomic theory
    2. Atomic masses; determination by chemical and physical means
    3. Atomic number and mass number; isotopes
    4. Electron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals
    5. Periodic relationships including, for example, atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, oxidation states
    B. Chemical bonding
    1. Binding forces
    2.  Types: ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals (including London dispersion forces)
    3. Relationships to states, structure, and properties of matter
    4. Polarity of bonds, electronegativities
    5. Molecular models  &  Lewis structures
    6. Valence bond: hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds
    7. VSEPR
    8. Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes; dipole moments of molecules; relation of properties to structure
    9. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives, and radioactivity; chemical applications

    A. Gases
    1. Laws & equations of state for an ideal gas
    2. Kinetic-molecular theory
    3. Interpretation of ideal gas laws on the basis of this theory
    4. Avogadro's hypothesis and the mole concept
    5. Dependence of kinetic energy of molecules on temperature
    6. Deviations from ideal gas laws
    B. Liquids and solids from the kinetic-molecular viewpoint
    1. Phase diagrams of one-component systems
    2. Changes of state, including critical points and triple points
    3. Structure of solids; lattice energies
    4. Solutions
    5. Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility
    6. Methods of expressing concentration (The use of normalities is not tested.)
    7. Raoult's law and colligative properties (nonvolatile solutes); osmosis
    8. Non-ideal behavior (qualitative aspects)

    A. Reaction types
    1. Acid-base reactions
    a. concepts of Arrhenius, Brönsted-Lowry, and Lewis
    b. coordination complexes and amphoterism
    2. Precipitation reactions
    3. Oxidation-reduction reactions
    4. Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells
    a. Faraday's laws
    b. standard half-cell potentials
    c. Nernst equation
    d. prediction of the direction of redox reactions
    B. Stoichiometry
    1. Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems: net ionic equations
    2. Balancing of equations including those for redox reactions
    3. Mass and volume relations with emphasis on the mole concept, including empirical formulas and limiting reactants
    C. Equilibrium
    1. Concept of dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical
    a. Le Chatelier's principle
    b. equilibrium constants and quantitative treatments
    c. equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions: Kp, Kc
    d. equilibrium constants for reactions in solution
    e. onstants for acids and bases; pK; pH
    f. solubility product constants and their application to precipitation and the dissolution of slightly soluble compounds
    g. common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis
    D. Kinetics
    1. Concept of rate of reaction
    2. Use of experimental data and graphical analysis to determine reactant order, rate constants, and reaction rate laws
    3. Effect of temperature change on rates
    4. Energy of activation; the role of catalysts
    5. The relationship between the rate-determining step and a mechanism
    E. Thermodynamics
    1. State functions
    2. First law: change in enthalpy
    a. heat of formation
    b. heat of reaction & calorimetry
    c. Hess's law
    d. heats of vaporization and fusion
    3. Second law: entropy
    a. free energy of formation
    b. free energy of reaction
    c. dependence of change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes
    d. relationship of change in free energy to equilibrium constants and electrode potentials


Unit : 1      Some basic concepts in Chemistry
Importance of Chemistry, physical quantities and their measurement in Chemistry, SI Units, uncertainty in measurements and use of significant figures, Unit and dimensional analysis, Matter and its nature, laws of chemical combinations, atomic, and  molecular, masses mole concept, molar masses, percentage composition and molecular formula, chemical stoichiometry.
Unit : 2      States of matter
Three states of matter, gaseous state, gas laws (Boyle’s Law and Charles Law), Avogadro’s Law, Grahams’Law of diffusion, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases, real gases and deviation from ideal behaviour, van der Waals’ equation, liquefaction of gases and critical points,    Intermolecular forces;  liquids and solids.
Unit : 3      Atomic structure
Earlier atomic models (Thomson’s and Rutherford) , emission spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s model, of hydrogen atom, Limitations of Bohr’s model, dual nature of matter and radiation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of atom (quantum designation of atomic orbitals and electron energy in terms of principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers), electronic spin and spin quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, general idea of screening (constants) of outer electrons by inner electrons in an atom, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, atomic orbitals and their pictorial representation, electronic configurations of elements.
Unit : 4      Classification of elements and periodicity in properties
Need and genesis of classification of elements (from Doebereiner to Mendeleev), Modern periodic law and present form of periodic table, Nomenclature of elements with atomic number > 100, electronic configurations of elements and periodic table, electronic configuration and types of elements and s, p, d and f blocks, periodic trends in properties of elements (atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence/ oxidation states and chemical reactivity).
Unit : 5      Chemical energetics
Some basic concepts in thermodynamics, first law of thermodynamics, heat capacity, measurement of DU and DH, calorimetry, standard enthalpy changes, thermochemical equations, enthalpy changes during phase transformations, Hess’s Law, standard enthalpies of formation, bond enthalpies and calculations based on them.
Unit : 6      Chemical bonding
Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, polarity of bonds and concept of electronegativity, valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory , shapes of simple molecules, valence bond theory, hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of molecules s and p bonds; Molecular orbital theory involving homounclear diatomic molecules; Hydrogen-bonding.
Unit : 7      Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant, homogeneous equilibrium, heterogenous equilibrium, application of equilibrium constants, Relationship between reaction quotient Q, equilibrium constant, K and Gibbs’ energy G; factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chateliar’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium
Acids, Bases and Salts and their ionization, weak and strong electrolytes degree of ionization and ionization constants, concept of pH, ionic product of water, buffer solution, common ion effect, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products.
Unit : 8      Redox reactions
Electronic concepts of reduction - oxidation, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Unit : 9      Solid state Chemistry
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids; unit cells in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of a unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit : 10     Chemical thermodynamics
Spontaneous processes, energy and spontaneity , entropy and second law of thermodynamics, concept of absolute entropy, Gibbs energy and spontaneity, Gibbs energy change and equilibrium constant.
Unit : 11     Solutions
Types of solutions, different units for expressing concentration of solution, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), definitions of dilute solutions, vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law, Colligative properties, lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling points  and  osmotic  pressure,  determination  of molecular masses  using colligative properties,  abnormal values of molecular masses,  van’t Hoff factor. simple numerical problems.
Unit : 12     Chemical kinetics
Rate of chemical reactions, factors, affecting rates of reactions –concentration, temperature and catalyst, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law and rate constant, differential and integral forms of first order reaction, half-life (only zero and first order) characteristics of first order reaction, effect of temperature on reactions, Arrhenius theory - activation energy, collision theory of reaction rate (no derivation).
Unit : 13     Electrochemistry
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variation of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), electrolytic and galvanic cells, emf. of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation, concentration cell, fuel cells, cell potential and Gibbs energy, dry cell and lead accumulator.
Unit : 14     Surface chemistry
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogeneous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis, colloidal state, distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, properties of colloids, Tyndal effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsions - type of emulsions.
Unit :15    Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes of hydrogen, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structures; hydrides and their classification.
Unit :16    s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth metals):
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
Electronic configurations and general trends in physical and chemical properties, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydrogen carbonate and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit :17    General principles and processes of isolation of elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, reduction, (chemical and electrolytic methods), and refining.
Occurrence and principles of extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe.
Unit :18    p-Block Elements
Introduction to p-block elements
Electronic configurations and general trends in properties, viz. atomic sizes, ionization enthalpies, electronegativity values, electron gain enthalpies and oxidation states across the periods and down the groups in the p-block.
Unique behaviour of the top element in each group of the block - the covalency limit and the pp - pp overlap in some molecules (e.g. N2, O2) and its consequences; general trend in catenation tendency down each  group.
Group-wise study of the p-block Elements
Group 13 - In addition to the general characteristics as outlined above, properties and uses of aluminium, nature of hydrides/ halides and oxides; Properties, structures and uses of diborane boron halides, aluminium chloride, borax, boric acid and alums.
Group 14 - In addition to the general characteristics; carbon – catenation, allotropic forms (diamond and graphite), properties and structures of oxides; silicon - silicon tetrachloride, and structures and uses of silicates, silicones and zeolites.
Group 15 - In addition to the general characteristics, the general trends in the nature and structures of hydrides, halides and oxides of these elements. Preparation and properties of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and halides of phosphorus, structures of the oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group 16 - In addition to the general characteristics, preparations, properties and uses of dioxygen, simple oxides, ozone; sulphur - allotropic forms, compounds of sulphur, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid, industrial preparations of sulphuric acid, structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group 17 - In addition to the general characteristics, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, oxides and oxoacids of halogens (structures only), preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides. Interhalogen compounds (structures only).
Group 18 - General introduction, electronic configurations, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties and uses, - fluorides and oxides of xenon (structures only).
Unit :19    The d-and f-Block elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals –physical properties, ionization  enthalpy,   oxidation  states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds, alloy formation;  preparations and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids   - Electronic configuration and oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit :20 Coordination compounds
Introduction to ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties, and shapes;   IUPAC   -   nomenclature   of  mononuclear  coordination   compounds,  isomerism , bonding-valence bond approach to the bonding and basic ideas of Crystal Field Theory, colour and magnetic properties.  Elementary ideas of metal - carbon bonds and organometallic compounds, importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit :21    Some basic principles of Organic Chemistry
-   Tetravalence of carbon, hybridization ( s and p ), shapes of simple molecules, functional groups:-C=C-, -CC-and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur;  homologous series, isomerism.
-   General introduction to naming organic compounds-trivial names and IUPAC nomenclature.
-   Electronic displacement in a covalent bond; inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.           Fission of covalent bond: free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles, carbocations and carbonanions.
-   Common types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions.
Unit :22    Hydrocarbons
Alkanes and cycloalkanes : classification of hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes, nomenclature and conformations of alkanes and cycloalkanes.

Alkenes and alkynes : Nomenclature and isomerism, general methods of preparation, properties (physical and chemical), mechanism of electrophilic addition, Markownikoff’s rule, peroxide effect, acidic character of alkynes, polymerisation reactions.

Aromatic hydrocarbons : Benzene and its homologues, nomenclature, sources of aromatic hydrocarbons (coal and petroleum), structure of benzene, chemical reaction of benzene-mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Directive influence of substituents and their effect on reactivity.

Petroleum and petrochemicals : Composition of crude oil fractionation and uses, quality of gasoline, LPG, CNG, cracking and reforming, petrochemicals.
Unit :23    Purification and characterization of carbon compounds
-   Purification of carbon compounds : filtration, crystallisation, sublimation, distillation chromatography,
-   Qualitative analysis : detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
-   Quantitative analysis : estimation of different elements (H, N, halogens, S and P)
-   Determination of molecular masses : Silver salt method, chloroplatinate salt method, calculations of empirical and molecular formulas.
Unit :24    Organic compounds with functional groups containing halogens (X)
-   Nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, reactivity of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes.
-   Some commercially important compounds : dichloro, trichloro and tetrachloromethanes; p-dichlorobenzene, freons, BHC, DDT, their uses and important reactions.
Unit :25    Organic compounds with functional groups containing oxygen
Alcohols and phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; chemical reactivity of phenols in electrophilic substitutions, acidic nature of phenol,  ethers: electronic structure, structure of functional group, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, some commercially important compounds.
Aldehydes and ketones : Electronic structure of carbonyl group, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions,   relative reactivity of aldehydic and ketonic groups, acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation. Connizzarro reaction, nucleophilic addition reaction to >C=O groups.
Carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of-COOH, Nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical properties and effect of substituents on a-carbon on acid strength, chemical reactions.
Derivatives of carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester and amide groups, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives. Some commercially important compounds.
Unit :26    Organic Compounds with functional group containing nitrogen
-   Structure, nomenclature of nitro, amino, cyano and diazo compounds.
-     Nitro compounds – important methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions.
-     Amines : primary, secondary and tertiary amines, a general awareness, important methods of preparation, physical properties, basic character of amines, chemical reactions.
-  Cyanides and isocyanides : preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions.
-    Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reaction and uses of benzene diazonium chloride. Some commercially important nitrogen containg carbon compounds, (aniline, TNT)
Unit :27    Polymers
Classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation: addition-free radical, cationic, anionic polymerization, copolymerisation, natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubbers, condensation polymers, idea of macromolecules, biodegradable polymers.
Some commercially important polymers (PVC, teflon, polystyrene, nylon-6 and 66, terylene and bakelite).
Unit :28    Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollutions, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants, acid-rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for controlling environmental pollution.
Unit :29    Biomolecules
Carbohydrates : Classification, aldose and ketose, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); important simple chemical reactions of glucose, elementary idea of structure of pentose and hexose.
Proteins : Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins; primary, secondary and tertiary structure of proteins and quaternary structure (gualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins : Classification and functions
Nucleic acids : Chemical composition of DNA and RNA
Lipids : Classification and structure
Hormones : Classification and functions in biosystem.
Unit :30    Chemistry in everyday life
-   Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,  antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antacids, antihistamins.
-   Chemicals in food – preservativess, artificial sweetening agents.
-   Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
-   Rocket propellants : characteristics and chemicals used.


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Chemistry notes and summaries